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SEASON AND CROPS.

Essex county, July 5th, 1834. To the Editor of the Farmers' Register.

The crop of wheat was very unpromising in the spring; we had about three weeks of dry weather in May, which is generally as destructive to the wheat crop, as three weeks of dry weather is to the corn crop in August; it enables the fly to destroy the growing branches, while the growth remains almost stationary, after which the crop is mostly dependent upon the latter branches, which never produce an abundant one, and but seldom an average one, unless the weather is peculiarly favorable, which was the case this year: for the dry weather was succeeded by frequent rains, which gave the wheat a rapid growth, and though the rains partially washed the bloom off and made the head in some degree defective, this was more than counterbalanced by an additional increase of product. The weather also became dry and fine a few days before it ripened, which saved it from the rust, which otherwise it would probably have had, as it was filled with sap--in consequence of which, it is probable the crop will be an average one, both in quantity and quality. After a warm dry spring we may anticipate a small harvest; after a cold and wet one an abundant harvest; the cold and wet keep the fly in check, and the wet causes the wheat to branch freely.

The corn crop at this time exhibits the most luxuriant growth, but this is by no means a proof that we shall realise an abundant crop, but rather to the contrary. A growth of corn uncommonly large for the quality of the land, requires a continuation of moisture to bring it to perfection, which is seldom the case in our climate, or else the moisture goes to support the life of the 'stalk, not to form the ear. Big stalks and little ears are not uncommon., A stalk of ordinary size for the quality of the land, early in the summer, is greatly to be preferred; though I have seen very small stalks produce abundant crops. One of the best crops of corn I have ever made, was remarkably unpromising in the spring and the early part of the summer, owing to the extreme dryness of the weather. An acquaintance who saw my crop, said he did not think I would make enough for seed, and said that he would furnish me; but about the right time the weather became very seasonable, and the little stalks began to tassel and silk, and by the time the ears had completed their growth, their ends hung down nearly to the ground, and proved a most abundant crop. * *

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FEEDING STOCK. Mr. Howden, in the Transactions of the Highland Society, says, “as a summary of lengthened detail, it seems to me that the food for cattle, whether raised from the land in the shape of Swedish turnips, potatoes, or mangel wurzel, is not materially different, provided the crops are alike good of their kind. A less quantity, and inferior quality, of manure, will produce the potatoes even on land where the soil and climate are not so favorable; 1 but I have ever seen, at the end of a rotation, the land upon which potatoes had been grown in the worst condition; and to obviate this, it is of use, I think, to cultivate a variety which covers well in the drill.

APRIL.
MAY
JUNE.

· IMPROVEMENT OF WORN LANDS. lture of the soil, is the unavoidable result of an Brookfield, 12th July, 1834. injudicious, improvident, and ruinous system (if it

can be so called) of agriculture; but the fact that To the Editor of the Farmers' Register..

they carry with them the same injudicioussystem, I observe in your Register for June, some re- is a matter of'deeper and more serious regret, than marks by S. B. from Powhatan, on "Exhausting the bare fact of their emigration. For,atter they and improving cultivation.” In addition to his have labored hard for a few years to clear a few modes of improving exhausted or naturally poor acres of land of its timber, they, by following land, I would beg to lay before your readers, as their old system, must' unavoidably after a few mode of improvement adopted in many parts of years have the same difficulties to encounter, and Europe, and particularly in England and Scotland. another removal farther into the interior be the Many of your readers must be acquainted with it result, until the whole face of the country, natufrom theory, but I am not aware of its ever having rally rich and productive, become a comparative been put properly into practice in this country. barren waste These emigrants are termed the The mode to which I allude is, the fallowing of pioneers of the forests, and have to encounter land with a crop of turnips and eating them off many a hardship, and sacrifice many, an endearing the ground with sheep, either the whole of the tie. But those men who become the owners of crop, or two-thirds of it, as it may be abundant or the lands-which they have left, have a task no less. deficient. The mode as adopted in Scotland, where difficult and arduous, and certainly much more deliI have had it in extensive practice; is, land which cate to perform than clearing land from wood. is wished to be laid down in grass and in good They, in order to obtain a subsistence, must recondition, is well prepared in the early. part of claim land which has been exhausted by an imthe season by repeated ploughing, as the nature poverishing mode of farming, an object which can or condition of the soil may require, until proper-I only be obtained after a lapse of time and much ly pulverized: the ground generally receives a par- perseverance. Let the citizens of this commontiał manuring. Bone manure is generally used wealth think on the numbers of their forefathfor that crop, and is sown in the drills with the ers who died under the tomahawk and scalping.. machine at the same time the turnips are. In the knife of the savage and unreclaimed Indian, in obabsence of a supply of bone manure,stable-yard ma- taining for them their now peaceful possessions, nure is used. The turnips are regularly ploughed, and on the thousands of patriots who died in the hoed, and thinned out to a given space, plant from defence of their dearest rights, and in securing for plant, as the kind of root may require. Early in their descendants a glorious liberty and indewinter a moveable fence -is used to inclose a space pendence. And wasall this blood spilt to obtain a of the field proportioned to the number of sleep. country so unproductive as not to supply her chilIn addition to the turnips, the sheep have oat straw dren with bread? Certainly not. Citizens of this or hay given to 'them in severe weather, which is happy and free country, providence has cast your placed for them in a moveable and covered rack, lot in a land capable, under judicious management, and this moveable fence is extended or removed producing every comfort, necessary, and luxury of from time to time as the whole are eaten off. The life even to overflowing, and will you not avail ground is then ploughed up for the reception of yourselves of these important blessings? It means the grain meant to be sown in it. This mode of are amply in your own hands, it only wants eximproving worn out or poor soils in Scotland, has ample, energy and enterprise to secure to you and been attended with the most beneficial results. your children their full enjoyment. Your patriLand which to my own kyowledge a few years ago 1otic forefathers nobly withstood the offorts of a was scarce worth the fencing in, is now, from this proud ambitious and invading foe, and victory and mode of manuring, producing from thirty to forty, independence was their rich reward. bushels of wheat an acre. It is to be observed, You have now a foe within yourselves in the inthat it does not generally succeed well in wet ternal management of your dearly purchased posor low lands. From the difference of climate sessions, which strikes as deeply (and much more I am not from experience prepared to say that the insiduously) at the root of your dearest interests, same mode would be attended in this country with and which, if not speedily met and combatted with, the same amount of beneficial result; but as so must ere long present you with the appalling specmuch is wanted here to improve worn out land, I. tacle of your lands reduced to barrenness, and should think the matter worthy a patient trial; if your children without bread. Come forward then, it failed, it could be no great loss-and if it suc- and let every energy be aroused, and every prejuceeded it would be of incalculable benefit. The dice månfully combatted with, and you'will have spirit of agricultural improvement in this country the pleasing reward of seeing yourselves and your is now evidently beginning to expand itself. It is children enjoying those blessings.so hardly purdoubtless the duty and interest of every one to chased, not only in peace, but in 'comfort, plenty, aid the good work so far as in their power. The and happiness. This great, and rapidly increas· number of emigrations from this part of the county ling republic, already stands second to none in comis a source of general remark and regret; and it miercial importance and in the trading enterprise is doubtless a matter of deep regret, that so many of her citizens. Why should she not-also rank of the industrious citizens of the Atlantic States high amongst the first of nations for her agriculshould be compelled to remove to the far-off' tural enterprise and prosperity? Her ships, or western country. And the general reason as- rather her floating palaces are held up as models signed for such emigration, is, that the land here of naval architecture to the world: why should will not now, as formerly, repay the labors be-, not her agricultural implements rank on the same stowed on it, or, in many instances, afford even a scale? Surely they are of as much importance. scanty'subsistence to its owners. This failure, Her mariners and machinists are considered equal which is unjustly attributed to the ungrateful na- if not superior to any in the civilized world: why

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should not her agriculturists rank equally high?

"PLANARIÆ.
These defects in the general agricultural manage-
ment of this country can only be ascribed to the On January the 27th, at the Royal Institution..
not duly considering the paramount importance of Mr. Faraday proceeded to lay before the literati
a good system of agriculture to any country; and assembled, an account of Dr, R: Johnson's inves-
to this country in particular, with its rapidly in-tigations into the restorative, productive, and repro-
creasing population, it is of vital importance. The ductive powers of the Plantariæ, a genus of small
good work requires only to be begun: Let but a animals allied to the leech, and of which there are
few of its wealthy, enterprizing, and influential several known species, viz. P. torva, lactea, has-
fariners, adopt the proper measures for renovating tata, arethusa, felina, &c., the three first of which
their wasted lands, and the proofs of their una- are to be found abundantly in a pond near the
voi table success will soon induce one and all of Red-Ilouse, Battersea-fields.
the cultivators of the soil to adopt similar mea- From Dr. Johnson's experiments it appears,
sures. Then will there be fewer painful emigra- that if an incision be made longitudinally into the
tions, greater comfort, and more contentment head of the animal, so as to separate its eyes from
amongst the citizens of this highly favored land: each other, if the cut has not been carried very far

| down, it will heal in the ordinary manner; but if
the head bé absolutely ciefi in twain, then accord-

ing to the extent of the fissure, threre will be a P. S. The hint given by your correspondent

mass of new matter formed by each half of the S. B. as to the propriety and necessity "of your

head, which will either join the two halves toge

you ther, forming a head of extraordinary size, and agricultural friends in different parts of the coun:

1 bearing in it one or two additional eyes; or each try, to give you a monthly report of the growing

whig old hali, thus cleft, will form the new matter into crops?' is, I think, of essential importance to every 1.

another half, with an eye, and so the animal have farmer. My own observations are extremely

two complete and entire heads. If the fissure be limited, scarcely extending beyond the bounds of

"carried farther down through the body of the anithe farm I immediately superintend, and on which,

mal, then not only will there be two heads, but two I have only resided for a short time back. I will

"bodies also formed, joined together only by the tail; however, give you them as they occcurred to me.

and when this is the caso, so little unanimity does ? .: The wheat on this farm (Bipokfield Henrico,)

Coz there exist between these siamoid twin-planariæ, may be considered a deficient crop. It appears in the low lands to have suffered much during the

that they never pull or sivim the same way; and

e so violent are their efforts, that they frequently, winter, and it has also suffered: much from a dis

Sin the course of two or three days, tear the only ease called in this neighborhood stunt; the term

remaining bond of union, their tail, in sunder, and is new to me, as are also the general features of

othen two distinct and perfect animals result..." the disease, the most prominent of whicbi, are,

are;. It in a common planaria the head be cut enthat from one-fourth to one-half of a great part of tirely off, a new head will be formed; and if its the ears from the top of the ears downwards are

i lower extremity be removed, it will produce a new destitute of grain. From the partial examination

täjl. · In a planaria, which, by the operation above.. which I was enabled to give to the matter, I found

described, had been invested with two heads, these . generally the tap-root of each diseased head to be

“nova capita” were successively severed for three in a decayed state, and embedded in the chaff;

several generations, and were immediately.. and . when the grain was wanting, I could easily detect the presence of a very minate worm, or fly in that

perfectly renewed, and subsequently the animal stage of existence-I think, deposited there before

was cut through just below the artificial bifurcathe flowering of the wheat. On this farm I think

tion, and then only a single head was produced, so the high lands have suffered more from this dis

" that in this more simple "capital" operation, a sina

gle-headed animal became a biceps, and, after ease than the low. The generality of farmers in this neighborhood complain much of the ravages

having had the use of six heads in succession, was of this disease; some of them calculating that their

subsequently reduced to the possession of a single, * crops are deficient by one-third. !

When one of these animals is cut in half, the Our corn on this farm suffered much from the frosts of the 15th 16th and 17th of. May-having

head, or anterior extremity, swims away as if no

18 thing had happened, and speedily re-tails itself; almost the appearance of being entirely cut down.

but the tail swims to the bottom; and remains torIt however, on the return of mild weather, speedi-pid. Por two or three days. by which time it has ly recovered; and those parts of our crops which

formed for itself a head. If a planaria be cut into . appeared to suffer most at that time, are now the

e three pieces, the head will form a new.body and most' vigorous, and from eight to ten days in ad

tail, the tail a new body and head, and the middle yance of those parts which suffered to appearance

section, or body, will produce both head and tail. comparatively little injury.

If a quarter be removed by making a longitudinal
A. N.

incision through the head, and hatí down the body,

and then a semi-transverse cut to reinove the ups. TO RESTORE FROSTED POTATOES. per quarter, not only will the three remaining quarA most effectual method has been discoyered by iers speedily reproduce a new fourth, but also the a Cumberland gentleman. It is simply to allow separated fourth will form to itself three new quarthe potatoes to remain in the pits, after a severe ters. Indeed, a planaria has been cut into as many frost, till the mild weather, is set in for some weeks, as ten pièces, and each piece has become an entire and allowing them to recover gradually. If once and perfect animal. In fact, this mode of propa-: exposed to the atmospheric air, no art will recover gation, which physiologists artificially institute, frosted potatoes.--Repertory of Inventions. seems to be frequently resorted to by the animal

lume

itself. The planaria felina has been seen to throw ined for want of careful wrapping, and always burdenoff pieces of its body, to form new animals, and ed with postage for the editor to pay. these are not diseased but healthy parts, and not The receiving and paying for our publication is a only parts of its tail, but often offsets from its sides,

mere business transaction between the subscriber and &c. Indeed, the planaria felina, and P. arethusa, have been never known to lay eggs, whilst the

editor—and no one should hesitate to stop his subscriptorva, lactea, &c, lay them in abundance, both the

tion, who does not receive for it compensation in the original animals, and those artificially produced. value of the work. We consider that no apology is reIt would seem that those species which inhabit quired for any discontinuance, and certainly shall never springs and running waters, propagate only by di- complain of them. But on the other hand, it is due to vision; but those which dwell in ponds and ditches, our interest and our just rights, and indeed to the very where the water is occasionally exhausted, are

existence of our publication, that our terms, and the oviparous, as well as viviparous. The above facts are physiologically curious, as

demands of common justice should be attended to in they show a still closer affinity than had been pre

this respect and therefore no request for discontinuviously supposed to exist between the propagation ance will be now allowed to those few who received of plants and animals by cuttings, as well as seeds; one sixth part of our present volume, before sending for they have shown that this mode of propaga- the notice—nor to those who have not paid for the first tion can be carried to an almost equal extent in the one as in the other-an extent to which the experiments of Trembley, and others, on polypi, star

el After this time, our terms as to discontinuances will fish, &c. did not reach.-Medical and Surgical

Medical and Eroical be strictly enforced Orders to discontinue the next Journal.

volume may be made, and will be properly entered on

the list as soon as subscribers may please to send them DISCONTINUANCES OF SUBSCRIPTIONS.

—but not after the commencement of the volume deThe close of the volume of a periodical published

sired to be discontinued. . like this, is the time when all the discontinuances of

Extract from the terms published in the 12th (or May) subscribers are (or ought to be) sent in. The notices

No. of Vol. I. of this kind which we have received are fewer than “No subscription will be permitted for less time were expected, and have been more than equalled by than a year-nor hereafter, to coinmence otherwise new subscriptions sent in during the same time. But than at the beginning of a volume. If a subscription though we have no reason to complain of the number is not directed to be discontinued before the first numof discontinuances, there is much ground for objection ber of the next year has been published, it will be to the time and manner of a large portion of them. It taken as a continuance of the subscription for the enis not probable that any reader of the Register could suing year: and no subscription will be discontinued fail to know when the first volume closed--and then while any thing remains due thereon, except at the op(according to usage and equity, and also according to tion of the editor.” our terms particularly stated in the May No.) was the time for all to discontinue who wished it, and who had

TO CORRESPONDENTS AND SUBSCRIBERS.

The following communications have been received not given earlier notice to that end. Instead of this,

- Review of the Life of Oberlin, and remarks on his more than half the orders for discontinuances were

agricultural and economical improvements-On the clisent in after the 1st No. of Vol. II, was mailed-some after the 2nd No.—and some from persons who had

mate of Virginia-Gas or Coal TarSuggestions, &c.

by a correspondent from Granville, N. C.-On Tobacnot, and have not yet, paid any thing, and therefore had

co Culture, continued, No. 3—Use of Lime as manure, no right to discontinue, even at a proper time. Still

in Pennsylvania, On the preservation of Tobacco plant however, nearly all these requests have been promptly complied with, as we do not wish to retain any subscriber against his will. But, in our own defence, there The next No. will contain an article on the various must be some limit to such exactions, and a few of the breeds of cattle, extracted from the latest edition of latest and most inexcusable of these requests have been the most approved English work on this subject. The refused. The following letter relates to one of them, value of such descriptions greatly depend on the corand may serve as an example of the hardship to which rectness and fidelity with which the plates or figures of we are subjected in this respect.

the animals are copied—and we have taken much pains, - Post Office, July 17th, 1834. and incurred a heavy expense, to attain that er

The SIR-Enclosed is $5, which

h wood engravings which we have procured for this pur

, a subscriber to the Farmers' Register at this office requests pose, will well bear comparison with the beautiful you to place to his credit, and discontinue his subscrip- originals in the English work, and will do credit to the tion. He has received two numbers of the Register American artist (Horton of Baltimore,) whose talent for the present year, which he says, he will return if

is thus exercised for the Farmers' Register. you wish it. Yours, very respectfully,

ERRATUM. - P. M.

For Robert Batts, page 162, read Robert Batte. All scruples as to a failure in good faith, we suppose, = are quieted by sending back the copies of Vol. II. and PRINTED BY ROBERT RICKETTS. when this has been done, they generally are nearly ru-l

Shellbanks, Va.

beds.

n

Vol. II.
SEPTEMBER, 1834.

No. 4.

EDMUND RUFFIN, EDITOR AND PROPRIETOR,

ON THE BREEDING, REARING, FATTENING, into motion a greater quantity of productive labor AND GENERAL MANAGEMENT OF NEAT CAT-T, nan any.equal capital employed in manuiactures,

but, also in proportion to the quantity of productive TLE.

labor which it employs, it adds a much greater Extracts from the last edition (1833) of the “Complete Grazier." value to the annual produce of the land and labor

of the country, while it increases the real wealth Introductory view of the different breeds of neat and revenue of its inhabitants."* cattle in Great Britain.

Many circumstances have long occurred to ren

der live stock an object of the utmost importance Of the various sources which compose the to the farmer; and notwithstanding the great adwealth of nations, there are few, perhaps, of vances made in other branches of husbandry, none greater moment, or which have a superior claim has undergone a greater change of system, or has to attention, than that branch of rural economy received more manifest improvement, than the which is the subject of the following pages. In breeding, rearing, and management of cattle. Infact, when it is considered, that not only the ser- dependently of the stimulus afforded, during the vants of a farmer, but also his cattle, are produc- late war, to the exertions of the mere grazier by tive laborers; when we recollect the stimulus to in the rapid increase in the price of all the necessaries dustry, as well as the rapid circulation of capital of life, the influence of many societies established which the farmer occasions, by furnishing constant of late years for the encouragement of agriculture employment to the numerous artificers who are has powerfully tended to promote inquiry, and to occupied in manufacturing implements which are disseminate information on this interesting subject; indispensably necessary to him; when we call to while the patronage and example of several public mind the immense mass of materials which his spirited noblemen, and gentlemen of high rank, productive labor supplies for the purposes of com- have diffused a taste for the pursuits of rural economercial intercourse, and especially the influence my, that has had a most beneficial effect on the produced by that labor on the comfort and appear- general prosperity of the country. Among these, ance of towns, whose inhabitants must otherwise none have attracted more attention than those be destitute of the necessaries of lite; when all which are discussed in the following pages; and, these diversified circumstances are taken into con- although the main object is to convey instruction sideration, every reflecting inquirer must acknowl- on the points more immediately applicable to the edge, that of all the ways in which a capital can business of the grazier, it is yet presumed that a be employed, this is by far the most advantageous concise outline of the principal breeds, and varieto society.

ties of breeds of cattle found in this highly cultiJustly, therefore, has it been remarked, "that vated island, cannot but prove acceptable to every the capital employed in agriculture not only puts (class of farmer.

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1. The Wild Cattle-Of a bull of which race, whose steward, Mr. Bailey, thus describes them:f the above is a portrait,-were the original stock of “Their color is invariably white; muzzle black; the kingdom, before enclosures were known. They the whole of the inside of the ear, and about oneare said to be still found at Chartley Park, in Der-| byshire, and, perhaps, in one or two more; but it is *Smith's Wealth of Nations, Vol. II. p. 53, Fourth believed, that the only pure breed is that preserved, edition. in a wild state, at Chillingham Castle, in Northum-1 + Agricultural Survey of Northumberland, Third berland, the seat of the Earl of Tankerville, ledition p. 141.

Vol. II.-17.

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