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stability of society, that we see a case sufficiently and art, we are unwise in that which not rightly strong to make the nation at large take up the sub- to know is misery and unhappiness! The betject as a national measure.

ter policy of the age of steam must be to make In order more effectually to promote this object, millions rich instead of the units,—to render and carry the project extensively into operation, a monopoly the property of the state and not of the national institution of locomotion, unconnected stock-jobber,—to comfort a thousand happy homes, with any trading company, is now in progress of instead of building up one bloated capitalist. Steam being formed to promote the application of steam which, confined to physical purposes, hitherto has 10 general purposes of transport and husbandry, wrought such marvels, extended further to econoand to supply the desideratum which has long been mic uses, can achieve all this, for by home means, experienced of there being no metropolitan associ- equalizing the price of necessaries and conveation in connection with the various companies niences, it will adjust production and consumption; and local societies throughout the united kingdom, the unbalanced condition of which alone has deformed for the advancement of commerce and ag- ranged the currency,-paralyzed transaction, riculture.

abridged industry; and, in a word, occasioned all We need say nothing of the advantages to arise these evils which at length have produced a nation to our inland transport and navigation, from an in- divided into usurers and paupers, to the danger stitution which shall watch over these important alike of the constitution, the altar, and the throne. interests, and hold out premiums for improvements

R. B. in them; neither how beneficial, as regards agriculture, will the existence of an institution be,

DIRECTIONS FOR WORKING CAST STEEL. which will serve for the united kingdom generally

From the Southern Planter. the similar important purposes to what the Highland Society is effecting for Scotland.

Mr. Editor— The knowledge of the enclosed An institution likewise which shall concentrate Recipes of Rules for working Cast Steel cost my genius and science of the country, and where at a father, some years ago, $20. As it may be of use glance the public will be able to see all that mind to some of the mechanics among your subscribers, can devise, and ingenuity perfect, for the advance to whom it is not generally known, you are allowment of our social prosperity, will not fail, if sup-ed to publish it for their benefit.

J. G. ported as it deserves, to be productive of the most

DIRECTIONS. important benefits to the nation. That support, as Take borax and melt it in an iron ladle until far as one portion of the union is concerned, we it will run like melted cinders or wax, then pour it trust it will find in the Highland Society and people into a clean iron plate; let it stand until cold, then of Scotland.

pound it to powder, when it is fit for use. When we consider how exigent is the want

TO MAKE ALL KINDS OF AXES. which steam applied to economic uses is commis

Make the head or poll in the common way, and sioned to alleviate, and how reckless in its conse

Ise-weld the iron firmly where the steel is to be placed; quences, as that volcano indicates whose eruptions

then with a thin chisel split the iron one inch deep are now nightly visible in the farm-yards of some

in the middle, then heat the iron where it has been district or other of the country, we consider it for

split; when hot hammer the iron with the pane of tunate that, if cheap bread be wholly unavoidable,

le; the liammer so that the edges of the iron may be it can now be procured in a way that makes it

thin on each side of the steel. Then the chisel wholly desirable. The bane, or having prices re- should be entered once more to open the iron which duced by steam transport, and the antidote of pro

should be nearly white hot; when opened, some of viding for the same by steam husbandry, are both

the powder should be put into the split on both before our agriculturists. We cannot suppose that they will allow the one to be introduced unaccom

sides; then the steel should be put into the same

and the iron gently closed to it, so that the steel panied by the other. In the hope that this will be

will keep its place until the welding heat is taken; the case, we cannot conclude this paper without

put it loosly into the fire, heat it until the steel is congratulating all orders of our fellow subjects

red hot, sprinkle on more of the ingredients to preupon the bright prospects which the general application of steam to brute labor purposes opens upon til a smoke arises, then it is fit for welding

vent the steel from burning; turn it and let it be unus. At a moment when the resources of the coun

Care coun- should be taken to keep the iron clean, that no try are no longer adequate to the wants of our po

purpo particles of coal or dust come between it and the pulation, "when a restless spirit of discontent is

steel. The edge of the axe should run past the everywhere abroad," and cheap food of home growth

teu jron, and be raised a little above a level. is a sine qua non to an ameliorated condition, this beneficent agent steps in to accomplish what could

RULE FOR TEMPERING TOOLS. not have been effected by any external process All tools should be heated slow and regular, for whatever. The speedy and general introduction hardening, say to a dark red, or as low as will take of steam cultivation is all that is required to make a sufficient degree of hardiness. Take one gallon cheap bread in Britain, in a way that will reduce of salt to six gallons of water. Temper your tools no one to destitution in Britain. If our industrious in this water. classes must still earn and eat bread by the sweat

FOR AN AXE. of their brow, they shall nevertheless eat it in Draw the temper to a Pigeon red, then cool it. plenty, and in contentment. Under the social

FOR CUTTING STONE. economy which the extension of steam to the purposes of animal labor will allow, it shall

Draw the temper to a deep straw color. no longer be said that the wealthiest empire

FOR TEMPERING COLD CHISELS. in the world is also the most wretched one, or Draw the temper from the heat of the chisel to a that, with all our boasted wisdom in science deep blue.



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FOR TEMPERING KNIVES AND SPRINGS. ed with water, will gradually increase in size till

they take the form of perfect serpents. This," he Knives temper in damp oil. Then draw the

len draw the subjoins with great simplicity, “I learned from temper from the heat oi a bar ofron by degrees, having found in the country the carcass of a seruntil you get it to a deep blue. Springs are to be

pent covered with worms, some small, others lartempered in oil, then to be oiled over, and the oil

e oil ger, and others again that had evidently taken the burnt off three different times over the blaze of form of serpents. It was still more marvellous to the fire.

remark, that among these little snakes, and mixed

as it were with them, were certain flies, which I FLAGG'S SHINGLE MACHINE.

should take to be engendered from that substance which constitutes the aliment of the snakes*."

Kircher's more shrewd and less fanciful corresrecently brought into use in New York of which the in

pondent, Redi, determined to prove this singular ventor makes the following statement in the last New

t New recipe before he trusted to the authority of his York Farmer.

friend. “Moved,” he says, “by the authentic It is one of the greatest labor saving machines testimony of this most learned writer, I have frein this country; it performs its work to great per- quently tried the experiment, but I could never fection, and at a rate almost incredible to all who witness the generation of those blessed snakelets have not seen it. It is very simple in its construc- made to handt.” But though Redi could not, in tion, and not liable to get out of order. By this this way, produce a brood of snakes, his experimachine sixty shingles are made from the bolt or ments furnished an abundant progeny of maggots, block in one minute, being one a second, and more —the same, unquestionably, that the imagination perfect than can be made with a frow and draw- of Kircher had magnified into young snakes, ing knife, as they are usually made. The shin- which, being confined in a covered box, were in a gles are of a true taper from butt to point, and short time transformed into flies, at first of a dull can be shaved to any given thickness. “Any tim- ash color, wrinkled, unfinished, and their wings ber that can be split with a frow can be worked not yet unfolded,—as is always the case with wingwith this machine: pine, cypress, cedar, chestnut, ed insects just escaped from their pupa case. In oak, asli, hemlock, or any timber that will rive or less than an hour, however, they “unfolded their split.

wings and changed into a vivid green, marvellously brilliant”—most probably the green flesh-fly


It is a common opinion in this country, particuFrom Insect Transformations in the Library of Entertaining larly in the north, that if a horse's hair be put into Knowledge.

the water of a spring or ditch, it will be in process It was universally believed by the ancient phi- of time transformed, first into a hair-worm, and losophers, that maggots, flies, and other insects, afterwards into an eel. The deception, as in the were generated from putrifying substances. This instance of Kircher's snakes, arises from the close opinion continues to be held by uninformed per- resemblance between a hair and the hair-worm sons among ourselves;—though it would be equal-(Gordius aquaticus, LINN.,) and between this and ly correct to maintain, that a flight of vultures had a young eel. This fabled transformation of hair, been generated by the dead carcass which they which we have heard maintained, even by several may be seen devouring, or a flock of sheep from persons of good education, is physically impossithe grass-field in which they graze. Another ble and absurd. opinion, perhaps still more generally diffused, is The method laid down by Virgil in his Georgics that caterpillars, aphides, and other garden insects for generating a swarm of bees is precisely of the which destroy the leaves of plants, are generated, same description as the snake recipe of Kircher; propagated, or, at least, spread about by certain and though the “Episode of Aristæus recovering winds or states of the air, mysteriously and inde- | his bees” has been pronounced to be “perhaps the finitely termed blight. The latter belief is, proba- finest piece of poetry in the world," we must be bly, not so easy of immediate refutation as the permitted to say that it is quite fabulous and unformer;—but, as we shall endeavor to show, it philosophical. The passage runs thus : seems to us to be equally erroneous.

Oft from putrid gore of cattle slain The small size of insects renders it somewhat |

Bees have been bred. * * * A narrow place, easy to pass off fanciful opinions regarding them, And for that use contracted, first they choose, since it is difficult for common observers to detect Then more contract it, in a narrower room, mistakes; but similar notions have been entertain Wall'd round, and cover'd with a low built roof, ed by writers of no mean reputation, respecting And add four windows, of a slanting light even the larger animals. The celebrated Kircher,

From the four winds. A bullock then is sought, for example, one of the most learned men of the

His horns just bending in their second year; seventeenth century, goes so far as to give the

Him, much reluctant, with o'erpow'ring force

They bind; his mouth and nostrils stop, and all following singular recipe for the manufacture of

The avenues of respiration close; snakes:

And buffet him to death: his hide no wound « Take some snakes," says he, "of whatever Receives; his batter'd entrails burst within. kind you want, roast them, and cut them in small / Thus spent they leave him; and beneath his sides pieces, and sow those pieces in an oleaginous soil; / Lay shreds of boughs, fresh lavender and thyme. then, from day to day, sprinkle them lightly with This, when soft zephyr's breeze first curls the wave, water from a watering-pot, taking care that the And prattling swallows hang their nests on high. piece of ground be exposed to the spring sun, and in eight days you will see the earth strewn with * Athan. Kircher, Mund. Subterran. lib. xii. little worms, which, being nourished with milk dilut-1 Redi, Generat. Insectorum, edit. Amstel. 1686.

Meanwhile the juices in the tender bones

I could not fail to do that the same maggots and Heated ferment; and, wondrous to behold,

fies were produced indiscriminately in all. This Small animals, in clusters, thick are seen,

ultimately led him to ascertain that no maggots Short of their legs at first: on filmy wings,

are ever generated except from eggs laid by the Humming, at length they rise; and more and more

parent flies: for when he carefully covered up Fan the thin air; 'till, numberless as drops Pour'd down in rain from summer clouds, they fly. pieces of meat with silk or paper sealed down with

wax, no maggots were seen; but the parent flies, Trapp's Virgil, Georg. iv. 369.

| attracted by the smell of the covered meat, not unColumella, a Roman writer on rural affairs, after frequently laid their eggs on the outside of the padirecting in what manner honey is to be taken per or silk, the maggots hatched from these dying from a hive by killing the bees, says, that if the of course, for want of nourishment. ' dead bees be kept till spring, and then exposed to With respect to bees, it becomes even more abthe sun among the ashes of the fig-tree, properly surd to refer their generation to putrefaction, when pulverised, they may be restored to life.

we consider that they uniformly manifest a pecu-These fancies have evidently originated from liar antipathy to dead carcasses. This was remistaking certain species of fies (Syrphi, Bom- marked so long ago as the time of Aristotle and bylii, &.c.) for bees, which, indeed, they much re- of Pliny;* and Varro asserts that bees never alight semble in general appearance, though they have upon an unclean place, nor upon any thing which only two wings, and short antennæ, while all bees emits an unpleasant smell. This is strikingly exhave four wings, and long antennæ. Neither the emplified in their carrying out of the hive the fies nor the bees are produced by putrefaction;- bodies of their companions who chance to die but as the flies are found about animal bodies in a there; and in their covering over with propolis the state of decomposition, the ancients fell into an bodies of snails, mice,t and other small animals error which accurate observation alone could ex- which they cannot remove. I plode. The maggots of blow-flies, as Swammerdam remarks, so often found in the carcasses of It would have been well if such unfounded animals in summer, "somewhat resemble those fancies had rested here; but philosophical theorists. produced by the eggs of bees. However ridi- both of ancient and modern times, have promulculous,” he adds, "the opinion must appear, many gated dreams much more extravagant. The angreat men have not been ashamed to adopt and cients taught that the newly-formed earth (hatchdefend it. The industrious Goedart has ventured ed as some said from an egg) clothed itself with a to ascribe the origin of bees to certain dunghill green down like that on young birds, and soon worms, * and the learned De Mei joins with him after men began to sprout up from the ground as in this opinion; though neither of them had any we now see mushrooms do. The refined Atheobservation to ground their belief upon, but that of nians were so firmly convinced of their having the external resemblance between bees and certain originally sprung up in this manner, that they kinds of flies (Syrphidæ produced from those called themselves “Earth-born" (Erichthonii.] worms. The mistake of such authors should and wore golden tree-hoppers ( Cicade ) in their teach us," he continues, "to use great caution in hair, erroneously supposing these insecis to have our determinations concerning things which we a common origin with themselves.S Lucretius have not thoroughly examined, or at least to de- affirms, that even in his time, when the earth was scribe them with all the circumstances observable supposed to be growing too old to be reproductive, in them. Therefore, although this opinion of bees "many animals were concreted out of mud by issuing from the carcasses of some other animals showers and sunshine." by the power of putrefaction, or by a transposition. But the ancients, it would appear, had the of parts, be altogether absurd, it has had, notwith- shrewdness seldom to venture upon illustrations of standing, many followers, who must have in a their philosiphical romances by particular exammanner shut their eyes in order to embrace it. ples. "This was reserved for the more reckless But whoever will attentively consider how many theory-builders of our own times. We find Rorequisites there are for the due hatching of the binet, for example, asserting that, as it was nature's bee's egg, and for its subsistence in the grub state chief object to make man, she began her "apprencannot be at a loss for a clue to deliver himself tissage," as he calls it, by forming minerals reout of that labyrinth of idle fancies and unsup- sembling the single organs of the human body, ported fables, which, entangled with one another such as the brain in the fossil called Brain-stone like a Gordian knot, have even to this day ob-|(Meandrına cerebriformis, PARKINSON.)|| Darscured the beautiful simplicity of this part of na- win, again, taking the hint from Epicurus, dreams tural history.”+

that animals arose from a single filament or threadRedi was by no means satisfied with the first let of matter, which, by its efforts to procure nourresults of his experiments upon the flesh of snakes, for several species of flies were produced, giving * Aristotle, Hist. Animal. ix. 40. Pliny says, “Omsome countenance to the opinion of Aristotle, nes carne vescuntur, contra quam apes, quæ nullum Pliny, Mouffet, and others, that different flesh en- corpus attingnut. genders different flies, inheriting the disposition of Huish on Bees, p. 100. the animal they are bred from. He accordingly I Insect Architecture, p. 109. tried almost every species of Aesh, fish, and fowi, ! $ The Cicadæ do not deposite their eggs in the both raw and cooked, and soon discovered (as he

She earth, but on trees, &c. See Insect Architecture, chap.

1 Multaque nunc etiam existunt animalia terris, * The maggots of Eristalis tenax, Fabr. E. apifor- Imbribus et calido solis concreta vapore. mis, MEIGEN, and other Syrphida, well known in

De Nat. Rer. v. 795. common sewers by their long tails, like those of rats. | || Robinet, Consid. Philosophiques de la Gradation Swammerd. Book of Nature, i. 228.

Naturelle des Formes de l'Etre. Paris, 1768.

ishment; lengthened out parts of its body into | beyond a doubt to originate in the play of chemiarms and other members. For example, after cal affinities or galvanic actions—(a more refined this filament had improved itself into an oyster, process, it must be confessed, than Kircher's chopand been by chance left dry by the ebbing of the ped snakes,) it would not effect our doctrine that tide, its efforts to reach the water again expanded all insects are hatched from eggs: torno natualists of the parts nearest to the sea into arms and legs. If the present day classes such animalcules among it tried to rise from its native rocks, the efforts insects. Leaving animalcules and zoophytes, produced wings, and it became an insect, which in therefore, out of the question, we have only to ex. due course of time improved itself by fresh efforts amine such branches of the theory of spontaneous till it became a bird, the more perfect members generation as seems to involve the propagation of being always hereditarily transmitted to the pro- genuine insects,-like the fancies about putrefacgeny. The different forms of the bills of birds, tion which we have seen refuted. whether hooked, broad, or long, were, he says, The notion that small insects, such as aphides gradually acquired by the perpetual endeavors of and the leaf-rolling caterpillars, are spread about the creatures to supply their wants. The long- or rather generated, by what is termed blight (poslegged water-fowl (Grallatores, VIGORS) in this sibly from the Belgic blinkan, to strike with lightway acquired length of legs sufficient to elevate ning,) is almost universally believed even by the their bodies above the water in which they waded. most intelligent, if they have not particularly stu"A proboscis," he says, "of admirable structure died the habits of insects. Mr. Main, of Chelsea, has thus been acquired by the bee, the moth, and an ingenious and well-informed gardener and natthe humming-bird, for the purpose of plundering uralist, describes this as an "easterly wind, attendthe nectaries of flowers."* Lamarck, an eminent ed by a blue mist. The latter is called a blight, French naturalist, recently deceased, adopted the and many people imagine that the aphides are same visions; and, among other illustrations of a wafted through the air by this same mist.*" "The similar cast, he tells us that the giraffe acquired its farmer," says Keith, "supposes these insects are long neck by its efforts to browse on the high wafted to him on the east wind, while they are branches of trees, which, after the lapse of a few only generated in the extravasated juices as formthousand years, it successfully accomplished. ing a proper nidus for their eggs." A more de

Theories like the preceding all originate in the tailed account, however, is given by the late Dr. endeavors of human ingenuity to trace the opera- | Mason Good, and as he speaks in part from pertions of nature farther than ascertained facts will sonal observation, and was not only one of the warrant; and the necessary blanks in such a system, most learned men of his time, but an excellent which presupposes much that cannot be explain-general naturalist, his testimony merits every ated, are filled up by the imagination. This inabil-tention:ity to trace the origin of minute plants and insects 1. “That the atmosphere,” says Dr. Good, "is led to the doctrine of what is called spontaneous freighted with myriads of insect eggs that elude our or equivocal generation, of which the fancies senses, and that such eggs, when they meet with abovementioned are some of the prominent bran- ) a proper bed are hatched in few hours into a perches. The experiments of Redi on the hatching of fect form, is clear to any one who has attended to insects from eggs, which were published at Flor- the rapid and wonderful effects of what, in conence in 1668, first brought discredit upon this doc- mon language, is called a blight upon plantations trine, though it had always a few eminent disci- and gardens. I have seen, as probably many who ples. At present it is maintained by a considera- read this work have also, a hop-ground completeble number of distinguished naturalists, such as ly overrun and desolated by the aphis humuli, or Blumenbach, Cuvier, Bory de St. Vincent, R. hop greenlouse, within twelve hours after a honeyBrown, &c. “The notion of spontaneous gene- dew (which is a peculiar haze or mist loaded with ration,” says Bory, "is at first revolting to a ration-poisonous miasm) has slowly swept through the al mind, but it is, notwithstanding, demonstrable plantation, and stimulated the leaves of the hop to by the microscope. The fact is averred: Muller the morbid secretion of a saccharine and viscid has seen it, I have seen it, and twenty other obser-juice, which, while it destroys the young shoots vers have seen it: the Pandorinia exhibit it every by exhaustion, renders them a favorite resort for instant.” These pandorinia he. elsewhere de- this insect, and a cherishing nidus for myriads of scribes as probably nothing more than "animated little dots that are its eggs. The latter are hatchscions of Zoocarpæ" (propagules animés des Zo- ed within eight and forty hours after their deposite, ocarpes.t) It would be unprofitable to go into and succeeded by hosts of other eggs of the same any lengthened discussion upon this mysterious kind; or, if the blight take place in an early part of subject; and we have great doubts whether the the autumn, by hosts of the young insects proocular demonstration by the microscope would suc- ducted viviparously; for, in different seasons of ceed except in the hands of a disciple of the school. the year, the aphis, breeds both ways. Now it is Even with naturalists, whose business it is to deal highly probable that there are minute eggs, or with facts, the reason is often wonderfully influenced ovula, of innumerable kinds of animalcules floatby the imagination.

ing by myriads of myriads through the atmosphere, But the question immediately before us happily so diminutive as to bear no larger proportion to the does not involve these recondite discussions; for if eggs of the aphis than these bear to those of the even pandorinia and other animalcules were proved wren or the hedge-sparrow; protected at the same

time from destruction, by the filmy integument that * Darwin's Zoonomia, sect. xxxix. 3d edit. London, surrounds them, till they can meet with a proper 1801.

nest for their reception, and a proper stimulating Cict. Classique d'Hist. Nat., Art. Microscopiques, p. 541.

*Loudon's Mag. of Nat. Hist. i. 180. Dict. Class., Art. Pandorinées.

Keith's Physiological Botany, ii. 486.

power to quicken them into life; and whieh, with under the necessity of carrying off the eggs, as respect to many of them, are only found obvious they are laid, to the nurseries. The extraordinary to the senses in different descriptions of animal labor which this requires in the community may fluids. *"

be understood, when, according to Smeathman, It appears to us that it can be nothing more than she lays 60 eggs in a minute, which will amount a fancy, which is quite unsupported by evidence, to 86,400 in a day, and 31,536,000 in a year. The to say that the eggs of any species of animalcules exceptions now mentioned, however, do not in or insects float about in the atmosphere; for, inde- the least invalidate our general position. pendent of their weight, (every known species Another no less remarkable circumstance is being greatly heavier than air,) the parent insects the great weight, or specific gravity, of the eggs of every species whose history has been accurate- of insects. From numerous experiments we may ly investigated manifest the utmost anxiety to de- venture to say that those of all the species which posite their eggs upon or near the appropriate food we have tried sink rapidly in water the moment of the young. To commit them to the winds they are thrown into it, from the egg of the drinker would be a complete dereliction of this invariable moth (Odonestis Potatoria, GERMAR,) which is law of' insect economy. But admitting for a mo- nearly as large as a hemp-seed, to that of the rosement this hypothesis, that the eggs of insects are plant louse (Aphis rose, which is so small as to diffused through the atmosphere, the circumstance be barely visible to the naked eye. Some eggs of must be accompanied with two conditions,-the the gipsey moth (Hypogymna dispar, STEPHENS,) eggs must either be dropped by the parents while indeed, floated in water, because they were coveron the wing, or be carried off by winds from the ed with down. It is well known, as we shall preterrestrial substances upon which they may have sently show, that the diffusion of many of the been deposited.

seeds of plants is accomplished by the winged On the supposition that the eggs are dropped by down with which they are clothed; but the down the mother insects while on the wing, we must upon the eggs of insects does not conduce to this also admit (for their is no avoiding it) that they end. Whether insects' eggs be naked or clothed continue to float about, unhatched, from the end of with down, they are invariably, as far as their histhe summer till the commencement of spring, attory has been investigated, deposited close to or which time only the broods make their appearance. upon substances capable of affording food to the Yet when we consider the rains, snows, and winds, young when hatched. In making experiments to which they must be exposed for six or nine upon the specific gravity of eggs, it should be remonths, we think the hardiest theorist would membered that no infertile or unimpregnated egg scarcely maintain that a single egg could out-wea- will sink; for having some hundreds of these laid ther these vicissitudes, and continue to float in the by ditferent species of insects reared in our cabinet, . air. It may not be out of place to remark, that we found, upon trial, that they uniformly floated, the female aphides, which deposite eggs in autumn, while those which we knew to be impregnated as have no wings.

uniformly sunk. A female, for example of the Again, on the supposition that the eggs are de-rose-leaf roller (Lozotenia Rosana, STEPHENS) posited on plants, trees, or other objects, it is was reared by us, in solitude, under an inverted still more unlikely that they could be carried into wine-glass, upon the side of which she glued a the air; for, on exclusion, they are, with very few patch of eggs, of course, unimpregnated: these, exceptions, t enveloped in an adhesive cement upon trial, all floated in water. But eggs of the which glues them to the spot on which they are de- same species taken from the outside of a pane of posited. When eggs are deposited singly, this glass close to a rose-tree, all sunk in water; and it cement usually envelopes each with a thin coat- is to be fairly presumed, as the parent of the latter ing, as in the instance of the admirable butterfly was in a state of freedom, that these were impreg(Vanessa Atalanta;) but when they are placed nated. We found the same distinction, indeed, to in a group the cement is sometimes spread over hold in the eggs of the drinker moth, the gypsey the whole, as in the instance of the white satin moth, and numerous other insects.* moth (Leucomr salicis, STEPHENS.) This ce | Dr. Good's account of "honey-dew," which he ment is evidently intended by nature (who seldom describes as "a peculiar haze or mist loaded with a accom.nodates her plans to our theories) to pre-poisonous miasm," that stimulates the leaves of vent the eggs from being carried from the place the hop to the morbid secretion of a saccharine and selected by the mother insect for their deposition. viscid juice”-appears to us unsupported by facts. Those eggs, therefore, which are placed on the Linnæus, t on the contrary, who was not wedded outside of substances, have this provision for their to the meteorological theory of a miasmatous haze, secure attachment to the locality chosen by the ascribes the honey-dew on the hop leaves to the instinct of the mother. But, on the contrary, the caterpillar of the ghost moth (Hepialus humuli) principle does not always hold in the case of those attacking the roots. Dr. Withering, favoring this deposited in nests and excavations, and particular-account, recommends covering the roots with ly as to those of ants and termites. The working stones as a preventive; for the caterpillars, he ants, indeed, carry the eggs from the top to the avers, never attack wild hops which grow in stony bottom of their galleries, according as the weather places, because they cannot get at the roots. It is favorable or unfavorable for hatching. The la- appears to us, however, that there can be little borers of the white ants ( Termites,) again, attend doubt that the sweet syrupy coating, called honeytheir queen with the utmost care when she is lay-dew, found on the leaves of the hop, is nothing ing; for as she cannot then move about, they are

*J. R. *Good's Study of Medicine, v. i., p. 339, 3d edition,

tQuoted by Keith, Phys. Bot., ii. 143. London, 1829. Latreille, Hist. Génér., xiv., p. 342.

{Botan. Arrangement, ii., 440, 3d ed. .

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