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COLLEGE OF WILLIAM AND MARY |tion than it will be during the ensuing course. Nor is At the late meeting of the Visitors of William and there any reason to anticipate a falling off from this Mary College, the vacant Professorship of Law was condition. The main causes for the decline of William filled by the appointment of Judge N. B. Tucker. and Mary, it is hoped, are at an end. Its interests will The law lectures will now be extended to the full no longer suffer from the neglect of a majority of its Vi. length of the general scientific course, which had been sitors and Governors, nor from the discordant views prevented heretofore by the circumstance of the Law which have unhappily been entertained and acted upon Professorship being always held by an acting judge of by the most zealous friends of the institution: and all the General Court, whose other duties made it neces

now concurring in sentiment and zeal to promote its sary to reduce the time of delivering his lectures to prosperity and restore its usefulness, we cannot but anabout five months. This limitation greatly impaired ticipate results corresponding to such operating causes. the value of that professorship-and the change offers

one A SUGGESTION-THE PINE TIMBER BUG-TOadvantages to young men who wish to receive scientific BACCO PLANT BEDS-CROWS-SASSAFRAS, instruction in general, as well as to attend law lectures,

To the Editor of the Farmers' Register. which the institution has never before offered, and which it is believed are equal, considered in every as

. Granville, N. C. July 17, 1834. pect, to what are to be found any where else.

Enclosed you will find five dollars, my subscrip'The vacancy in the Mathematical Chair had pre. tion for the current volume of the Farmers' Reviously been filled by the appointinent of Robert |

gister. Accept with it a farmer's thanks for the

advantage already reaped from its publication, and Saunders, Esq. This is not an occasion to discuss the his warmest wishes for its increased usefulness causes of these vacancies having been previously per- and consequent favor with an intelligent public. mitted to remain, nor to trace the injurious effects of By way of rendering my mite towards effecting this neglect of the Board of Visitors on the prosperity these objects, I will offer the following suggestion, of the College. It is enough here to say that the Cold which I think if adopted, will prove serviceable to lege is now fully and ably supplied with professors, that very many of your subscribers. It is that you its funds are in good and improving condition—and

should devise and affix to communications from

correspondents recommending any thing or any that steps have been taken and are in progress, which

plan, certain marks or symbols by which we may the friends of William and Mary hope will restore the understand your own individual opinion of the institution to the high reputation which it has enjoyed, thing or scheme recommended. It is but too true and deserved, and to the state of extended usefulness that very many things and plans are advocated which it is capable of maintaining.

with a great degree of confidence and plausibility, Political Economy, (the statesman's science, of which, when adopted, prove seriously hurtful to which he who is uninformed ought to be ashamed to

the credulous and inexperienced farmer. Your

own character as an enlightened and successful aspire either to legislate or to govern,) has long been agriculturist is known I presume to most, if not all an object of peculiar care at William and Mary. That of your subscribers; and the adoption of this meVirginia has been the firm and resolute opposer of pro- thod, which will add scarcely any thing to your tecting duties, and monopoly in trade, and that we labor as an editor, will give us the advantage of may now hope to be ultimately freed from the fetters of all the valuable experience you have acquired. It the restrictive system, and from the ignorant prejudices wil

rejudices will enable you to act without labor or trouble, as which forged them, is in no small degree owing to the

the special guardian of each of your inexperienced

subscribers. I know no post or station in society light that has unceasingly been shed by this school on

more honorable or useful than this.* those who afterwards formed a large proportion of the distinguished statesmen and legislators of our country. * The plan proposed by our correspondent, or any The want of proper instruction in this subject alone, other for the same object, would be found very objechas permitted so far the reign of those false doctrinestionable. In the first place he attaches far too much of national economy, which during their continuance value to the opinions and judgement of the editor as a have been a far heavier tax, than all the private and farmer-and even if this error did not exist, no editor public expenses of education in all our colleges. ought to be permitted thus to pass so hasty a sentence

We consider our public institutions for the instruc- on every piece which he published. Such decisions tion of youth as among the first and most valuable of would (even under the most favorable circumstances) internal improvements, and heartily rejoice at the suc- serve to check that freedom of discussion which an ag. cess of each and of all, without the slightest disposi- ricultural journal ought to maintain, and besides, would tion to exalt any one, by the depression of another. be so often erroneous, as to impede, rather than adEspecially do we rejoice in the present unprecedented vance the developement of sound doctrines and valuaprosperity of our principal institution of learning, the ble facts—and would soon bring the self-constituted University of Virginia. But there are enough youths judge and his decisions into deserved contempt. in Virginia who want a liberal education, and whose The same view. bears, though not to the same ex. parents are able to pay the cost, to furnish students tent, on the republication of selected articles, the sound. for every college--and the low country alone (if ness of the opinions and the truth of the statements of sectional lines must thus be drawn) is well able to sus- which we have been considered by some of our read. tain William and Mary: and this institution was ne- ers as endorsing, unless accompanied by some mark of ver in a better state to confer the benefits of educa- I editorial dissent. We deny the correctness of this in. Your Orange correspondent is mistaken in sup- If the spot selected for baiting is situated so that posing that it is a worm which proves so destruc- mischief may be done by other animals than tive to pine timber. The mischief is done by a crows eating the poisoned bread, it will be best to small black bug about the size of the smallest conceal some person near the bait who may hinder kind of field pea. It is possible, but I hardly think the access to it of any thing besides the crows. I true, that the bug is the parent of the worm als adopted the plan the past spring, and the poisoned luded to by your correspondent. The latter is of- bread was greedily eaten by the crows. I found ten found more than an inch long. I have never no dead ones, but my tarm which had been preseen it in the living timber, but always in the dead. viously much infested, was quickly cleared of all I discovered the black bug by cutting through the but a few which I am persuaded did not eat the bark at the holes perforated by them in the living poison. pines. They kill the tree by eating away the It has occurred to me that the best means of extender inner rind of the bark.

tirpating sassafras would be to bore a hole with There is an error I think in the plan advised by an auger into the tree and deposite in it some subMr. Edmunds, of Charlotte, in a former number stance which mixed with the circulating sap would of the Register, for raising tobacco plants, which destroy the vitality of the roots, as well as the upought to be corrected, especially as Mr. E. is per part of the tree. Will you, or some of your known to be one of the very best planters in Vir- subscribers, inform me what substance is likely to ginia. He recommends that the plant-bed should have this effect? I have without success tried be grubbed before burning. I am sure the better digging them up at all seasons of the year; and plan is to cut down the small bushes close to the I know that stock will not browse on them enough ground with an axe, and grub after burning. By to kill them, unless in the absence of all better and grubbing in the first instance, you necessarily cover more favorite food. There have been kept in one a great many grass seeds with earth so deep that of my fields during the whole of the present year the fire will not kill them. These are, by the hoe- more than one hundred sheep, sixty or seventy ing necessary to prepare the bed for sowing, hogs, twenty-three milch cows and work oxen, brought near to the surface, and vegetate as soon, besides colts and horses, without killing (as far as or sooner than the tobacco seed, proving very I have seen) a single sassafras bush. I would hurtful to the young plants, and difficult to be era- willingly pay five per cent. on the cost of my land dicated.

Ito have this pest entirely destroyed. If arsenic will destroy crows I know an easy

w. 0. Gplan of administering it to them. It is to bait them with corn and crumbs of bread at some place

MR. BABBAGE'S CALCULATING MACHINE. where they resort, until they go to it in numbers; and then dissolving as much arsenic in water as The following details will be read with consideramay be thought sufficient, mix it with meal, bake ble interest; more especially as they set at rest the or dry it by the fire, break in small pieces, and attempts which have been made in some quarters place theni at the bait. The crows will eat it to depreciate one of the greatest projects of the without hesitation, as soon as they alight. To age. make them find and go to the bait early, it is best The Calculating Machine described by Sir Dato scatter some new white corn cobs at the spot. vid Brewster.-Of all the machines which have

been constructed in modern times, the calculating ference, and protest against the propriety of such a machine is doubtless the most extraordinary. Pieces rule being applied. In presenting to the readers of the

esenting to the readers of the of mechanism for performing particular arithmeFarmers' Register the selections made from other pub

| tical operations have been long ago constructed,

but these bear no comparison either in ingenuity lications, it is designed to take whatever may be most

or in magnitude to the grand design conceived valuable—not in the opinion of one individual alone

and nearly executed by Mr. Babbage. Great as but what may be so in the opinion of any other, whose the power of mechanism is known to be, yet we judgement deserves to be respected. Many matters venture to say that many of the most intelligent of of opinion or of fact, contained in these selections, may our readers will scarcely admit it to be possible that (and often do) appear to us as mistaken or false—but astronomical and navigation tables can be accuit would be uncalled for and ridiculous in every such

rately computed by machinery; that the machine

can itself correct the errors which it may commit; case to be presenting our opinions, instead of leaving

instead of leaving and that the results of its calculations, when absoreaders to think and decide for themselves. Besides, lutely free from error, can be printed off, without in selecting from the latest publications, and from very the aid of human hands, or the operation of human remote countries, there are many statements which are intelligence. All this, however, Mr. Babbage's either so novel, or so dependent on testimony not with machine can do; and as I have had the advantage in our reach, that no mature opinion can be at once of

of seeing it actually calculate, and of studying its

construction with Mr. Babbage himself, I am able made up; and any other would be improper to offer.

to make the above statement on personal observaYet to withhold these novelties from our readers be- tion. The calculating machine now constructing cause their value is doubtful, would be to keep them under the superintendence of the inventor has been in the dark as to the progress of agricultural discovery executed at the expense of the British government, and improvement. In agricultural science, as in all and is of course their property. It consists essenothers, it is proper that all opinions and practicestially of two parts, a calculating part, and a printwhich engage attention in a considerable degree should ing pa

borbe should ing part, both of which are necessary to the fulfil

ment of Mr. Babbage's views, for the whole adbe made known, and the true will prevail, and the false

vantage would be lost if the computations made by be disproved, or soon forgotten.

the machine were copied by human hands and



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transferred to types by the common process. The required, or any succession of terms commencing greater partof the calculating machinery is already at a distant point. constructed, and exhibits workmanship of such Beside the cheapness and celerity with which extraordinary skill and beauty that nothing ap- this machine will perform its work, the absolute proaching to it has been witnessed. In order to accuracy of the printed results deserves especial execute it, particularly those parts of the apparatus notice. By peculiar contrivances, any small error which are dissimilar to any used in ordinary me- produced by accidental dust, or by any slight inacchanical constructions, tools and machinery of curacy in one of the wheels, is corrected as soon as great expense and complexity have been invented it is transmitted to the next, and this is done in and constructed; and in many instances contri- such a manner as effectually to prevent any accuvances of singular ingenuity have been resorted mulation of small errors from producing an erroneto, which cannot fail to prove extensively useful in ous figure in the result. various branches of the mechanical arts.

| In order to convey some idea of this stupendThe drawings of this machinery, which form a ous undertaking, we may mention the effects prolarge part of the work, and on which all the con- duced by a small trial engine constructed by the trivance has been bestowed, and all the alterations inventor, and by which he computed the following made, cover upwards of 400 square feet of surface, table from the formula x2 by x by 41. The figures, and are executed with extraordinary care and pre- as they were calculated by the machine, were not cision.

exhibited to the eye as in sliding rules and similar In so complex a piece of mechanism, in which instruments, but were actually presented to the interrupted motions are propagated simultaneously eye on two opposite sides of the machine, the along a great variety of trains of mechanism, it number 383, for example, appearing in figures bemight have been supposed that obstructions would fore the person employed in copying: arise, or even incompatibilities occur, from the im-.

Table calculated by a small trial engine. practicability of foreseeing all the possible combinations of the parts; but this doubt has been en


383 797 1373 tirely removed by the constant employment of a

151 421 853 1447 system of mechanical notation invented by Mr.

173 461 911 1523 Babbage, which places distinctly in view, at every

197 583 971 instant, the progress of motion through all the

223 547 1033 1681 parts of this or any other machine, and by writing

251 593 1097 1763 down in tables the times required for all the move

83 281 641 1163 1847 ments, this method renders it easy to avoid all risk. 97

313 691 1231 1933 of two opposite actions arriving at the same in- | 113 · 347, 743 1301 2021 stant at any part of the engine.

While the machine was occupied in calculating In the printing part of the machine less progress this table, a friend of the inventor undertook to has been made in the actual execution than in the write down the numbers as they appeared. In 'calculating part. The cause of this is the greater consequence of the copyist writing quickly, he difficulty of its contrivance, not for transferring the rather more than kept pace with the engine, but computations from the calculating part to the cop- as soon as five figures appeared, the machine was per or other plate destined to receive it, but for at least equal in speed to the writer. At another giving to the plate itself that number and variety trial 32 numbers of the same table were calculated of movements which the forms adopted in printed in the space of 2 minutes and 30 seconds, and as tables may call for in practice..

these contained 82 figurés, the engine produced 33 The practical object of the calculating engine is figures every minute, or more than one figure in to compute and print a great variety and extent of every two seconds. On another occasion it proastronomical and navigation tables, which could duced 44 figures per minute. This rate of comnot be done without enormous intellectual and putation could be maintained for any length of manual labor, and which, even if executed by such time: and it is probable that few writers are able to labor, could not be calculated with the requisite copy with equal speed for many hours together. accuracy. Mathematicians, astronomers, and some of that class of individuals who envy all navigators do not require to be informed of the real great men, and deny all great inventions, have value of such tables; but it may be proper to state, lignorantly stated that Mr. Babbage's invention is for the information of others, that 17 large folio not new.' The same persons, had it suited their volumes of logarithmic tables alone were calcu- purpose, would have maintained that the invention lated at an enormous expense by the French go- of spectacles was an anticipation of the telescope; vernment; and that the British government re- but even this is more true than the allegation that garded these tables to be of such national value the arithmetical machines of Pascal and others that they proposed to the French Board of Lon- were the types of Mr. Babbage's engine. . The gitude, to print an abridgement of them at the object of these machines was entirely difierent. joint expense of the two nations, and offered to their highest functions were to perform the operaadvance £5,000 for that purpose. Besides loga- tions of common arithmetic. Mr. Babbage's enrithmic tables, Mr. Babbage's machine will calcu- gine, it is true, can perform these operations also, late tables of the powers and products of numbers, and can extract the roots of numbers, and approxand all astronomical tables for determining the po- imate to the roots of equations, and even to their sition of the sun, moon, and planets; and the same impossible roots. But this is not its object. Its. mechanical principles have enabled him to inte-function, in contradistinction to that of all other grate enumerable equations of finite differences, contrivances for calculating, is to embody in ma

that is, when the equation of difference is given, chinery the method of differences, which has never . he can, by setting an engine, produce at the end before been done; and the effects which it is capaof a given time any distant term which may be ble of producing, and the works which in the

Vol. II.--20


course of a few years we expect to see it execute, 1 portion of metallic gold appeared in numerous and will place it at an infinite distance from all other beautiful grains, and this, too, from specimens efforts of mechanical genius.-Letters on Natural which had no gold visible on the outside. Magic, in the Family Library.

The following is an extract from the report of Mr. Shepherd:

“I am decidedly of opinion that Virginia is desTHE GOLD REGION OF VIRGINIA. tined, sooner or later, to become a rich and prosThe Rail Road Journal accompanies the following perous mining country; that whenever skill and

o capital shall be judiciously applied, (in the language piece with a map of the gold region which it is unne

of an able and beautiful writer,) she will one day cessary to offer to our readers who are acquainted with he

h be to the country what Cornwall is to England, the geography of this part of Virginia, and who have the seat of prodigious industry, and the source of access to larger and better maps. It is sufficient to individual and national wealth. copy the list of the mines now worked, and to add In coming to this conclusion I do not lose sight more full descriptions of their several localities. of the great natural advantages which Virginia The greater number of mines opened are in one possesses over other mining districts in the United

States, and throughout the world. It will be seen neighborhood, through which passes the Rappahannock

by the map that by a little more than half a day's River and its principal tributary the Rapid Ann, and ride, any one can be transported from the city of near their junction. These are,

Washington on the Potomac, to the gold mines on The United States Gold Mine, Spottsylvania county. the Rappahannock, on the banks of a beautiful Rappahannock


river made navigable by locks and dams, a disRattlesnake


tance of ten miles to tide-water and steamboat naviCulpepper

gation, commencing at Fredericksburg, which is a Culpepper

busy inland town, at all seasons supplying a plenMillbank


tiful market. Add to this the very low price of Virginia


provisions and labor, the vast abundance of wood Vaucluse


and timber, the great number of water powers Liberty


easily created upon the numerous streams, the Union


peculiarity of the soil and earth as affording faciliMillville


ties for excavation, (since steam is now applied to

| all kinds of digging,) and finally the beautiful deI. Payne's

velopement of the rich gold veins, said by those Greenwood

Spottsylvania “

| who have been observers in both countries, by far On both sides of the North Anna (head waters of to excel Mexico, South America, or even Russia, York River) are,

so much celebrated of late for her gold mines. Johnson's mine, " Spottsylvania “ These veins are composed of quartz commonly Dixon's


called white fint, froin one to four feet in thick

ness, generally perpendicular in the earth like a

Louisa. Tinder's

wall, supported on both sides by soft talcose slate, On the north side of James River,

and extend from the surface to an unknown depth. The Goochland mine

| It is not uncommon to find gold in the broken And on the south side, .

fragments of the veins at the surface, and it has Booker's mine “ Buckingham county. also been found at the depth of 160 feet increasing

The remainder of the article from the Rail Road ly rich. The gold district lies in that part of VirJournal and from Mr. Shepherd's report, is copied be. I ginia between the tide-water and Blue Ridge.

where the atmosphere is dry and exhilerating, the low.

climate mild and agreeable, the water well tasted This map exhibits a condensed view of the gold and pure, the inhabitants of that class so long and region of Virginia, and is taken from a larger one so justly famed for their hospitality and refinement, belonging to Mr. F. Shepherd, of New Haven, and for whose convenience, the great National or who has spent some months in surveying and ex- Southern Rail Road is about to pass by them as it ploring this interesting portion of our country. I were at their thresholds. We say interesting, because the amount of gold Still, with all these natural and extraordinary annually obtained in the United States, is estimated advantages, I feel it my duty, continues Mr. Shepin millions of dollars; and this amount is rapidly herd, to give my friends and fellow-citizens of increasing when, comparatively speaking, the New England, a few words of advice by way of surface only of the ground has been disturbed in caution. That there is a very large amount of getting this precious metal.

gold in the great state of Virginia, and that this We learn from Mr. S. that the undue excite- large amount of gold may be extracted so as to ment which the first discovery of gold creates in afford a large profit, is clear to a demonstration; the minds of all classes, is now at an end in Virgi- and I believe that this section of our country is nia, and the business of getting gold is assuming worthy the attention of northern enterprise and a settled and systematic character. The farmer capital. Yet it frequently happens that many now goes on with his farming, and the experienced persons have an idea that wherever gold is disminer with his mining, and in this way each is covered, if they can but get possession of the lands, mutually an aid to the other.

no matter at what price, their fortune is made for As to the richness of the Virginia ores, Mr. S. a certainty. This foolish impression has ruined has given us full satisfaction, by simply pounding many a man. The temptation is so great that them in a mortar and washing away the sand in where a person wishes to sell his land as gold land, our presence, when, to our surprise, a large pro-1 and cannot find gold upon it, in order to effect his


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object, he will sometimes bring gold sands and wire-worm, grub-worm, &c.: one planter on ores from a distance, and bury them upon his own Roanoke in Charlotte county has had to plant his grounds, which of course the purchaser finds out whole crop over again. It is doubted by some to his sorrow when too late. Again, some per- whether the enclosing system of Arator (Col. John sons, on finding a few grains of gold, suppose that Taylor of Caroline) can be maintained unless our if they dig deep they will surely find the precious Entomologists shall devise some remedy for the metal in masses and blocks. It is needless to add worms which it permits to engender, to the probathat such visionary day-dreams are rarely realized ble ruin of the whole produce of the earth. ' Until

still many are sanguine enough to pursue the the "butterfly-hunters" or "Horned Cock Sociechance with great ardor.

ty"* shall devise a certain cure, take the following To those persons who engage in this business palliative (“in mitigation of damages.")-Nurse for the purpose of speculation, I would say that your crows and blackbirds and all birds that devour they will only be benefited at the expense of others, earth worms, or their Larvæ; of which deccripand will injure the mining interest of the country tion, the crow stands foremost, and the crow-blackmore in a few days than they can possibly repair bird next. That they injure corn by pulling it up, in many years.

is a vulgar error that may add another item to Sir Finally, persons ought not to engage in this bu- Thomas Brown's Catalogue. The writer hereof siness without previous skill and experience. It is has been a planter five and twenty years, and obviously unsafe for them to do so; and here is the never lost an ear of corn thereby: It is true that cause of so many failures of companies and indi- they sometimes destroy a roasting ear by opening viduals. Gold mining is as much an art or trade the shuck, but for one thus injured by crows, hunas iron mining. What company of farmers would dreds are opened by wood-peckers who do not eat undertake of themselves to get iron from the ore? earth worms, but are useful allies to fruit and timAnd what would be the probable result of such an ber trees. Planters (they of the belting system undertaking? What would be the result if this more especially,) who have dead trees in their same company of farmers should undertake to fields for wood-peckers to build in, are incorrigible work the ores of zinc, so rich and abundant in this slovens, on whom even advice (cheap as it is) is country? I have no doubt you anticipate the re- thrown away. The fact is, the crow like the dog, sult correctly; and the same result is to be expect- eats bread when he can't find meat. ed in their undertaking to get gold. Some persons. While the pen is in my hand, let me remonstrate in their ignorance suppose that if they expend a against the barbarous custom of trimming up trees large amount, or venture a large sum, that they into brooms by way of improvement. If the tree shall certainly realize something in return. Such has obtained a tolerably large growth, the trimvisionary men lose their all, generally; whereas, in ming or topping of any main branch is (sooner or the hands of a discreet and experienced man, later) certain death. Arthur Young protested every cent of that money, like the well directed against this system of Pollard trees in France. It blows of the axeman, would be turned to a food is like the Abyssinian beef-steak from the live account; and instead of a loss he would reap a cow, or the Chinese lady's club-foot and thick. reward of an hundred fold. In proof of this I have known a man to expend ten hundred dollars

CUTTING CORN TOPS. and get ten thousand dollars of gold for his reward,

From the Cultivator. and from an examination of his lands, believe that Mr. Fessenden-I have made a small experihe might labor all his life in the same prudent way, ment the past season, to ascertain the damage, if and with the same good success. Again I have any, that results to the corn crop, from topping the known another man in the same situation precisely, stalks in the usual way. And, influenced by the expend the same sum and get nothing but a load request of several individuals, and the thought of debt upon his shoulders instead of gold. Now that, perhaps, it might lead to a better knowledge will you say that these mines ought not to be of this important branch of agriculture, (the worked? No, you will say let them be worked by growing of corn,) I am induced to forward the honest, experienced and prudent men. Let this be particulars to you for publication. Although I am done, and the capitalist will find his money profita- aware that guessing enters largely, and perhaps bly employed, and the millions of gold in Virginia necessarily, into the calculations and business of will be made to circulate and gladden the hearts of the farmer, I am also aware that experiment canmillions of the human race now pining in want not be conducted with too much precision; indeed, and "perishing for lack of knowledge."

that experiment to be relied on, must be conducted

entirely without guessing. Therefore, I have ON WORMS AND CROWS, AND THIIR OPERA

been somewhat particular in conducting this. And

lest some of your readers may be a little sceptical TIONS ON Corn.

in regard to the result, and perhaps unwilling to [The following piece was attributed, and we believe allow that the course which has been pursued by correctly, to the pen of the late John Randolph of our ancestors, from time immemorial, is not the Roanoke. The errors in our copy (and which were best course, I will give the details; and if an apoloprobably owing to the original manuscript) we have Igy be deemed necessary, for being so very minute, not attempted to correct.]

I can merely say, that as the experiment seems to

me so deeply to involve the interests of corn From the Richmond Enquirer, of May, 1820.

growers, it may be well to give a detailed stateYou may make the following addition to your ment of the case, so that any interested may be agricultural news.

able to draw their own inferences. And if, in In some parts of the country, the young Indian your opinion, it is worthy a place in your useful corn has been totally destroyed by innumerable worms of different descriptions; such as cut-worm,' *See Chrysal.

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