Imágenes de páginas

the water with which the milk was diluted. But various portions of water, the quantity of curd was this adulteration was too obvious to the senses. exactly in the inverse ratio of the proportion of Any person even of indifferent delicacy of palate, water added. The water, therefore, did not precould detect the altered taste of the milk; and be- vent any portion of the curd from being thrown sides, after too hours' rest, the flour sank to the down by the usual modes of curdling the milk. bottom, restoring the translucent blueness of the He next found, that, if a given quantity of sugar milk, and pointing out the nature of the fraud. was added to the mixture of milk and water, the To prevent this inconvenience, the dealers boiled quantity added could be separated exactly by evapthe Hour in the water before mixing it with the orating the whey to the consistence of an extract, milk; and in this way an opaque mixture was pro- heating this with alcohol, filtering the alcoholic cured, which retained its opacity on standing. As solution, and evaporating to dryness. He then even with this addition the fabricated liquid had a also found, when equal parts of almond emulsion flat taste, sugar or sugar-candy was dissolved in it, and niilk were mixed together, 300 parts of the by which means the peculiar sweetness of the mixture, curdled by vinegar as above, gave 164 milk was partly restored. This adulteration, how- parts of curd; and ihat the same quantity of mix. ever, has become so easy of detection by means ture containing two parts of emulsion to one of of iodine, which renders the mixture blue by its milk, gave only 10 4-5th parts of curd. So that action on the fecula of the flour, that M. Barruel although, as was to be expected, the adulteration believes that the fraud now described is very little with almond emulsion did not lessen the quantity practised in the present day at Paris. In Britain, of curd to the same extent as adulteration with where the municipalities take no charge whatever water only, yet the decrease was very great, and of the purity of this most important article of food, very nearly in the ratio of the quantity of emulsion it may be presumed that the adulteration with added. Lastly, on placing pure curd on white flour, sugar, and water is common enough, as it paper, no oily matter was thrown out; but the curd is a simple and cheap mode of accomplishing procured from the mixture of milk and almond every purpose of the fraudulent dealer. The best emulsion, besides being less firm than the former, mode of proving the presence of farinaceous mat- gave out in 24 or 48 hours, a quantity of oil suf ter in such mixtures, is to heat the milk with a ficient to stain the paper. Another adulteration little sulphuric acid, to coagulate the casein, to to which milk is subjected in Paris, is with carbofilter the whey, and then to add to the latter the nate of potass or soda. The object of this vatincture of iodine; upon which a fine blue color riety of adulteration is, in the hot summer months, will be struck. Driven from this species of adul- to prevent the milk from becoming sour and curdteration, the Parisian dealers have latterly resorted ling, or to break down the curd and correct ascesto another so ingenious, that M. Barruel con- cency when the milk has actually become spoiled. ceives they could not have discovered it, without In this process, acetate of potass or soda is formed. the aid of some scientific person. The method is Neither of these salts, in moderate quantity, is simple, so cheap, that for ten-pence the opacity injurious to the health; indeed, acetate of potass and color of the milk may be imparted to thirty exists naturally in milk, and is the source of some English pints of water, and so far secret that no embarrassment in the detection of the present disagreeable taste is communicated. This is fraud. The mode of analysis adopted by M. Bar, nothing more than the employment of an emul ruel is as follows:-As the alkaline acetates are sion of almonds, for which some dealers, more converted by incineration into carbonates, he engreedy and less cautious than the rest, have sub-deavored, by means of this property, to ascertain stituted hemp seed, which however, is apt to im- the quantity of alkali naturally contained in whey. part an acrid taste. By either of these means the He therefore, evaporated a certain quantity of milk may be diluted to an indefinite extent; and whey to dryness, incinerated the residue in a plathe only corrective required is a little sugar-candy tinum crucible, and procured an alkaline ley from to remove the flat taste. A peculiar advantage the remainder, which by the process recommended possessed by this mode of adulteration over every by Decroisil, for measuring the strength of alkaother is, that the vegeto-animal matter or vege- line fluids, indicated from one and a half to two ble albumen of the emulsion by which the oil of degrees of alkalinity. Hence any increase of almond is held in suspension, is coagulated, or alkaline strength above the last of these points, curdled, like casein, by acids. The method re- must be considered as owing to the intentional adcommended by M. Barruel for detecting the fraud dition of carbonate of potass or coda. This is is founded on two circumstances, the greatly in- evidently the most difficult of the processes recomferior quantity of coagulum formed by acids in the mended for detecting the various adulterations mixture of milk and almond emulsion, compared specified in M. Barruel's paper. Indeed a chemist with that formed in milk alone, and the facility alone could conduct it. The others may be easily with which, by kneading the coagulum with the executed by any body. fingers, oil may be squeezed out of the former, while none exists in the latter. On examining

CANADA TIISTLES. carefully four different specimens of pure milk, procured from different quarters in Paris he found

From the Genesee Farmer. that 300 parts of each, coagulated by heating I have recently noticed in the Genesee Farmer them with an equal volume of vinegar, gave each several articles on the destruction of the Canada a quantity of curd, which, when well drained, and thistle; but none of them seem to reach the root equally pressed between folds of bibulous paper of the evil. I am, however, pleased to see the weighed 29 parts; and that the same quantity of public attention drawn to the subject. milk taken from a cow in presence of a person | The extermination of this pest of our plough sent to procure it, gave 30 parts of curd. He then fields, is an object of great importance to all farmfound, that when the same milk was mixed with ers, who are unfortunate enough to have them on their lands; and it is therefore, in a measure, in-row by row, a second time. The deeper they are cumbent on them to communicate to each other cut off with the corner of the hoe, the longer time whatever methods they have taken for that pur- of course it will require the new shoots to reach pose, and particularly such as have had the de- the surface again. I followed them up in this way, sired effect.

and about the middle of August they began to I have no expectation that this thistle is to be come up thin and scattering, and appeared of a totally and entirely eradicated, and banished from sickly, yellowish hue. This was encouraging, the country, as it is a perennial plant, and is to be and we continued the operation, (though I found found on the road sides, in woods, and in all unoc- it was not necessary to look to them quite as often cupied lands, (at least in this vicinity.) All that as at first,) to about the first of October, or until can be done with such, if near at hand, is to cut no more appeared, and none have since shown them off and prevent their seeding. But being themselves on these spots. possessed of another manner of propagating them- By digging down to the main roots in August selves, more sure and certain, by their side or ho- or September, they were found in a state of decay, rizontal roots, which the cutting of the tops of the being of a blackish color. The result of this first plant does not effect or check; they therefore must attempt, is already given; but I will give somebe permitted to remain, in such places, by a sort of thing more of the details of the operation. That compromise, that they are to be prevented from there should be no difficulty in finding the several scattering their seeds on to our plough fields, from patches when the corn had attained its full height, which I am confident they may be expelled, and I placed high poles at each spot so that they could after which, easily kept out; any further than this be seen over the tops of the corn, and kept a hoe I shall not attempt doing or advise others to do. on the ground to be ready at hand whenever I

Some enactments of the legislature, as recom- happened, in walking over my premises, to take mended in the Farmer, would undoubtedly be of them in my way, and cut them off if any were to use. Such as obliging the owners of land (at be seen. In this way, but little time was spent; least such as is under improvement,) to cut them in fàct none worth noticing. And as early as the at the proper time-imposing a penalty for neglect first of October, as before observed, they were

and making it the duty of overseers of high- completely conquered. I ascribe the early season ways to have this done on the margin of roads. at which these patches were subdued, to their beIt would likewise have the effect of calling the ing allowed no breathing spell, and no omission public attention to the thing, and spread the alarm. being made through the season of operation, of

In articles of this sort, intended to guide the cutting them off as fast as they appeared. operations of others, unless one goes somewhat I have sometimes in lieu of, or rather for the into detail, the object is in a measure lost; for want of a hoe, used a piece of hard wood, flatthose (if any there should be) who may be in- tened to two or three inches wide at one end, and duced to adopt the method recommended, will sharpened; or what is still better, a piece of iron have a wish to know all the particulars of the or steel, like a chisel, fastened to the end of a stick process before they commence. I shall therefore or walking cane. It is proper to have some kind be compelled to make this of greater length than of tool in hand, or at the spot, otherwise some I supposed at first setting out would be necessary. might escape, when one was accidentally passing What is here stated, however, is all from my own near them. knowledge; nothing is given on hearsay.

Although the actual labor and time spent to de· When I purchased the farm which I now oc- stroy thistles in this way, is but trifling, at least in cupy, about thirty years ago, excepting some mca- small patches; still it requires considerable patience dow lands, near a river, and some other small and much diligence, that the thing may never on pieces, there were little or no improvements on it; any account be neglected during the season of being thrown out to commons, and mostly covered their growth; and I would caution all such as may with small sapling wood and bushes or as my have an inclination to try the experiment, that unDutch neighbors expressed it, "it had run out to less they are fully determined to persevere, and bush.In open spots in this bush, the Canada | have full confidence that they can do it for at least thistle was sprinkled pretty liberally; and after four months, not to attempt it; because by any neclearing and ploughing they began to spread to glect during the season, the previous time spent, an alarming extent, and threatened to overrun the is in part lost; as by allowing the plants a breathwhole premises. This first led me (but not in ing spell in the sun and air, new life and vigor is time by many years) to adopt some method more communicated to the roots, which is the thing ineffectual than cutting off the tops to stop their tended to be destroyed. progress.

As an evidence of this, in the season of 1828, I It is well known to all farmers as well as bota- undertook to kill the thistles on a field of about nists, that the roots of no tree or plant, whether fifteen acres planted with corn; and on which annual, biennial, or perennial, can long survive, if there were nearly twenty patches. Having placed prevented froni vegetating, and coming up to the the poles as before, I began cutting them as soon light of day. My theory was based on this prin- as any appeared after planting. They were folciple. I commenced operations about eight years lowed up without any neglect, and as fast as they ago, on some small patches in a field planted with appeared, until about the 20th of August, when corn, as soon as any thistles appeared after plant- they appeared nearly subdued, or in a fair way for ing, cutting them off twice a week at first; and it, beginning to come up scattering and yellow. was very particular never to have it neglected. At this time I was called away on a journey, and It would take but a few moments to go over a was absent nearly four weeks, leaving strict inpatch two or three rods square, with a hoe; at the junctions on my men not to neglect the thistles in same time being very careful to leave none: and my absence. How far they attended to it, I canto be sure of this I generally went over the ground, not say, for immediately on my return, I was

taken sick, and was confined until after corn har- | ing, and had become what is termed sward-bound, vest. The thistles of course were forgotten. To which checks the growth, although it does not kill make the matter still worse, the ground instead of the thistle. The same course was pursued as in being planted again as it should have been, was former years, and the business was well and regusown with barley and peas, and in September fol- | larly attended to. But few appeared after the first lowing with wheat, and the next spring stocked of September, but they were not neglected as long with clover for pasture. The same patches of as one was to be found. I think they are all dethistles having revived, began to show themselves stroyed; but to make the thing doubly sure, I inon the barley and peas, but being few in number tend to have it planted next season. and scattering, no attention was paid them. They A small piece at one end o this ground was have since continued to increase and spread by planted with potatoes, on which I had never noticed their horizontal roots, so that there is nearly or any thistles. They however made their appearance, quite as many on the field as at first; although and were cut off with the rest. But when the tops of they have been regularly mowed off every year, the potatoes began to fall on and cover the ground, and sometimes a second time, and have not seeded. it was with difficulty that the thistles could be This failure was evidently owing to the business found, and probably enough has escaped to keep not being attended to as it should have been the the roots alive, and more or less will make their latter part of the season; but might have been re- appearance another year. I therefore would admedied had the ground been planted with corn the / vise never to plant potatoes where, and when, the second year, and which I shall do soon, and hope great object is to destroy the thistle. On another to avoid a like neglect, by which our labor in ex- account, I consider corn much the best crop to perimenting this season was lost.

plant with this view. The roots of this plant, if The season of 1830, I planted another field with it grows strong, run through and fill the ground corn of about the same size of the last mentioned. with small fibres, which has a tendency to keep There were on this field a number of patches of the ground dry and hard; at the same time the tops the thistle, some of them large, say over half an form a shade, and altogether seem to have the efacre, some small. It was calculated that altoge- fect of checking the growth of the thistle, and aid ther they would have covered two and a half in the operation of destroying it. acres of ground. Having as usual marked the To prevent the necessity of going over the spots with poles stuck in the ground, we com- ground as often as was required with the hoe, I menced cutting them at the proper time. The la- last spring had made some iron tools not unlike a bor required on this field was more than on any I small light crowbar, flattened at the lower end to had yet taken in hand—the patches being large, about a hand's breadth and length, and steeled. and the thistles thick and strong. At first, and With this tool, in soft mellow ground, the thistle while vegetation was quick and rapid, the labor to may be taken up to the depth of six to twelve go over them was equal to two men a day; but in inches; but the process is much slower, and pera short time one man would do it in the same time, haps the time employed in killing them in this and towards the close of summer in three or four way, although the operation is not so often to be hours. Some of these patches were obstinate, so performed, is equal to doing it with a hoe, with that we were obliged to follow them up into Octo- which the ground is much quicker gone over. ber; others gave up sooner. On the whole, they The horizontal root of this plant, so often menwere totally destroyed. None escaped, and none tioned as its principal instrument of propagation, are now to be found in any part of the field that will be found at various depths, according to soil. has been ploughed. Although we succeeded In lands under the plough, and in other rich melin destroying the thistle on this field the first year, low ground, they push themselves along, in every I should advise, where killing them is the great direction from the main patch, and at every few object, to plant with corn two years in succession, inches send up a branch to the surface. On care(although this in other cases might be bad ma- fully uncovering a space several feet square, I have nagement,) that should any thistles escape the found them in a matter connected and tied together first, they may be finished the second year." with this root. Whenever they can be taken up

I cannot state the expense of this experiment, below the horizontal root, they are mostly destroyas I kept no memorandum; but should think it ed with once going over, and with the iron tool would amount to not more than twenty dollars, if before described, this is frequently done; and where men had been hired for that express work; but as there may be a very small patch in a distant field, it was done mostly by boys, with myself, or some the inconvenience of looking to it as often as would careful hand to overlook, I paid out nothing extra be necessary with a hoe, might be avoided by for labor that season on account of this job, and taking this course. In wet rainy seasons, like the there was no neglect of other farming operations. last two, I find they spread themselves much faster But twenty or even forty dollars, would be nothing than in dry ones. The ground being soft, and the compared with the object attained, by clearing a roots strong and vigorous, and meeting less regood plough field of this nuisance. Had they sistance, they will push along a considerable disbeen left to their natural course, they would in a tance in one summer. few years by the running of their horizontal roots, About nine years since, I had made a string of and scattering with the plough and harrow, have half stone fence, with posts, and boards on top. Epread over the whole field and ruined it for tillage. The ground on which the wall was placed, was rich

The last season I planted with corn a small bottom, and was set there to withstand the spring piece of about four and a half acres, much infest- floods. It was made on the line of one of my ed with thistles. It was planted with the express neighbor's land, on which at a small distance was view of killing them—they were spread over a a large patch of Canada thistles. In a short time great part of the ground, but were small, the land they pushed along and reached the wall, and have having lain in pasture twelve years without plough- run along in, and under it, more than thirty rods,

or fifteen each way, in about seven years. Having tle on his plough land for the like cause. Since in heard that salt and strong brine would kill them, I either case, when they are once eradicated, they procured, three years ago, a quantity taken from are easily kept out, let his neighbor's practice be fish barrels, and taking off the top stones of the what it may. wall so as to come nearer the roots, the brine and In my various experiments, I have tested this salt was put on very bountifully. It had the ef- method of destroying the thiştle sufficiently to confect of killing the tops of the thistles, and wilted vince myself at least, that it is very practicable, them down; but the next summer they came up and attended with but little expense, if pursued through the wall as thrifty as before. I see no re- with due care and perseverance. If no failures medy in a case like this, but to remove the wall, had happened in my several and yearly attempts, otherwise they will travel to each end of it, and another year would have completed the routine of from this lodgment spread over the adjoining field. my ploughing fields, but it will now take threeAnd I have no doubt, that if a strip of rich, mel- and as I am less than that, from three score and low land, reaching a distance of twenty miles, ten, and have a wish to complete what I have uncould be had, unobstructed by rivers, swamps, &c. dertaken, I must be careful to avoid the like era low stone wall placed thereon, and a family of rors in future. I close this long article with the thistles set a going at one end, but that they would hope that it may be of use, by inducing some of in course of time, reach the other, and without the my brother farmers, who have a good stock of reagency of any seed. .

solution and perseverance, and a plenty of CanaOn my mowing and pasture lands, such as are da thistles on their land, to try the experiment, at wet and never ploughed, there are some patches first, if they please, on a small scale. I shall be of the thistle; which have for twenty-five years pleased to be informed of the results, and particupast remained nearly stationary. They are al- larly of their success. In the interim, I would inways mowed off in July, before the seed is ripe, form them that I have allotted and set off for the and if necessary a second time to prevent their ensuing year, a pretty large job of the same sort. seeding. In this kind of hard sward land, they The ground on two fields being already once are small and uny, and comparatively give but ploughed for corn, on which there are patches of small trouble and annoyance.

thistles in plenty, enough to cover three and a half Whenever we have succeeded in expelling the or four acres, of which, provided my health is thistle from our tillage lands, which is the extent spared, I hope to be able to give a good account at of my expectations, in respect to my own, and all the close of another year. that I would at present advise others to attempt doing, they may, I am confident, with little care

A SUBSCRIBER. and no expense, be easily kept off afterwards.

Note.--I would add one more remark, that no The seedling thistle is very small, and as easily

grass or weeds of any kind, must be permitted to destroyed as a pigweed, should they happen to be

grow on the spots or patches during the season of observed. It requires several years for them to

the operation, as they conceal the thistle sprouts, form any considerable patch-their greatest secu

which may consequently escape the hoe. I have rity is their not being noticed, until by their side man

usually, on the spots where the thistles were thick or horizontal roots they have run out in different and it directions. Small patches may be killed by a deep

it and intermixed with weeds, hoed the ground well covering of any thing that will keep them under, I weeds, and at the same time the thistle was taken

deep all over, as often as was necessary to destroy the

lover and prevent them from shooting up to the surface. If This I have done with pomace put on to some very small bunches near my cider mill. Salting cattle and sheep often on small pieces, will have the like effect; but this must be done very often,

TABLE and through the season of growing. The salt it- Showing the velocity of the wind in different circumself does not have the effect of destroying the

stances. roots, because it cannot reach them, but the frequent licking of the spot by the cattle takes off

Miles per Feet per Perpendicular force on square feet, hour.

second. the shoots as fast as they come above the ground,

in averdupois pounds and parts. which is the same in its effects, as hoeing them off.

1.47 All these methods, however, cannot be practised

2.93 .020

40 hardly perceptibleexcept on a very small scale.

4. 4 .044 Sjust perceptible. I know of no plant or bush, with which the Ca

5.87 .079 nada thistle so nearly compares in its habits and

7.33 .123 {gently pleasant. modes of propagation, as the common elder. This,

14.67 .492 like the thistle, has its seed, and its horizontal roots


1.107 {pleasantly brisk,

20 with which to form patches; and like it, also, in

29.34 1.968

36.67 not being to be destroyed by cutting off the tops

44.01 4.429 once, or even twice a year, but must be rooted out.

high wind, - is

51.34 6.027 The same treatment which kills the thistle would

58.68 | 7,873 vore hirch wind have the like effect on the elder; but this would be


very high wind.

9.963 attended with too much trouble, for the small num

73.35 12.300 storm or tempest. ber usually on our farms,-the better way, there

88.02 17.716 great storm. fore, is to dig and root them out at once. But I

117.36 131.490 hurricane. think it is as great an absurdity for a farmer to say

hurricane that tears

100 that he will not attempt to destroy the clumps of

146.7 49,200 up trees and carries elder on his mowing land, because his neighbor

S buildings before it. lets them alone to seed, as to refuse to kill the this- |

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PLAIN DIRECTIONS FOR ANALYZING GYPSUM. sifted through muslin, before being weighed,) and

For the Farmers' Register. | pour to it a saturated (or very strong) so

pour to it a saturated (or very strong) solution of

carbonate of potash (which the apothecaries sell unIt is not quite so casy to analyze gypsum, and

und der the name of the super carbonate.) The two comascertain the precise proportions of any foreign

eg pounds thus placed in contact, sulphate of lime and admixtures, as may be done with marl. Still it is

$ carbonate of potash, will decompose each other, not difficult, nor very troublesome, to go through

ough and exchange principles in this manner: the such a process as will enable any farmer to avoid

sulphuric acid of the first, will leave the lime and · being deceived by any adulteration of gypsum of- |

combine with the potash of the solution-and the fered for sale. In the pulverized state, as pre- lime

lime will combine with the carbonic acid let loose pared for manure, it is impossible to detect the

e from the potash: or rather with a part of it-for grossest and most injurious fraud, by merely the 114

the lime cannot hold as much carbonic acid as the appearance or taste, or by handling the article. If

I potash lets go, and the surplus escapes into the chalk, and very white clay, (such as forms some

$ some air with slow but continued effervescence, which of the subsoils in Nelson county) were used to

lasts as long as the process is going on. make half the weight of what is sold for gypsum,

3. When the effervescence ceases, (which may it would scarcely be detected-and many farmers might be cheated with a mixture containing not lowed.) the chemical qualities of the mixture are

take some hours, and plenty of time should be aleven the smallest proportion of gypsum. I know

totally changed. There no longer remains a parnot whether such frauds are attempted-(and the

ticle of sulphate of lime, nor of carbonate of potcharacter of the mills in Virginia is enough to

ash, (except the excess of the latter, which having guarantee the purity of their ground gypsum-)

psum nothing to operate on, remains unchanged.) Inbut if attempted, there is nothing whatever to

stead of these, there has been formed the sulphate prevent their succeeding, unless chemical tests are

of potash, and the carbonate of limethe former employed for detection. The inspectors of gyp-1 being dissolved in the fluid, and the latter in a socum appointed by law, who, it is to be presumed, lid

lid form at the bottom of the glass. The appearjudge altogether by the appearance, and other

| ance of the mixture is not perceptibly changed. sensible qualities, are no safeguard against decep

4. Pour off the clear fluid, and then add diluted tion: and this particular branch of the inspection

on muriatic acid slowly to the solid matter, which (if system, is even more useless, more deceptious, I the ovosum was pure will dissolve all that is solid and operating more as a cheat upon the communi- |

umun (then carbonate of lime) with effervescence. If ty, than the inspection of any other commodity is

ly there was either clay or sand with the gypsum, whatever. I mean not to reflect on any individu

they will remain at the bottom, after the action of als by these remarks: the fault is in the system,

the acid has ceased (as before described in the and not in the persons appointed to carry it into

analysis of marl,) and may be separated by the operation But this is wandering from my sub

filtering paper, and after being washed and dried, ject.

their weight will show the proportion of such imNot being entitled to be considered either an

purities. operative or scientific chemist, I do not know !

Whatever small metallic proportion may be in whether a more correct and convenient method

gypsum, will be dissolved by the acid, and not of analysis may not be practiced than mine; and

show in the result (as it should do,) as a part of there may exist in this, causes to produce inaccu-liha

the impurities. With this small exception, all the rate results, which my ignorance has prevented

| remainder of the matter dissolved may be consimy discovering. If so, I hope some other person

dered as carbonate of lime, and which had been at will point out my mistakes.

| first sulphate of lime, or pure gypsum, after deGypsum (sulphate of lime) is composed of certain proportions of sulphuric acid, lime, and water, lof the process

| ducting as much as was dissolved in the first step chemically combined. Some small admixtures of metal, &c. which always accompany the gypsum

Supposing then that 10 grains of the 100 had

sum | been dissolved by the muriatic acid, in the first of commerce, are too inconsiderable to affect the

the trial—and that 7 per cent. of solid maiter remained value materially, or to be ascertained by the pro

che pros after the last, the proportions might be stated as cess which will now be directed. Considerable admixtures of substances which could deceive the purchaser of ground gypsum, must be of clay, or

100 grains of gypsum of commerce consisted of chalk. If sand, or silicious earth was contained Carbonate of lime, - - 10 grains. in gypsum, it would be evident enough to the Clay and sand, - - - 7 teeth of the examiner.

Pure gypsum, - - - 83 1. Let a certain quantity, say 100 grains, of gypsum of commerce be pounded finely, when

100 quite dry, and then tried with muriatic acid, in the manner directed page 609, No. 10, of the Farmers' The foregoing proportions would mark very Register, for analyzing marl. Pure gypsum will impure, if not adulterated gypsum-though it is not show any effervescence, or other effect, from

not more impure than some I recently tried which the application of muriatic acid. But if there is was ground at the north. A specimen of the any effervescence, it proceeds from the presence gypsum ground at Haxall's mill in Richmond, of chalk, or carbonate of lime, in some other form: contained one per cent. of carbonate of lime only and the proportion of this substance must be as-1 --which very small proportion may perhaps gecertained by the directions given in the paper just nerally accompany the rock, or it might have been referred to."

an accidental admixture, caused by lime having 2. Then put into a glass another portion of the been landed on the same wharf. same article, say 25 grains, (finely pounded and

E. R Vol. II.—5


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