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less food than any other of equal weight,* an long-horned dairy cows, and 1500 guineas for the use opinion that seems to have been fully justified by of his best bull to thirty cows. the large prices that have been repeatedly given! Large as these prices were, they have however, been for the stock.t

exceeded by those actually obtained for short-horned cattle. At the sale already alluded to, of Mr. Charles Colling's stock, at Ketton, in the county of Durham,

in 1810, seventeen cows and eleven bulls produced • See the Agricultural Survey of Leicestershire, p. £ 4918, being an average of £175 108. each. Of 219, and Chapter II.

these two cows, Countess and Lilly, both got by Comet, At a sale of Mr. Fowler's stock (of this breed at were sold, the one for four hundred, and the other for Little Rollright, in Oxfordshire, in 1791, fifteen head four hundred and ten guineas. Petrarch, a bull, by of oxen, five bulls and ten cows, were sold for various Favorite, the sire of Comet, brought three hundred and sums, amounting to £2464, or upon an average, at sixty-five guineas, and Comet himself one thousand! £ 164 each. The finest bull, named Sultan, only two Still more recer:tly, however, in February 1827, at a years old, produced two hundred and ten guineas; and great sale of stock, the property of Mr. Rennie, of Washington, another of the same age, was sold for Phantassie, in East Lothian, (which amounted to the two hundred and five guineas; while Brindled Beauty, large sum of £ 13,582,) the highest price obtained for a cow, brought the sum of two hundred and sixty gui- a bull of this breed was £115 10s., and for a cow neas; but, at a subsequent sale of stock belonging to £63; but, as not more than half the stock on the farm Mr. Paget, in 1793, Shakespeare, a bull, bred by Mr. was supposed to have been sold, it is probable that some Fowler from a grandson of Mr. Bakewell's famous of the best cattle were reserved. Many other instances bull, Twopenny, and a cow of the Canley blood, was might however be adduced to prove—not that the reladisposed of for four hundred guineas.

tive value of the short-horned cattle has declined—but At a still later period, Mr. Princep, of Croxhall, in that extravagant prices are not now so generally given Derbyshire, is said to have refused £2000 for twenty for superior stock, as formerly.


VII. The Galloway breed derives its appella-Galloway cattle may perhaps vie with even the tion from the county of the same name, where, most improved breeds. Their breadth over the and also in some parts of the Lowlands of Scot-hook-bones is not, indeed, to be compared to that land, these cattle are chiefly reared, and whence of some of either the short or long-horned, but vast numbers are annually sent to Norfolk, and their loins bear a greater proportion in width to the other English counties, to be fattened for the mar-hook-bones, and they are shorter between the kets. In general they are black, or dark brindied; hooks and the ribs, which is in itself a valuable are without horns, except occasionally a small ex-point, when accompanied with length of body. crescence resembling them, and are rather under They are, however, rather coarse in the head and the medium size, being smaller than the Devons, neck. Although short in the leg, they are generthough in some other respects resembling them, ally fine in the bone; for, notwithstanding the'preyet considerably larger than the north, or even the judice that formerly prevailed in favor of large west Highlanders.

bone, the Moorland farmers, convinced that large A true Galloway bullock is straight and broad boned cattle could not thrive on their barren hills, in the back, and nearly level from the head to the never aimed at increasing the size of bone above rump; closely compacted between the shoulder and what their pastures would carry, and by this judiribs, and also betwixt the ribs and the loins; broad cious management have preserved the Galloway at the loins, but not with hooked or projecting breed in its purity. It is, however, to be regretted knobs. He is long in the quarters, but not broad that sufficient attention has not been paid to its in the twist; deep in the chest, short in the leg, and improvement; and in many parts of the Lowlands moderately fine in the bone; clean in the chop, it has been materially injured by an inconsiderate and in the neck. His head is of a moderate size, intermixture with Irish and Ayrshire cows, in with large rough ears, and full, but not prominent consequence of a prevalent idea that the latter are eyes, and he is clothed in a loose and mellow, superior milkers. Bulls of the most approved though rather thick skin, covered with long, soft, kinds have indeed been introduced from England, and glossy hair.

but without any apparent benefit to the native In roundness of barrel, and fulness of ribs, the stock; and although a cross between this and the short-horned breed, which is not uncommon in the and the joints being of a moderate size, more border counties of England, is said to produce an suitable for consumption in private families than excellent animal, possessing in a great degree the those of the larger breeds, they usually command feeding qualities and best points of the short-horn, the highest prices at Smithfield.* and the hardiness and docility of the Galloway Of this breed there is a variety termed Suffolk cattle;" it is yet added, "that although the first Duns, from their color, which is generally of a cross with the short-horn does produce a good yellowish hue, and from the county in which they beast, no good breeder would choose to continue were chiefly adopted. They are also polled, but his stock from these crosses;'* and it seems to be possess little of the beauty of the original stock, now generally admitted, that the surest method of and are chiefly remarkable for the abundance of improving it consists in adherence to the pure milk given by the cows, on which account they breed. They certainly merit attention, for they are favorites with the London dairymen; the best already possess many valuable properties, which milkers being said to give as much as eight galmay yet be brought to still greater perfection. lons a day after claving, and six during great part They are a hardy race, subsisting on the coarsest of the season, wherefore much pains are taken to pastures, and increasing rapidly when removed to preserve the breed, and horned calves are never more favorable situations: they fatten kindly on rearedt. the best parts; their flesh is of the finest quality;!


VIL The Highland Breed of Horned cattle are milk so well as the Kyloes; and the Dunlops. chiefly reared in the western parts of Scotland. another variety, so called from the estate on which

Their horns are usually of a middle size, bending they were originally bred, which has long been upwards, and their color is generally black, though celebrated for the excellence of its cheese. sometimes brindle, or dun. Their hides are thick, These last are said to have been produced from and covered with long hair of a close pile, which a cross between a Highland bull and an Alderney nature seems to have intended as a protection cow, or, as some say, from an Alderney bull and against the severity of the climate under which an Ayrshire cow; but an experienced breeder, who they are bred, for they lose much of this distinc-has been long resident in the county, is of opintion when reared in this country. In other re-ion that the improvement of the native stock is due spects they are not unlike the Galloway breed, to the introduction, about the middle of the last many of whose best qualities they possess, and century, of some Dutch or Teeswater cows. more particularly their hardiness of constitution, it Their color varies from a dark brown, approach having been repeatedly proved that they will thrive ing that of the Devon, to the cream color of the with such food and treatment as no tender cattle Alderney, and in both cases generally speckled could endure; but, from being mostly bred in more with white. The head and horns are small; the exposed and mountainous situations, they rarely neck thin; little dewlap; round and straight in the attain equal sizc.

barrel, and perfectly free from any disposition to Of this breed there are several distinct varieties, rise in the back bone; the loin, and space between of which the principal are the Kyloes,-a short- the hips, flat and wide; in the leg rather short than horned breed, 80 named from the district of Kyle, otherwise, bearing a general similarity to the breed in Ayrshire,—which are chiefly esteemed for the from which they spring. In some parts they are superior quality of the milk given by the cows: the known under the name of Cunningham cattle, also Argyleshire, which are the largest of the real from a district so called in Ayrshire. Highland breeds, and possess most of the properties already enumerated, except that they do not * See p. 34.

+ Young's Survey of Suffolk.

W. Aiton: Treatise on the Dairy Breed of Cows, * Library of Useful Knowledge: Farmer's Series, lp. 22. No. 12: Farm Report of Netherby in Cumberland. T $See the Agric. Surv. of the Isle of Man, p. 107.

The Ayrshire Breed ranks deservedly high in | Mr. Aiton, to whom we are indebted for the anthe estimation of dairy-men, and the most ap-nexed portrait. proved form of the best milkers is thus stated by

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"Head small, but rather long and narrow at the though not smalled-boned with deep-barrelled muzzle; the eye small, but quick and lively; the bodies, high and wide hips, deep chest, large dewhorns small, clear, bended, and the roots at a con- lap, and thin but commonly rough hides. They siderable distance from each other; neck long and were favorites with Bakewell, who considered slender, and tapering towards the head, with little them as nearer to perfection in some points—than loose skin hanging below; shoulders thin; fore- any other except his own improved breed. The quarters light and thin; hind-quarters large and average weight of their quarters, when fat, at four capacious; back straight, broad behind, and the years old, is from eight to eleven score pounds. joints and chine rather loose and open; carcass They are very quick leeders, and make excellent deep, and the pelvis capacious and wide over the beef; and the cows are generally good milkers. hips, with fleshy buttocks; tail long and small;! The best kinds of this race of cattle are principally legs small and short, with firm joints; udder capa- bred in the counties of Cardigan and Glamorgan, cious, broad and square, stretching forwards, and and in the southern and midland English counties, neither fleshy, low hung, nor loose, with the where they are in considerable demand for stockmilk-veins large and prominent; teats short, point-ing inferior pastures. The small and hardy ing outward, and at a considerable distance from species, reared upon the mountains are commonly each other; the skin thin and lose; hair soft and termed Runts; but they are far from being as woolly; the head, horns, and other parts of least despicable as might be supposed from that epithet, value small, and the general figure compact and for they support themselves upon the hardest fare, well proportioned."

thriving where some others would starve, and Besides these, there are the Isle of Sky, or West- they are unrivalled as cottagers' cows. There is, ern Kyloes, and the Norlands, from the counties however, a larger breed of brown color intermixed of Ross, Southerland, Inverness, and Caithness—with white, and also having white horns; but they which are smaller than those already enumerated, are long in the leg, thin in the thigh, and narrow

-and a mixed race, partly horned, and partly in the chine. They are neither so compact as the polled; black, brindled, dun colored; which are black cattle, nor do they fatten so kindly, or make annually driven in large numbers from the north to such good beef; but, though not in esteem with the English fairs, where they pass under the com- the grazier, they are active, and well adapted for mon appellation of Scots. They partake, in gen- the yoke. eral, of the Galloway kindliness' to fatten, and X. The Alderney Breed are so named from the goodness of flesh; and, on the richer pastures of island, on the coast of Normandy, whence they the south, soon become ready for the butcher. were first imported, although they are also bred in

The original Welsh Breed is supposed to have the neighbouring islands of Guernsey and Jersey. been the same as that which still exists at Chil- The cows are small sized, but the oxen frequently lingham, and is said to have been wild in the attain a bulk and stature quite disproportioned to mountains so late as the reign of King John. the female. Their color is either light red, dun, From intermixture with lowland cattle, and sub- or cream-colored, mottled with white; the horns sequent crosses, various kinds are now found short and gracefully curled, and the bone fine.throughout the principality, almost differing as They are chiefly valued for the dairy; and the best much from each other as the counties in which cows are observed to have a yellowish circle round they are severally bred. That most generally the eye, with the skin at the extremity of the tail known is distinctively called the Anglesey breed, of a deep yellowish color approaching to orange : though by no means confined to that part of the a remark, it may be noticed, that has been made country. They are chiefly black, slightly marked on good milkers of other breeds. with white, and have thick horns, of a medium Although the breeds throughout the Norman length, curving upwards. They are small, and isles is nearly similar, yet that of Jersey is said to short in the leg, but well proportioned, and clean, be better than that of Guernsey : it is certainly smaller and more delicate ; and so anxious are thel It has been observed, by Mr. Culley, that " the inhabitants to preserve it in its native purity, that long horns excel in the thickness and firm texture there is an act of their legislature which prohibits of the hides, in the length and closeness of the hair, the importation of all foreign neat cattle whatever in their beef being finer grained and more mixed -even from the neighboring islands—under se- and marbled than that of the short horns, in weighvere penalties of fine and confiscation, including ing more in proportion to their size, and in giving the destruction of the animal itself, which in such richer milk; but they are inferior to the short horns, case is slaughtered and distributed among the poor. in giving a less quantity of milk, in weighing less When exported, the same act directs that they upon the whole, in affording less tallow when killshall be accompanied by a certificate of their being ed, in being slower feeders, and of a coarser make, natives of the island; but it is not easy to procure and more leathery or bullish, in the under side of those of the best quality*. As fatting cattle, they the neck. In few words, the long horns excel in have but few good points; being thin and hollow the hide, hair, and quality of the beef; the short in the neck, hollow and narrow behind the shoul- horns in the quantity of beef, tallow, and milk.ders, sharp and narrow on the hucks, light in the Each breed has long had, and probably may have, brisket, and lean on the chine, with short rumps, their particular advocates; but, if I may hazard a and small thighs; but their flesh is fine grained, conjecture, is it not probable that both kinds may high colored, and of excellent flavor. They are have their particular advantages in different situaalso very large in the belly; but this, as well as tions? Why may not the thick, firm hides, and some of the points already mentioned, is rather an long close-set hair of the one kind, be a protection advantage to milch cows, to which purpose this and security against those impetuous winds and stock is usually applied in this country; and their heavy rains to which the west coast of this island udder is well formed.

| is so subject; while the more regular seasons and The Alderney cows are very rich milkers; and mild climate, upon the east coast, are most suitaboth on that account, and because of a certain neat- ble to the constitutions of the short horns?”* ness in their appearance, notwithstanding the de- It should, however, be understood, that the prefects of thir shape, they command high prices. In ference above given by Mr. C. to the long-horned this county, therefore, they are mostly in the pos- species, on account of the superior quality of their session of gentlemen who, rarely keeping a regu- beef, applies only to the variety of that breed which lar breeding stock, the cows are consequently cros- was selected, improved, and recommended by the sed by any neighboring bull, and thus the pure late eminent Mr. Bakewell, and which is described breed is preserved in the hands of but very few in the introductory view already referred to, under persons.

| the name of Dishley breed. In fact, Mr. C. is of There is a very prevalent notion that they will opinion that “a breed of short-horned cattle might thrive on any kind of land, and they are therefore be selected, equal, if not superior, even to that very not uncommonly kept on bare paddocks, with the kindly-fleshed sort of Mr. Bakewell's, provided any assistance of hay in winter. Like all light cattle, able breeder, or body of breeders, would pay as they certainly do not require the same support as much attention to these as Mr. Bakewell and his larger animals ; but their native pasture in the neighbors have done to the short-horns." islands, is of the richest kind; and it is doubtless This, as the opinion of an eminent breeder, is owing to the less nutritive herbage on which they entitled to great attention; and it has been corrobare frequently fed in England, that the quantity orated by a fact stated in the Agricultural Survey of their milk is not equal to its quality. In Jersey of Northumberland, "that the long-horns had been they are also fed partly on parsnips, which are introduced into that country from the improved found to improve the produce of the cows.t stocks of the midland counties, at different times,

Such are the chief breeds of the kingdom; and and by different breeders; but had, in most instanthe description, being taken from the best authori-ces, given way again to the improved breed of ties, may be considered as accurate as possible, in short-horns, and, at the time the first report was a general view. But it must be admitted, that published in 1804, had been totally abandoned by there are great deviations in many animals of the every breeder in the country; the improved breed same, and of the most approved stock; and there of short-horns, from the stock of the Messieurs are, besides, many crosses, and local breeds, dis- Colling, having proved themselves much supetinguished by the name of the district, or the breed- rior.” er, which it would be tedious to particularise. Since that period, continued exertions have been

made for the improvement of the shorthorned breed, Comparative view of the different breeds of neat and the great weight to which the cattle arrive cattle.

must always ensure them a high rank in the estiFrom the previous introductory view of the vari- ficient staple to forward heavy beasts; but the opin

mation of those graziers who possess land of sufous species of neat cattle, the reader will probably ion of many of the best judges still continues to be be enabled to form some estimate of the value of divided regarding their comparative merit with the respective breeds therein described. The two that of the long-horns. kinds, however, which are chiefly reared, are thel An experienced farmer, who appears to have long-horned and the short-horned, and, concerning examined both the breeds with great impartiality, their merits and demerits, there has long been a states, “that the best of the short-horned being difference of opinion among the most experienced larger than any other kind require good keep, and breeders; on that subject, therefore, it may not be more age than cattle in general: the oxen will imaltogether useless to offer a few comparative re- prove to the age of seven years, and the cows to marks to the consideration of the young grazier.

* Culley on Live Stock, p. 80. † Ib. p. 81. * Quayle's General View of the Norman Isles.

Page 140, 3d edition, 1813; in which the assertion + See Book II. chap. 2, note.

remains uncontradicted.

six; and if they are not well supported when young, the contrary, have thin hides and short hair, and will require another year: that they have large being of a more tender constitution than the forbones, and are said to be coarse-grained, and the mer, and arriving to greater weight, seem better beef not so marbled as that of some other kinds; calculated for the system of stall-feeding; while the though some of them die very fine beef.” But he Devons have the advantage as working oxen. adds, “that many have larger shoulders* than the The next in size to the short-horned, are the Rollright (long-horned] breed: that the best of this Hereford; the oxen of which breed commonly atbreed, especially the heifers and cows, are formed tain the weight of 70 to 100 stone, of fourteen for the butcher superior in shape to any other kind; pounds, and frequently arrive at much greater size. and that, of the four kinds of cattle put in competi- | They are considered by a competent judge, * when tion with the Rollright, viz. the Devon, the Sussex, compared with other fashionable breeds, "as rather the Hereford, and the Yorkshire, [short-horned, 1 larger in the bone, and somewhat shorter in the he is of opinion that none, at an early age, equal carcass; rising a little higher in the chine, towards them for slaughter, or will pay so much money for the shoulders, but generally broad, which renders three years' consumption." †

the chine thick and heavy. Their hucks are round, In confirmation of this, there is an opinion stated wide from one to the other, and well covered with in several of the agricultural surveys of different fat; their rump is well formed, and the thigh rathcounties, “that for beauty and symmetry of parts er heavier than some delicate breeds. Their and disposition to fatten, the long-horned cattle are shoulders are mostly large, in consequence of which not to be excelled by any of their contemporaries;” | they have more coarse boiling beef than they ought, " that they come quickest to perfection;"Ş “are and, notwithstanding they have a great propensity preferable to short-horns, better feeders, and lay to fatten and die wels filled with fat, it is often irregmost beef in the best joints; are more thrifty on ularly placed in patches.” This defect is, howpoor land, and are preferred at Smithfield.” || Yet ever, probably owing to their having been worknotwithstanding the decisive tone thus assumed, ed; for althougboxen that have been for several the question of superiority may still be considered years at the yoke, will often become fat, it has been as undecided : each have their advocates. Thus remarked that they are seldom so equally proporthe Hereford surveyor gives a decided preference tioned in every part with fat and lean as unworked to the oxen bred in that county, although he ad- steers, nor is the meat so juicy, and the brisket and mits, that the long-horned cows are equal to the lower parts are generally tough. When slaughHerefordshire. The Somersetshire graziers will tered at a proper age, the Herefords are heavily not allow that the north-country oxen possess any fleshed, the meat is fine in the grain and regularly merit, comparatively with the Devon, either for marbled, with a better proportion of fat and lean labor or slaughter; but the surveyor himself, while than most other cattle, and they deservedly hold maintaining their superiority in the yoke, is candid a high place in the estimation of the butchers. A enough to admit, “that they have many rivals in writer of considerable experience on the subject, the Galloway, Leicester, Hereford, Glamorgan, who has lately published a very interesting meand other cattle."** The late Mr. Davis, of Long- moir of the short-horned breed, gives the preferleat, an eminent agriculturist, although allowing ence to the improved short-horns, which he conthat the comparative merits of the Devon and long- siders equal, at three years old, to Hereford cattle horned breeds are warmly contested in Wiltshire, at four years old; and the cows as more profitable yet. gives it as his opinion, “that whatever may for the dairy. For breeders, he therefore decidedly be the comparative merits of the two kinds of cows recommends the short-horns; but he admits that for the dairy, there is not a doubt but the Devon- the Herefords may be purchased with equal profit shire kind are the most proper for fatting; and, as by graziers, whose only view is to fatten them for to the oxen bred from the two kinds, it would be the market, because they will not-in a lean state injustice to the Devonshire oxen even to make a at four years old-bear an increased price proporcomparison between them.”# Further trials of tioned to the additional time required to render one their respective qualities must be accurately made of them equal to a short-horn of three years. † and faithfully recorded, before an undisputed pre- An interesting experiment made at the Earl of ference can be awarded to either; for it cannot be Egremont's farm at Petworth, in Sussex, might, concealed that local prejudice is often opposed to if it stood alone, be considered as, in a great meafact. The long-horns appear best adapted for sure, decisive of the relative value of this breed, as grazing; being well protected by thick hides and fatting cattle, to those of Devon and Sussex.long hair, and seemingly intended by nature for Eight beasts of the three breeds, taken indiscrimthe range of pasture land. The short-horns, on inately from the stock, were put up to fatten on a

mixture of barley-meal and flax-seed. For the • This, it should be observed, is a defect; for al- first seven weeks they had each three gallons every though the shoulders cannot be deemed offal, yet are day, of which one-fourth was flax-seed; and for the they, comparatively, loss, as the flesh is of less value remainder of the time they had three gallons, of than that on the rump, loins, and chine: wherefore, the which one-third was flax-seed, ground together most perfectly formed cattle are those that are the land mixed up with some wheat-chaff, both to falongest, and have the smallest shoulders in proportioncilitate digestion, and prevent it from sticking in to their size.

their throats. Besides this, they had each thirteen + Parkinson's Treatise on Live Stock, Vol. I. ch. 1.

pounds of hay weighed to them three times each sect. 15.

Leicester Report, p. 218. || Rutland ditto, p. 121.
Lincoln Report, pp. 337, 339, 341, 2d edition.

* Mr. Richard Parkinson, Treatise on Live Stock, Hereford ditto, p. 118.

Vol. I. ch. 1, sect. 16.

+ See an Essay entitled “Improved Short horns, and **Somerset ditto, pp. 242, 243, 3d edition.

their pretensions stated,” by the Rev. Henry Berry, of 11 Wilts ditto, pp. 204, 205, 2d ditto.

| Worcestershire, 1830.

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