Imágenes de páginas

which is always at his heels: the sudden sting of whenever they come to any thing they can manthe whip is a pain with which he gets but too well age to swallow. acquainted, yet the "unde derivatur" of the sensa- I have observed that the old ones pass all the tion he cannot explain—he neither knows when it carcasses, which trailing to the ground, are hangis coming, nor where it comes from. If any tri-ing before the butchers shops, as if they were on fling accident, or even irregularity, occurs—if any a sort of parole d'honneur not to touch them; the little harmless strap, which ought to rest upon his middle-aged ones wistfully eye this meat, yet jog back, happens to fall to his side-the poor, noble, on also, while the piglings, who (so like mankind) and intelligent animal, deprived of his eyesight, have more appetite than judgement, can rarely rethe natural lanterns of the mind, is instantly sist taking a nibble; yet, no sooner does the dead alarmed: and though from constant heavy draught calf begin again to move, than from the window he may literally, without metaphor, be on his last immediately above out pops the head of a butcher, legs, yet if his blinkers should happen to fall off, who, drinking his coffee, whip in hand, inflicts a the sight of his own master-of his very own prompt punishment, sounding quite equal to the pimple-faced mistress—and his own fine yellow offence. carriage in motion-would scare him so dreadfully, As I have stated, the pigs, generally speaking, that off he would probably start, and the more proceed of their own accord; but shortly after they they all pursued him the faster would he fly! have passed, there comes down our street a little

bareheaded, barefooted, stunted dab of a child,

about eleven years old,-a Flibbertigibbet sort of MANNER OF SHOEING HORSES IN GERMANY. I creature, which in a drawing, one would express

From the same. by a couple of blots, the small one for her head, In passing the shop of a blacksmith, who lived the other for her body; while streaming from the opposite to the Goldene Kette, the manner in latter, there would be a long line ending in a flourwhich he tackled and shod a vicious horse always ish, to express the immense whip which the child amused me. On the outside wall of the house, carries in its hand. This little goblin page, the two rings were firmly fixed; to one of which the whipper-in, attendant, or aid-de-camp of the old head of the patient was lashed close to the ground; pig-driver, facetiously called at Langen-Schwalthe hind foot to be shod, stretched out to the ut- | bach, the "Schwein-general," is a being no one most extent of the leg, was then secured to the looks at, and who looks at nobody. Whether the other ring about five feet high, by a cord which hofs of Schwalbach are full of strangers, or empty passed through a cloven hitch, fixed to the root -whether the promenades are occupied by princes of the poor creature's tail.

or peasants—whether the weather is good or bad, The hind foot was consequently very much hot, or rainy, she apparently never stops to conhigher than the head; indeed it was so exalted sider: upon such vague subjects, it is evident she and pulled so heavily at the tail, that the animal never for a moment has reflected. But such a seemed to be quite anxious to keep his other foot pair of eyes, for a pig, have perhaps seldom beamon terra firma. With one hoof in the heavens, ed from human sockets! The little intelligent it did not suit him to kick; with his nose pointed urchin knows every house from which a pig ought to the infernal regions he could not conveniently to have proceeded; she can tell by the door being rear, and as the devil himself was apparently pull- open or shut, and even by footmarks, whether the ing his tail, the horse at last gave up the point, creature has joined the herd, or whether having and quietly submitted to be shod.

overslept itself, it is still snoring in its sty—a single glance determines whether she shall pass a yard

or enter it; and if a pig, from indolence or greediTHE MANAGEMENT OF SWINE IN A COUNTRY

ness, be loitering on the road, the sting of the WITHOUT FENCES.

wasp cannot be sharper or more spiteful than the

From the same. cut she gives it. As soon as finishing with one Every morning at half-past five o'clock, I hear, street, she joins her general in the main road, the as I ain dressing, the sudden blast of an immense herd slowly proceed down the town. long wooden horn, from which always proceed the As I followed them this morning, they really same four notes. I have got quite accustomed to appeared to have no hams at ali; their bodies were this wild reveille, and the vibration has scarcely as flat as if they had been squeezed in a vice; and subsided, it is still ringing among the distant hills, when they turned sideways, their long sharp noses when, leisurely proceeding from almost every door and tucked-up bellies, gave to their profile the apin the street, behold a pig! Some from their jaded, pearance of starved grey-hounds. care-worn, draggled appearance, are evidently As I gravely followed this grunting, unearthly leaving behind them a numerous litter; others are looking herd of unclean spirits, through that low great, tall, monastic, melancholy looking creatures, part of Langden-Schwalbach which is solely inwhich seem to have no other object left in this habited by Jews, I could not help fancying that I wretched world than to become bacon; while others observed them holding their very breaths, as if a are thin, tiny, light-hearted, brisk, petulant pig- loathsome pestilence were passing; for though fat lings, with the world and all its loves and sorrows pork be a wicked luxury- a forbidding pleasure before them. Of their own accord these creatures which the Jews has been supposed occasionally proceed down the street to join the herdsman, who in secret to indulge in, yet one may easily imagine occasionally continues to repeat the sorrowsul blast that such very lean ugly pigs have not charms from his horn.

enough to lead them astray. Gregarious, or naturally fond of society, with Besides the little girl who brought up the rear, one curl in their tails, and with their noses almost the herd was preceded by a boy of about fourteen, touching the ground, the pigs trot on, grunting to whose duty it was not to let the foremost, the more themselves and to their comrades, halting only enterprising, or in other words, the most empty

pig advance too fast. In the middle of the drove, but hot stones and dust; however, making the best surrounded like a shepherd by his flock, slowly of the bargain, they all very vigorously set themstalked the “Schwein General," a wan, spectre selves to work. Looking up the hill, they dexterlooking old man, worn out, or nearly so. by the ously began to lift up with their snouts the largest arduous and every-day duty of conducting, against of the loose stones, and then grubbing their noses their wills, a gang of exactly the most obstinate into the cool ground, I watched their proceedings animals in creation. A single glance at his jaun- for a very long time. Their tough wet snouts diced, ill-natured countenance, was sufficient to seemed to be sensible of the quality of every thing satisfy one that his temper had been soured by they touched; and thus, out of the apparently barthe vexatious contrarieties and "untoward events" ren ground, they managed to get fibres of roots, it had met with. In his left hand he held a staff' to to say nothing of worms, beetles, or any other help himself onwards, while round his right shoul- travelling insects they met with. As they slowly der hung one of the most terrific whips that could advanced working up the hill, their ears most possibly be constructed. At the end of a short | philosophically shading their eyes from the hot handle, turning upon a swivel, there was a lash sun, I could not help feeling how little we appreciabout nine feet long, formed like the vertebræ of a ate the delicacy of several of their senses, and the snake, each joint being an iron ring, which de- extreme acuteness of their instinct. creasing in size, was closely connected with its In this situation do the pigs remain every mornneighbor by a band of hard greasy leather. The ing for four hours, enjoying little else than air and pliability, the weight, and the force of this iron exercise. At about nine or ten o'clock, they begin whip, rendered it an argument which the obsti- their march homewards, and nothing can form a nacy even of the pigs was unable to resist; yet as greater contrast than their entry into their native the old man proceeded down the town, he endea-town does to their exit from it. vored to speak kindly to the herd; and as the bulk / Their eager anxiety to get to the dinner-trough of them preceded him, jostling each other, grumb- that awaits them is almost ungovernable; and they ling and grunting on their way, he occasionally no sooner reach the first houses of the town, than exclaimed, in a low, hollow, worn-out tone of a sort of "sauve qui peut” motion takes place; encouragement, “Nina! Anina!" (drawling of away each then starts towards his dulce domum: course, very long on the last syllable.

and it is really curious to stand still and watch how If any little savory morsel caused a contention, very quickly they canter by, greedily grunting and stoppage, or constipation on the march, the old snuffling, as if they could smell with their stofellow slowly unwound his dreadful whip, and by machs, as well as their noses, the savory food merely whirling it round his head, like reading the which was awaiting them. Riot Act, he generally succeeded in dispersing the At half-past four, the same four notes of the crowd; but if they neglect this solemn warning, if same horn are heard again; the pigs once more their stomachs proved stronger than their judge assemble-once more tumble over the hot stones ments, and if the group of greedy pigs still con- on the mountain-once more remain there for four tinued to stagnate-"Arriff?” the old fellow ex- hours—and in the evening once again return to claimed, and rushing forwards, the lash whirling their styes. round his head, he inflicted, with strength which Such is the life of the pigs not' only of Langenno one could have fancied he possessed, a smack Schwalbach, but of those of every village throughthat seemed absolutely to electrify the leader. As out a great part of Germany: every day of their lightning shoots across the heavens, I observed existence, summer and winter, is spent in the way the culprit fiy forwards, and for many yards con- I have described. The squad consists here of tinuing to sidle towards the left, it was quite evi- about a hundred and fifty, and for each pig the dent that the thorn was still smarting in his side; I poor old Schwein general receives forty kreuzers, and no wonder, poor fellow! for the blow he re-1 (about 13d.) for six months' drilling of each received would almost have cut a piece out of a cruit. This income, therefore, is about £20 a door.

year, out of which he has to pay the board, lodgAs soon as the herd got out of the town, they ing, and clothing of his two aid-de-camps; and began gradually to ascend the rocky barren moun- when one considers how unremittingly this poor tain which appeared towering above them; and fellow creature has to contend with the gross apthen the labors of the Schwein general and his petites, sulky tempers, and pig-headed disposition staff became greater than ever; for as the animals of the swinish multitude, surely not even the most from their solid column began to extend or deploy niggardly reformer would wish to curtail his emothemselves into line, it was necessary constantly luments. to ascend and descend the slippery hill, in order to outflank them. "Arriff!" vociferated the old man, striding after one of his rebellious subjects; HARVEST LABORS IN GERMANY, AND WORK"Arriff!" in a shrill tone of voice was re-echoed

ING COws. by the lad, as he ran after another; however, in

From the same. due time, the drove reached the ground which was devoted for that day's exercise the whole All this day I have been strolling about the fields mountain being thus taken in regular succession. watching the getting in of the harvest. The crops

The Schwein general now halted, and the pigs of oats, rye, and wheat (principally bearded) are being no longer called upon to advance, but being much heavier than any one would expect from left entirely to their own notions, I became exceed such light and apparently poor land; but the heavy ingly anxious attentively to observe them.

dews which characterise the summer climate of No wonder, poor reflecting creatures ! that they this high country impart a nourishment which, in had come unwillingly to such a spot--for there richer lands, often lies dormant from drought. In appeared literally to be nothing for them to eat Nassau, the corn is cut principally by women, who use a sickle so very small and light, that it seems | months between two vertical beams of wood. The but little labor to wield it. They begin early in Nassau cows certainly do not seem to suffer while the morning, and with short intervals of rest con- working in their light carts; as soon as their mistinue till eleven o'clock, when the various village tress advances, they follow her, and if she turns bells suddenly strike up a merry peal, which is a and whips them, then they seem to hurry after her signal to the laborers to come home to their din- more eagerly than ever. ners. It is a very interesting scene to observe, It is true, hard labor has the effect of impoverover the undulating surface of the whole country, ishing their milk, and the calf at home is consegroups of peasants, brothers, sisters, parents, &c., quently (so far as it is concerned) a loser by the all bending to their sickles, to see children playing bargain; however, there is no child in the peasant's round infants lying fast asleep on the blue smock- family who has not had cause to make the same frocks placed under the shade of the corn sheafs. complaint, and therefore, so long as the laborer's It is pleasing to remark the rapid progress which wife carries her infant to the harvest, the milch the several parties are making; how each little cow may very fairly be required to draw to the family, attacking its own patch or property, workshovel what has been cut by her hands. its way into the standing corn, leaving the crop Nothing can be better adapted to the features of prostrate behind them; and then, in the middle of the country, nothing can better accord with the this simple, rural, busy scene, it is delightful in- feeble resources of its inhabitants, than the equipdeed, to hear from the belfry of their much revered ment of these economical wagons and carts: the churches a peal of cheerful notes, which peacefully cows and oxen can ascend any of the hills, or desound "lullaby" to them all. In a very few sec- scend into any of the valleys; they can, without onds the square fields and little oblong plots are slipping, go sideways along the face of the hills, deserted, and then the various roads and paths of and in crossing the green swampy grassy ravines, the country suddenly burst in lines upon the atten- I particularly remarked the advantage of the light tion, each being delineated by a string of peasants, wagon drawn by animals with cloven feet, for had who are straggling one behind the other, until one of our heavy teamıs attempted the passage, paths in all directions are seen converging towards like a set of flies walking across a plate of treacle, the parent village churches, which seem to be at they would soon have become unable to extricate tracting them all.

even themselves. But in making the comparison As soon as each field of corn is cut, it is bound between the horse and the cow, (as far as regards into sheaves, about the size they are in England: Nassau husbandry,) I may observe, that the forseven of these are then made to lean towards each mer has a very expensive appetite, and wears very other, and upon them all is placed a large sheat expensive shoes; as soon as he becomes lame he reversed, the ears of which hanging downwards is useless, and as soon as he is dead, he is carrion. form a sort of thatch, which keeps this little stack Now a placid, patient Langen-Schwalbach cow, dry until its owner has time to carry it to his home. in the bloor of her youth, costs only two or three It generally remains many days in this state, and pounds; she requires neither corn nor shoeing: the after the harvest has been all cut, the country leaves of the forest drawn by herself to the village, covered with these stacks resembles a vast en- form her bed, which in due time she carries out to campment.

the field as manure: there is nothing a light cart The carts and wagons used for carrying the corn can carry which she is not ready to tetch, and from are exceedingly well adapted to the country. Their her work she cheerfully returns to her home to particular characteristic is excessive lightness, and give milk, cream, butter, and cheese to the estabindeed, were they heavy, it would be quite impos- lishment; at her death, she is still worth eleven sible for any cattle to draw them up and down the kreuzers a pound as beef; and when her fesh has hills. Occasionally they are drawn by horses— disappeared, her bones, after being ground at the often by small active oxen; but cows more gener- mill, once again appear upon her master's fields, ally perform this duty, and with quite as much to cheer, manure, and enrich them. patience as their mistresses, at the same moment are laboring before them at the sickle. The yoke, or beam, by which these cows are connected, is

STEAM CARRIAGES ON COMMON ROADS. placed immediately behind their horns; a little

From the London Morning News. leather pillow is then laid upon their brow, over. These wonderful machines are now constructed which passes a strap that firmly lashes their heads with sufficient mechanical skill, amount of power, to the beam, and it is, therefore, against such soft safety, and general efficiency, to ensure their succushions that the animals push to advance: and cessful employment on any good road, and it is thus linked together for life, by this sort of Siamese certainly time for our capitalists to turn their atband, it is curious to observe them eating together, tention to them as legitimate objects of support, and then by agreement raising their heads to swallow, as offering the means of a profitable investment. then again standing motionless chewing their cud, From the earliest developement of the capabilities which is seen passing and repassing from the sto of steam, as applicable to purposes of locomotion, mach to the mouth.

on properly constructed roads, we have carefully At first, when standing near them, I smelt from watched the progress made by different inventors, their breath their sweet fresh milk, it seemed hard and have on many occasions borne testimony to that they should thus be as it were, domestic can- the unceasing efforts of two of the most perseverdles, lighted at both ends; however, verily do I ling and deserving among them; of two who have believe that all animals prefer exercise, or even from time to time, promised less and performed hard work, to any sort of confinement, and if so, more than any of their contemporaries--we mean they are certainly happier than our stall-fed cows, Col. Maceroni and Mr. Hancock. On Saturday many of which, in certain parts of Britain, may we had a trip on the Edgeware road, with the sebe seen with their heads fixed economically for cond coach constructed by the gallant Colonel. Starting from the Paddington wharf, No. 19, we road out of London. I have the honor to be, sir, proceeded on the road in the most surprising your most obedient servant, style, the coach being turned, checked, stopped or having its speed increased under the complete

FRANCIS MACERONI. command of the conductor. About three miles Wharf, 19, Paddington-green, May 26, 1834. out we passed a stage coach, whose four horses were put to their utmost speed, with a compara

FATSHEEP IN SUMMER, AND MAGGOTS IN THE tive velocity to that with which the stage coach

HEAD. would have passed a wagon, our rate being at

From the Genesee Farmer. that time about eighteen miles an hour. Soon after this we ascended Windmill-hill with perfect

A writer in the Farmer's Journal, after stating ease; although, in consequence of the road under

Pinder that he applies tar to the roots of the horns of going repair, the part we had to ascend was cut

sheep, and puts a little in their noses and mouths, into deep ruts covered with dry soil and dust from

“as affording the best security against the maggot three to six inches deep; forming perhaps, the most

in the head," gives the following remarks on the uncertain and disadvantageous fulcrum on which

Chich management of sheep in the summer: the wheel of a steam-carriage could ever have to

"I am careful to have none of my sheep, except act. We arrived at Welch Harp Inn, which is the

is those I intend for market, get very fat during the several perches over the five miles from our start

Lour start summer. I have heard it remarked, and I believe ing place, and turned the coach in the direction of it, that after once very lat, a sheep will never arPaddington, in precisely twenty minutes; having

crive at the same point again. Sheep which get performed the distance, inclusive of stopping at la

fat during the summer, certainly do not do as well the turnpike, and on two other occasions, and in the fall and winter. ADO

and in the fall and winter. About the middle of Sepdespite the bad condition of Windmill-hill, at the tember I give my sheep the best feed I can, and extraordinary average rate of fifteen miles an the middle of October begin to feed sparingly with hour. Our return occupied the same period of turnips, potatoes, or some kind of grain. When time: and after this completion of the trip we made the time arrives for yarding, which I do rather the round of Paddington-creen to gratify some late, I separate my flock in the following manner: gentlemen who had not arrived in time to witness

In one yard I put my rams and weathers, except the more extensive trial. Among our fellow pas

such of the former as have become very poor dusengers on these occasions were Jerome Buona

| ring the time of running with ewes. In the separte, ex-King of Westphalia, Prince Jerome his cond I put my last spring lambs; in the third all my son, the Duke de Montfort, the Marquis Azolino, healthy ewes, and in the fourth my old and weak M. Vigne de Marveille, and other distinguished

(but not diseased) ewes. A sixth department is foreigners.

à kind of hospital, into which every sheep is re

moved as soon as discovered to be afflicted with From the same paper.

disease. This arrangement I consider very im

portant, as it affords an opportunity for treating · Sir,You certainly have made a mistake in levery class of sheep in the manner judged most saying that the coach, on Saturday last, went at proper for their circumstances. I have known ineighteen miles the hour, when it overtook and stances in which the lot ot' old and feeble ewes passed the stage whose four horses were “put to have come out much improved in the spring, and their utmost speed, with a velocity comparative to have procured a good fleece, and raised fine likely that with which the stage coach would have pass- lambs. I always intend, however, to turn my ed a wagon.”

sheep before they get so old as to become enfeeWyatt, of the Watford and Aylesbury coach, bled; as they are more likely to acquire those disthe one to which you refer, is very angry at your eases which spread through the flock. asserting that his fine team of horses were overtaken and passed in the manner you speak of by

MACHINE FOR GETTING OUT STAVES FOR BARthe steamer, when the latter dià not perform more

RELS. than eighteen miles the hour! Wyatt knows the

From the Rochester Democrat. steamer well; he was once beaten by it going up

Messrs. Levi and Luther Benton, citizens of Windmill-hill; and he says-and I say-and all this county, have lately invented a Stave Machine. the others say, that when the steam carriage which

un carriage which is now in successful operation in the village overtook him, and passed him on Saturday, it was

urday, was of Scottsville.


The utility of this invention conundoubtedly at a pace of more than twenty-four sists in the despatch with which it operates, the miles the hour.

facilities it affords for manufacturing staves from We have many times done two miles in five

vel timber before unavailable for that purpose, and minutes, and you shall see it done again whenever the perfect finish it gives to a barre constructed you are so disposed.

from staves prepared by it. It is satisfactorily as

S, certained, that with the labor of three men, it including several stoppages and the turnpike, &c, will sa

pike, ac will saw, dress, and joint, one thousand staves in was above fifteen miles the hour. Surely to over

an hour, and that this can be done from any detake and pass a team of four fine horses at their

scription of timber without reference to the kind, "utmost speed” as we did, must have required

or the irregularity of the grain; and when finished more than eighteen?

:, they are superior to those wrought by hand, both But to set the matter at rest in your mind, I will

h in regularity of their form and appearance of their keep a seat for you in the carriage on an occasion

surface. I will not occupy room, in detailing its which will offer in a few days, of putting to the

1 peculiar and ingenious construction. It is of itself test at their utmost speed, a chosen team of horses,

: a mechanical curiosity worthy the personal exam. a fourteen mile heat, on the most hilly and softest inat

Westination of every inquiring man, and particularly

those immediately interested in its beneficial results. I this course of reasoning, or knowing the cause of the The machine first cuts the stave to its proper thick- disease, farmers have accidentally found the benefit of ness by means of a circular saw, then with a chisel liming the seed to prevent smut (“the pepper brand") in attached to a perpendicular wheel, gives it a con- wheat and an experiment published in the Farmers' vex and a concave shape, leaving the two sur

Register, (Vol. I. p. 275) shows the like benefit from faces smooth, and by a third process, cuts it to its

| a similar treatment of oats infected with the blast, (or proportioned width. The importance of this in

"dust brand.") These coincidences of accidental prac. vention is already felt to a very considerable extent throughout the country. Oak timber in many

tice with theoretical reasoning are highly satisfactory: sections cannot be obtained at the greatest cost and though, in these cases, accident had discovered and trouble, and in most or all milling districts is the remedy more early than science had made known procured at a great inconvenience and expense. the cause, it does not therefore lessen the value of the The rapidly increasing agriculture of the northern latter mode of investigation. A very similar discoveand western states, and the corresponding decrease ry has lately been published (page 219 of Farm. Reg.) of oak timber, will very soon realize to the com- of the eggs of the very destructive turnip fly being munity, the policy of its adoption generally, and a discovered on the seeds, before any effectual means had very few years will render this, or a like invention heen

been found to arrest its ravages. If this fact is estabindispensable.

lished, it leads at once to an obvious mode of destroyD. K. B.

ing the insect, by some kind of wash for the seeds.

The disease of wheat described last in order by the DISEASES OF WHEAT.

writer, if it belongs to this country, is not known to Notwithstanding all the labors of agriculturists and us, but may be so to more close observers. of the men of science who have written on the diseases

| The descriptions of the author are accompanied by of wheat, there are few subjects more enveloped in ob- a number of figures, which serve, as well as his descripscurty, or offering more difficulty to the novice who tions, to prove the identity of the first two diseases

with those above named. But these figures are not endeavors to investigate the causes of any of the many

necessary to farmers who know the actual diseases; and diseases to which this plant is subject. It is not so

others which represent microscopic fungi and anima)much on account of the errors and mistakes of the

culæ, would be of no use to any who did not seek for various writers, (considerable as they doubtless are,)

the originals with powerful magnifying glasses. To as to the facts they have asserted, that the difficulty has

save a considerable expense therefore, the figures are arisen, as to the want of clearness and uniformity in

omitted, and also those passages which merely refer to the use of names, and the uncertainty as to what dis

the figures.] ease is meant by any one particular name. The terms blight, mildew, rust, blast, smut, scab, slud, stunt, have THE SMUT BALLS OR PEPPER BRAND. been used in either England or this country, so loosely,

From the Penny Magazine. that it cannot be known what is meant by either, with-[We are indebted for the following interesting paper to out a very particular description of the symptoms of

Francis Bauer Esq., a gentleman who has attained a

most deserved celebrity for his valuable discoveries the disease: and the symptoms are seldom described

connected with the diseases of grain, the most implainly enough for this end. A great service might be

portant article of human food.] rendered by any person, who, from his acquaintance with the actual diseases, and with what has been pub

The existence of this destructive disease in wheat

has long been known to every agriculturist in Englished concerning them, could adjust properly terms

| land, as well as by those on the continent; but the and descriptions, and merely give a clear account of

real cause of it is yet very little known; not only the opinions entertained in England and America, of by the practical cultivator, but even by scientific the causes and remedies of the diseases of wheat, and authors. Such erroneous and contradictory opinhow far those of the one country are identical with ions have been advanced that the farmer cannot those of the other. This would enable us at least to possibly derive any satisfactory information from profit by the knowledge already existing, but which is them. I hope, however, that the following obscaled up from most persons by the improper use of

most persons by the improper use of servations and illustrations of facts may be accepnames, either by the writer or reader—and doubts are table to some of the numerous readers of the Penthus created, even as to the terms that are properly ap

ny Magazine. plied. But far greater benefits might be conferred on

This disease is occasioned by the seeds of an ex

tremely minute parastic fungus, of the genus uredo, agriculture in this respect, if scientinc men would pur- being absorbed by the roots of the germinating sue the investigation, and not only define the diseases, wheat grains and propelled by the rising san, long but search out their causes, and thence the remedies. before the wheat blossoms, into the young germen

The three following papers on as many different dis- or ovum, where the seeds of the fungi vegetate, eases in wheat, are uncommonly satisfactory. The and rapidly multiply, thereby preventing, not only particular descriptions given leave no doubt as to the the fecundation of the ovum, but even the develidentity of the first two with those we know as the opement of the parts of fructification. In consesmut, and the blast or black-head. The writer has quence no embryo is produced in an infected gertraced these diseases to their hidden causes by a course

men, which however continues to grow as long as of patient and careful investigation—and thence has

the sound grains do, and, when the sound grains

arrive at maturity, the infected ones are generally correctly deduced that the proper means to avoid the evil is to destroy on the seed wheat, the sources of sound grains, by their darker green color, and

larger than, and are easily distinguished from, the the diseases which he had there discovered. Without from the ova retaining the same shape and form

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