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third of the outside, from the tip downwards, red; horse and foot; the horsemen rode off the bull from horns white, with black tips, very fine, and bent the rest of the herd until he stood at bay, when a upwards.* Some of the bulls have a thin upright marksman dismounted and shot. At some of mane, about an inch and a half or two inches these huntings, twenty or thirty shots have been long: the weight of the oxen is from thirty-five to fired before he was subdued: on such occasions, forty-five stone, of fourteen pounds; and that of the bleeding victim grew desperately furious from the cows, from twenty-five to thirty-five stone the the smarting of his wounds and the shouts of safour quarters. The beef is finely marbled, and of vage joy that were echoing on every side. From excellent flavor.

the number of accidents that happened, this dan"From the nature of their pasture, and the fre-gerous mode has been seldom practised of late quent agitation they are put into, by the curiosity years; the park-keeper alone generally shooting of strangers, it cannot be expected they should get them with a rifled gun at one shot. very fat; yet the six years' old oxen are generally "When the cows calve, they hide their calves very good beef; from whence it may be fairly sup- for a week or ten days in some sequestered situaposed that, in proper situations, they would feed tion, and go and suckle them two or three times a

day. If any person come near the calves, they "At the first appearance of any person they set clap their heads close to the ground, and lie like a off at full speed, and gallop to a considerable dis-hare in a form, to hide themselves. This is a proof tance; when they wheel round, and come boldly of their native wildness, and is corroborated by the up again, tossing their heads in a menacing man- following circumstance, that happened to the wriner: on a sudden they make a full stop, at the dis-ter of the narrative, who found a hidden calf, two tance of forty or fifty yards, looking wildly at the days old, very lean, and very weak; on stroking its object of their surprise, but upon the least motion head, it got up, pawed two or three times like an being made, they again turn round, and gallop off old bull, bellowed very loud, retired a few steps, with equal speed; forming, however, a shorter cir- and bolted at his legs with all its force; it then becle, and returning with a bolder and more threat- gan to paw again, bellowed, stepped back, and ening aspect, they approach much nearer, when bolted as before; but knowing its intention, and they make another stand, and again gallop off. stepping aside, it missed him, fell, and was so very This they do several times, shortening their dis- weak that it could not rise, though it made several tance, and advancing nearer till they come within efforts; but it had done enough; the whole herd a few yards, when most people think it prudent to were alarmed, and, coming to its rescue, obliged leave them.

him to retire; for the dams will allow no person to “The mode of killing them was, perhaps, the touch their calves without attacking them with only modern remains of the grandeur of ancient impetuous ferocity. hunting. On notice being given that a wild bull “When any one happens to be wounded, or would be killed upon a certain day, the inhabitants grown weak or feeble through age or sickness, the of the neighborhood came in great numbers, both rest of the herd set upon it, and gore it to death.”

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II. The Devonshire breed, delineated above, is about the jaws; deer like, light and airy in its supposed to have descended directly from the wild countenance; neck long and thin; throat free from race. It is found in its purest state in North Devon; jowl or dewlap; nose and round its eyes of a dark in the agricultural report of which district its pe-orange color; ears thin and pointed, tinged on their culiar qualities are thus described by the late Mr. Jinside with the same color that is always found to Vancouver:

encircle its eyes; horns thin, and fine to their roots, "Its head is small, clean, and free from flesh of a cream color, tipped with black,* growing with

* There is, however, a breed of the same cattle, in * The late Arthur Young, formerly secretary to the Yorkshire, which is said to be hornless. See the In- Board of Agriculture, describes thorough bred Devons troduction to the work entitled “British Husbandry,” as of a bright red, neck and head small, eye prominent in the Farmer's Series of the Library of Useful Knowl- and round it a ring of bright yellow; the nose round, edge.

the nostril having the same color; the horn clear and a regular curve upwards, and rather springing from pure South Devon, and is therefore generally preeach other; light in the withers, resting on a ferred. shoulder a little retiring and spreading, and so III. The Sussex breed differs but little from the rounded below as to sink all appearance of its Devonshire: when pure, the cattle are invariably pinion in the body of the animal; open bosom, dark red; and those which are marked with a mixwith a deep chest, or keel; small and tapering be- ture of either white or black, although passing unlow the knee, fine at and above the joint, and der the denomination of Sussex, are always crosswhere the arm begins to increase, it becomes sub-ed with foreign blood. In other respects they are denly lost in the shoulder; line of the back straight thus described by an eminent breeder, * the accurafrom the withers to the rump, lying completely on cy of whose judgement has been confirmed by a level with the pin, or huckles, which lie wide many intelligent graziers. and open; the hind quarters seated high with flesh, “A thin head, and clean jaw; the horns pointing leaving a fine hair ham tapering from the hock to forward a little, and then turning upward, thin, the fetlock; long from rump to huckle, and from the tapering, and long; the eye large and full; the pinion of the shoulder to the end of the nose; thin throat clean, no dewlap; long and thin in the neck; loose skin, covered with hair of a soft and furry wide and deep in the shoulders; no projection in nature, inclined to curl whenever the animal is in the point of the shoulder, when looked at from begood condition and in full coat, when it also be- hind; the fore-legs wide; round and straight in the comes mottled with darker shades of its perma- barrel, and free from a rising back-bone; no hangnent color, which is that of a bright blood red. ing heaviness in the belly; wide across the loin; without white, or other spots, particularly on the the space between the hip-bone and the first rib male; a white udder is sometimes passed over, but very small; the hip-bone not to rise high, but to be seldom without objection.

large and wide; the loin, and space between the "This description may be considered as a sum- hips, to be flat and wide, but the fore part of the mary of the perfections as to the exterior appear-carcass round; long and straight in the rump, and ance of the animal: what, under the same head, wide in the tip; the tail to lay low, for the flesh to may be regarded as defects, appear first in the sud- swell above it; the legs not too long; neither thick den retiring of the vamp from behind the huckle nor thin on the thigh; the leg thin; shut well in the to a narrow point backwards; the great space be- twist; no fulness in the outside of the thigh, but all tween the huckle and first rib; the smallness of the of it within; a squareness behind, common in all angle inwards at which the ribs appear to be pro- long-horned beasts, greatly objected to; the finer jected from the spine or back-bone, often giving and thinner in the tail the better. the appearance of a flat-sided animal, and in its “Of these points, the Sussex beasts are apt to being so much tucked up in the girth as to show an be more deficient in the shoulder than in any other awkward cavity between the keel and navel, the part. A well made ox stands straight, and nearly line of which,ʻit is presumed, should always be perpendicular, on small clean legs; a large bony found to hold a position as nearly as possible paral- leg is a very bad point, but the legs moving freely, lel with that of the back from the withers to the rather under the body than as if attached to the loin. The animal is, however, generally well sides; the horns pushing a little forward, spreading grown, and filled up behind the shoulder.” moderately, and turning up once. The horn of

The North Devon cattle are highly esteemed the Devonshire, which very much resembles the both for feeding and draught; but are not so much Sussex, but smaller and lighter, is longer, and rises valued for the dairy. For all the purposes of labor, generally higher. The straightness of the back whether activity, docility, or strength and hardi- Jline is sometimes broken, in very fine beasts, by a ness, this breed can scarcely be excelled; and it is lump between the hips.” even said that, on fallow land, it is no uncommon On a comparison between the Devon and Sussex day's work for four steers to plough two acres with breeds, the former has been considered by compea double furrow plough. The ordinary average tent judges as thinner, narrower, and sharper than weight of the oxen, when fatted at five years old, the latter, on the top of the shoulder or blade bone; is about eleven score per quarter; and that of full the point of the shoulder generally projects more, sized cows seldom exceeds eight.

and they usually stand narrower in the chest; their In South Devon there is a mixture of the pure chine is thinner, and flatter in the barrel, and they North Devon stock with a larger breed, of the hang more in the flank; but they are wider in the same kind, called the Old Marlborough Red; ships, and cleaner in the neck, head, and horns, and which is said to have descended from the South smaller in the bone, than the Sussex; their hides Molton stock, although at present they differ ma- are thinner and softer, and they handle as mellow. terially from them in size, and in having a dingy The distinction between them, however, is not brown or blackish color at the ears, nose, and round very striking; they are equally profitable to the the eyes, or wherever the orange tint is observa-grazier, and, as working cattle, they both stand ble in the genuine race. A cross with this species unrivalled.f is, however, found to fatten more readily than the

* Mr. Ellman, of Glynde. See Agricultural Survey transparent, upright, tapering, and gently curved, but of Sussex, p. 231. dot tipped with black-See Agricultural Survey of See the Agricultural Survey of Sussex, p. 238 and Sussex, p. 248.

Chapter II.


IV. The Hereford breed is a variety of the De- the shambles, the dairy, and the plough, is indeed von and Sussex, but is larger and weightier than not to be met with, and experience teaches that either; being generally wider and fuller over the these properties are inconsistent with each other. shoulders or chine, and the breast, or brisket, as The Hereford cattle are by many good judges conwell as the after part of the rump. The prevail-sidered to approach the nearest to that perfect state ing color a reddish brown, with white faces; the of any of the large breeds: they arrive early at hair fine, and the skin thin.

maturity, and are fit for labor; but it is as fatting In the true bred Hereford cattle there is no pro- stock that they excel, and it is a different variety jecting bone in the point of the shoulder, which in of the same breed that is preferred for the dairy. some breeds forms almost a shelf, against which There is, indeed, a more extraordinary disproporthe collar rests, but on the contrary tapers off; they tion between the weight of Herefordshire cows, have a great breadth before, and are equally and that of the oxen bred from them, than is to be weighty in their hind quarters; the tail not set on found in any other of the superior breeds: they are high; a great distance from the point of the rump comparatively small, extremely delicate, and light to the hip bone; the twist full, broad, and soft; the fleshed; and it is said that they are not unfrequentthigh of the fore legs to the pastern joint tapering ly the mothers of oxen nearly three times their and full, not thin, but thin below the joint; the horn own weight.* pushes aside a little, and then turns up thin and On comparison with the Devon and Sussex, the tapering; remarkably well feeling; mellow on the Hereford breed will probably not be found equally rump, ribs, and hip bone. The quality of the meat active and hardy in the yoke; but it is generally not hard, but fine as well as fat; little coarse flesh considered to exceed them in the quality of fattenabout them, the offal and bone being small in pro- ing;t and when compared with any one breed, it portion to their weight; whilst their disposition to may fairly rank at least among the very best in the fatten is equal, or nearly so, to that of any other United Kingdom. breed in the island. They are, however, ill calculated for the dairy; their constitutional disposition to accumulate flesh being in opposition to the quali- * See the Agricultural Survey of Herefordshire, p. ties of good milking cows,-an observation which 118, and a Paper by T. A. Knight, Esq., in Communiwill equally apply to every breed, when similarly cations to the Board of Agriculture, Vol. II. constituted. A breed of cattle equally adapted to † See Chapter II.


mu Hortonom morimin V. The Short Horned Cattle, under which de- | Holderness, and Tees-water breeds, are supposed nomination are indiscriminately included the Dutch, to have acquired the appellation of Dutch, from a

cross with some large bulls that were imported, February, 1801, for £140, to be exhibited as a near a century ago, from Holland into Yorkshire, show: his live weight being then 226 stone, of 14 in the east and north ridings of which county the pounds. In the following May he was again sold two latter had been long established. It has, how- for £250, to Mr. John Day, who, two months afterever, been doubted whether any advantage was wards, refused for him two thousand guineas! He derived from this intermixture; for the increase thus was exhibited in the principal parts of the kingdom obtained in size was thought to have been coun- until April, 1807, when he was killed, in conseterbalanced by a more than proportionate increase quence of having accidentally, dislocated his hip of oftal. But, fortunately, the error was not univer- in the previous February, and although he must sal; for some intelligent breeders aware, even at have lost considerably in weight during his illness, that day, of the superiority of symmetry to bulk, besides the disadvantage of six years travelling preserved the breed of which they were already in a caravan, yet his carcass weighed 187 stone 12 in possession, in its native purity; and it is from pounds; * and Mr. Day stated his live weight at some of that stock, so maintained, or, at least, ten years old, to have been 270 stone. from a cross between that stock and some of the Uncommon as this animal then was, he has, progeny of the Dutch and Tees-water cross, that however, been since exceeded in size by a Yorkthe present improved short-horned cattle, now shire ox, bred by Mr. Dunhill, of Newton, near generally distinguished as the Durham, or York- Doncaster, the carcass of which weighed, when shire breed, are descended.

| killed, 264 stone 12 pounds; and he was supposed This breed was introduced about forty years ago, to have lost near forty stone while being exhibited by the Messieurs Collings, of Darlington, and has in London. rapidly risen in the public estimation. The cattle Still more recently, another beast of uncommon are very large, and are beautifully mottled with red size, fed by Lord Yarborough, has been exhibited or black upon a white ground; their backs level; under the title of "the Lincolnshire ox;" but, throat clean; neck fine; carcass full and round; though bred in that county, from a favorite cow quarters long; hips and rumps even and wide: they belonging to Mr. Goulton, he was got by a destand rather high on their legs; handle very kindly; scendant of Comet, out of Countess, also of the are light in their bone, in proportion to their size; Durham breed.+ This extraordinary animal meaand have a very fine coat, and thin hide. They sured five feet six inches in height at the shoulders, differ from the other breeds, not only in the short- eleven feet ten inches from the nose to the setting ness of their horns, but as being wider and thicker of the tail, eleven feet one inch in girth, and three in their form, and consequently feeding to greater feet three inches across the hips, shoulders, and weight; in affording the greatest quantity of tallow middle of the back; the lowest point of his breast when fatted; and in having very thin hides, with was only fourteen inches from the ground, and he much less hair upon them than any other kind ex-stood one foot ten inches between the fore legs; cept the Alderneys. They also possess the valua- the girth of the fore leg was nine inches. ble properties of fattening kindly at an early age, The variety of this breed known as the Yorkand of yielding large quantities of milk; but the shire Polled cattle, only differs from those already quality of the latter is not so rich as that of some described, in being without horns; it is in considerother species;* they are, besides, rather tender con- able estimation among the London cow-keepers, stitutioned, and, consequently, difficult and expen- as the cows are considered capital milkers, and at sive to winter.

the same time maintain their flesh in a state nearly Of this breed, Mr. Charles Colling, of Ketton, fit for the shambles. sold a bull— Cometby public auction, in the year 1810, for the extraordinary sum of one thousand

St. lbs. guineas; and the history of the celebrated Durham * Viz. Four Quarters 165 12) See Agricultural Surox, the property of the same gentleman, is too re- Tallow . 11 12 | vey of Durham, p. markable not to merit attention.

Hide - - 10 2 $230; and Mr. Day's He was bred in the year 1796, and at five years

- Descriptive Pamphold was not only covered thick with fat upon all

187 12 let. the principal points, but his whole carcass appear-.

+ The native Lincolns are described by Mr. Stone,

Then ed to be loaded with it, and he was then thought so in his Survey of the county, as "generally large in the wonderful an animal, that he was purchased in

in head, horns, bones, and bellies; thick, short, and fleshy purchaseu " in their necks and quarters; narrow in their hips, plates,

-- chines, and bosoms; high in their rumps, and their • See the Agricultural Surveys of the West Riding shoulders not well covered; their eyes small and sunk of Yorkshire, p. 248; and of Northumberland, p. 139. in their heads.” p. 57.



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VI. The Long-horned cattle are descended from which they have attained in the hands of the a breed which had long been established in the eminent breeders of the present day, has been acCraven district, in Yorkshire; some cows of which quired through the medium of the Dishley blood, race, and a Lancashire long-horned bull, of the With regard to the mysterious manner," in kind delineated above, were brought, early in the which Mr. Bakewell has been too generally aclast century, by a Mr. Webster, to Canley, in cused of having conducted his business, it is a Warwickshire, where they produced a stock that charge so vague and undefined, as hardly to merit soon became remarkable for its beauty.

remark; yet, as it conveys somewhat of reflection Of this Canley stock, the late Mr. Robert Bake-upon his character, it may be due to his memory well, of Dishley, in Leicestershire, procured some to enquire upon what foundation it rests, and if cows, which he crossed with a Northumberland examined closely, it will resolve itself into this: bull,* and thus reared that celebrated race now so that he was gifted with more than common acutewell known as the Dishley breed. They were ness of observation, judgement, and perseverance; long and fine in the horn, had small heads, clean which, combined with the experience he had ac, throats, straight broad backs, wide quarters, and quired under his father, (who was also a distinwere light in their bellies and offal; and, probably guished breeder in his time,) he unremittingly apfroni the effect of domestication and gentle treat-plied to the improvement of cattle. Such qualiment, remarkably docile: they grew fat upon a ties, directed to any one object, could not fail of smaller proportion of food than the parent stock; success; and such, it may be fairly presumed, but gave less milk than some other breeds; and were the only mysteries he employed. That his the chief improvements effected seem to have been, practice was not open to the inspection of every in their aptitude to fatten early on the most valua-Jone who sought to profit by it, will not surprise ble points, and in the superior quality of the flesh. any person who is acquainted with the rivalry osemi

Notwithstanding the deservedly high reputa- nent breeders; and, however it may be regretted tion, as a breeder, enjoyed by Mr. Bakewell dur-that he has not left any record of his experiments, ing his life, and which still attaches to his name, yet, as no man is bound to publish his transactions, his judgement in selecting the long-horned cattle his having omitted to do so cannot justly be made for his experiments has been called in question; a ground of accusation. and it has been asserted, "that had he adopted the The modern improvements made in the longmiddle-horned breed, either of Sussex, Devonshire, horned cattle, since the first attempts of Bakewell, or Herefordshire, in preference to the interior stock are considered to consist chiefly in the coarser which the reputation of his name, and the mys-parts having been reduced, and the more valuable terious manner in which his breeding system was enlarged. The present breed is finer boned, and conducted, have introduced, it would have contri-finer in the neck, throat, and breast; the back is buted to exalt the superiority of his stock, beyond straight, wide, and well covered with flesh; the the power of local prejudices to remove.”+ Therump is also wide, and particularly fleshy on the removal of local prejudice is not, however, an points, and about the root of the tail. Even when easy task, even when ill-founded, which it would only in store order, the flank feels thick and fleshy, be too much to assume in the present instance; for, and in every part the animal handles loose and whatever may be the merits of the long-horned mellow. cattle, comparatively with other breeds, it must be Such, indeed, were always the distinguishing admitted, that they rank among the finest in the points of these cattle; but they were not thought kingdom; and it is certain, that the perfection attainable except they were fed on the richest

Ipasture. This, however, has proved to be an * See Agricultural Survey of Leicester, p. 218. Mr.Jerror; for not only are they now found on land of Marshall says, a bull purchased in Westmoreland;” no extraordinary quality, but it even appears to be but he does not state the breed. See his Rural Econo-generally admitted, that well bred cattle will do my of the Midland Counties, Vol. I. p. 269. {better on ordinary food than those of an inferior | Rev. Mr. Young: Agricultural Survey of Sussex, kind; it was indeed asserted by Bakewell, that

this breed kept themselves in good condition on

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