Imágenes de páginas


| one building, and of the principal soils, manures,

and composts in an appropriate enclosure; and so The Jardin des Plantes, at Paris, dates its on. The essence of the lectures, accompanied by origin from the beginning of the seventeenth figures of such of the implements and operations century; but, as a school of botany and vegetable as admit of representation by lines, will be found culture, was made what it is by the late Prof. in Thouin's Cours de Culture et de' Naturalisation Thouin, during the first years of the consulship. des Vegetaux, by Oscar Leclerc, three vols. 8vo., Speaking with reference only to what concerns with one quarto volume of plates; and a complete plants and their culture, this garden is unquestion-description of the garden is given in the well ably the first establishment of the kind in Europe. known work of Royer.- Gard. (Eng.) Mag. We have in Britain several botanic gardens, but none maintained for the same objects as that of Paris. These objects are two: first, to collect use

TO DESTROY VERMIN ON PLANTS. ful or remarkable plants from every part of the

By a correspondent of the Gardeners' Magazine. world, and to distribute them to every part of In all the recipes for destroying Acari which I France, and, as far as practicable, to every other have seen, sulphur is an ingredient; this, in its country; and secondly, to form a perpetual school crude state, will not unite with the liquids used for of botany and vegetable culture. Plants are that purpose, and therefore it can have little or no brought to the Paris garden from all countries, by effect, except when applied as a wash on the a universal correspondence, by particular natura- heated flues of a house. In order to make it unite lists sent out at the expense of the nation, and by with soap suds, tobacco water, and other liquids the general protection and favor of government to usually made use of for destroying insects, it must the objects of science and the pursuits of scientific be converted into a sulphuret, by boiling it with men. Objects of natural history destined for the lime or an alkaline salt, as in the following mixture, Paris garden, in whatever description of vessels which expeditiously and effectually destroys the they may arrive in a French port, pay no entrance red spider, by merely immersing the plant, or part duty, and they are mostly forwarded by govern- | infested, in the mixture:-Common soft soap half ment conveyances to Paris free of expense. Every an ounce, sulphuret of lime* one ounce by measure warlike, exploring, or commercial expedition is (or two table spoonfuls,) soft water (hot) one ale accompanied by naturalists officially appointed or quart. The soap and sulphuret to be first well voluntarily admitted, to whom every facility is mixed with an iron or wooden spoon, in the same afforded in the objects of their pursuit. Plants manner as a mixture of egg and oil is made for a received in the Paris garden are propagated with- salad; the hot water is then to be added by degrees, out loss of time, and distributed in the first place, stirring the mixture well with a painter's brush, as to all the botanic gardens of France, of which in making a lather, by which means a uniform there is at least one in the capital of every depart-fluid will be obtained, like whey, without any sediment; next, seeds or plants are sent to such of the ment, which may be used as soon as it is cool colonies as it is supposed may profit most from enough to bear the hand in it. This mixture will them; and, lastly, they are sent to foreign corres- destroy every insect usually found in the greenpondents, in proportion to similar favors received, house, by mere immersion, except the Coccus, or or returns expected. The departmental botanic scaly insect, which adheres so closely to the stem, gardens propagate with all rapidity the plants re- or under side of the leaf, that the mixture cannot ceived from the central garden, and distribute them reach its vulnerable parts; therefore, in this case, among the eminent proprietors and cultivators of the mixture must be applied with a brush that will the department. This, at all events, is remarka- dislodge the insect. If the mixture be put into a bly good in theory, Botany is taught by the lec-wooden bowl, or any other shallow vessel, small tures, demonstrations, and herborisations of a pro- plants in pots, and the leaves and branches of fessor, and illustrated by an exemplification of 124 larger ones, and of fruit trees, may be easily imorders of the Jussieuean system in living plants. mersed in it by pressing them down with the hand. A considerable number of these plants are neces- The above mixture will not destroy the black sarily exotic, and kept under glass during winter; Aphides of the cherry tree, nor the green Aphides but, in May, before the demonstrations begin, they of the plum tree, by immersing the leaves and are brought out in the pots, and sunk in the earth branches in it; there being an oiliness on these inin their proper places in the systematic arrange- sects which prevents its adhering to them. It will ment, with their names and the names of the destroy them by applying it with a brush: but this orders to which they belong placed beside them. is too tedious a process. It has been recommendThe cultivation of vegetables, and all the differented, by writers on horticulture, to wash these and operations of agriculture and gardening, are taught other fruit trees against walls, before the leaves by another professor, with assistants, and exem and buds appear, with mixtures which cannot be plified by different compartments in the garden. safely applied after; for which purpose the above For instance, there is one compartment in which all the different operations on plants and on the *The sulphuret of lime is easily made in the followsoil are exemplified, from the different modes of ing manner:-Take of flour of sulphur one ounce; preparing the soil for sowing or planting, through fresh lime, finely sifted, two ounces; soft water a quart,

train boil the mixture in an iron vessel about a quarter of an all the species and varieties of propagation, train-bo

hour, frequently stirring it after it begins to boil; let it ing, and pruning, even to hedge-growing and

stand to settle, and pour off the clear liquor. If it is fence-making; another compartment contains all

not used on the same day, it must be put into a bottle the plants of field culture; another all the medicinal

filled with it, and be well corked; for, if it be exposed plants; another all the principal timber trees; ano- to the air, it will soon attract oxygen, and will then ther, as far as practicable, all the fruit trees. curdle the soap, and smear the plants with a white subSpecimens of the different implements are kept in stance, which is not easily washed off.

mixture, with the addition of spirits of turpentine, compared, or considered in connexion with others is likely to succeed as well as any other, or better: which are apparently in contradiction. This debut I have not yet had an opportunity of giving it ficiency it is my object to supply, in addition to ofa trial. Half an ounce, by measure, of spirits offering the results of my own practice in this returpentine being first well mixed with the soap, spect. The subject, in my opinion, presents one and the sulphuret and water added as before; or of those cases in which both sides of the question the wash may be made stronger, by adding twice are true, though each may appear erroneous to the quantity of each ingredient to the same quan- those who will not compare the opposite views, tity of water. For destroying slugs and worms and take into consideration all the circumstances there is no recipe so simple, attended with so little which operate, or may be expected to operate, trouble, and, when properly applied, so effectual, during the time of reaping. It may be true, (and as common lime-water. The plants on which the I readily admit it as true,) that a head of wheat slugs are found must be watered with it twice at permitted to become perfectly mature on its stalk least, at an interval of three or four minutes. If in fine weather, will furnish the greatest possible you place three or four slugs on the ground, and weight of grain, and of the best quality, to be depour lime-water on them from a watering pan, you rived from the particular growth of wheat: and will soon perceive them throwing off a kind of that another taken off in a soft and green state, slough, and after that crawling away; but if you probably loses something, in quantity, or quality, sprinkle them again with the lime-water, they will or both, and cannot possibly gain in either of those not be able to throw off another slough, and soon respects. This is the amount of the results shown die after the second operation. When a person by the experiments referred to above, even if it has therefore watered as many plants as takes up is conceded, (though very doubtful, that the manthe time of three or four minutes, he must turn ner of making such comparative experiments was back to the place where he began, and water perfectly correct. But though there may be no them again. 'Lime-water, for this purpose, may gain from reaping green in fine weather, and even be easily made so as to be always ready. Into a some small loss of product, yet fine weather we trough, containing about fifty-five gallons of water, almost never have through harvest-and it will throw in two or three shovelfuls of lime, stir it up be better to lose five per cent. by reaping green three or four times on that day, and the next day (admitting such a loss to be certain,) than to save the liquor is clear and fit for use and will continue it by maturing, and then to lose far more from to answer the purpose for some time, without ad- bad weather occurring while the wheat is standing ding any fresh lime, by stirring it up again before in the field. This, I think, is the proper view of it is used, and letting it settle. If the lime-water the subject, and the proper mode of instituting a be of sufficient strength, it will destroy the large comparison of the products. If we could be sure grey snail with twice watering, and all worms that of having dry weather, I entertain no doubt of the are out of the ground at the time of watering, and propriety and economy of not reaping until both it will not injure the most tender plant when used grain and straw are ripe. But with the strong in a clear state.

probability of more or less of rain and the possibility of a long spell of it-I am as sure that a

great saving will be found in reaping wheat as THE CASTLE HOWARD ox.

early as the state of the grain will permit. What From the British Farmers Magazine.

that state is, has not been described very particu

larly, in any of the publications I have read; and This most wonderful specimen of the short- it is not unlikely that the uncertainty on this head horned breed was lately exhibited in York, and has caused some of the differences of opinion as excited the astonishment and admiration of crowds to the propriety of the practice in general. I conof persons who went to see it. Its color is white sider wheat fit for the scythe when the grain is in -stands about seventeen hands high-measures the dough state-no matter how soft, provided it is three feet four inches across the loins-and weighs clear of milk, or when no fluid comes out separate upwards of 260 stone.

from the dough, when the grain is mashed between the fingers. But no one square yard of

wheat can be found, in which all the heads have ON REAPING WHEAT BEFORE THE GRAIN is reached this state at one time: and, therefore, when HARD.

not more than one-tenth part of the grains contain

milk, I think it safe to begin to reap. There will For the Farmers' Register.

be some loss in the quantity of all the milky grains, There have been published at different times | (though no injury to the quality of the sample in various and opposite facts and opinions with re- general,) but less than would be usually found by gard to the propriety of reaping wheat before the waiting long enough for every grain to be free of grain is hard. In the agricultural journals both of milk. If the Mountain Purple Straw is the kind Europe and the United States, reaping green has made (which has generally formed the greater been announced by different persons as an im- part or the whole of my crop) it may be easily portant discovery, and as if the praetice was alto- known by the purple tinge on the stalk, when the gether new to the reporter and to his readers in grain has reached the dough state. general. To meet these statements, there have As I place the advantage of reaping green on been others presented, of experiments conducted the greater certainty of avoiding the effects of apparently with much care and accuracy, of the bad weather, it may be inferred that the expecomparative value of grain reaped ripe and green, rience of several years would be required to make and the results of which showed a certain Toss in a correct decision. I began this practice in 1821, the latter practice. Each of these various state- and have never since failed to begin harvest as ments, so far as I know, stands alone, and is not I soon as enough wheat was fully in the dough state, except in those years, when the pressure out the rain, if he had waited to reap ripe. But of other farm business made it necessary to let the to him whose wheat was dead ripe, having his wheat wait some days longer. If, therefore, reaping suspended for a few days is a most serious this opinion is held by me improperly, it is not for damage. Even if no grain is actually sprouted, want of experience, but for want of judgment. every wetting and drying after it is ripe, is inju

The universal practice in my neighborhood be- rious to its quality. Besides this, no field can be fore 1821, was to wait for the grain to be hard; reaped as easily, and as effectually, after as before and if there was any doubt of the straw being rain. Heavy wheat is lodged, and sometimes lost perfectly sapless and dry, the wheat was left on completely: and the stalks on the lightest and the ground, without binding, for one or two days, poorest land bend in curves, and in every direction, to be dry enough to stack. My green reaping, so as to render it impossible to be saved well when when first commenced, was fully nine days earlier reaped. than was usual—and it was pronounced then that Now to consider the objections to reaping green. I was destroying my crop, by reaping it so green. I have admitted that there must be a loss, from My practice is still condemned by many, who, shrinking, in every grain having any of the milk however, have gradually and perhaps unconscious- remaining, and a general loss on the whole crop, ly, advanced the commencements of their har- on the supposition that a proportion will be in the vests, until they are not more than two or three milky state. But, (though it would be difficult to days behind mine.

test it by fair experiment,) I do not believe that The first year of my early reaping was most any thing is lost in either the weight or bulk of fortunately chosen. After weather generally fine grain cut in the dough state. There is loss of launtil the latter part of June, there began the long- bor however, (that is, if the weather continues est spell of rainy weather that I ever knew at that dry,) and there is risk of loss, from putting the time of the year. The rain fell more or less for sheaves into shocks or stacks before their being seven days in succession, without enough sun- perfectly cured. Green wheat may be made up . shine (if any) during the time to dry the wheat at into small sheaves, (the band being a single any one time. I did not keep a farm journal that length of the straw,) as fast as it is cut down: but year, as was my general practice, but noted the straw will shrink so much on drying, that the these circumstances before the next harvest, while bands will be apt to become loose, and many of they were fresh in my memory. I did not there the sheaves to fall to pieces. If the binders are state, and do not remember, the date of the begin- | kept half a day behind the reapers, that objection ning of my reaping in 1821; but the whole was will be obviated: but others will be presented in finished, and the last reaped was shocked, just be- the loss of labor when the reapers and binders are fore the long spell of rain began. It had rained thus separated, and the exposure of a greater gently one day only during my harvest; and a quantity of wheat, after its being reaped, to rain, piece of thin wheat, of about 25 acres, had been But it should also be considered, that green wheat cut down on that day, and still remained open on is less hurt when caught by rain, than the perfect, the ground. So much of this had sprouted before ly ripe would be. the rains ceased, and so much on the tops of the If the wheat is sheaved when too green to put shocks throughout the crop, that I estimated my into shocks, it should be put up in "stooks" of loss at one-tenth of the whole. But that loss was about six sheaves each, by setting the stubble ends small indeed compared to that of my neighbors, of the sheaves far enough apart to give sufficient and of lower Virginia generally. Some had not base, and letting the heads of all the sheaves lean begun to reap-but few had been as many as three together so as to form a point. These stooks are days in harvest, when the spell of rain com- easily made, will throw off a light rain, and will menced--and scarcely any wheat had been put up dry as they stand, if made wet by heavy rain. I in shocks, or secured otherwise. The wheat left have had such stooks to be wet and dry repeatedstanding was so bent down, as not to be tolerably ly before the wheat could be put into shockssaved, besides being greatly damaged in quality; without any more injury than would have been and what was on the ground was mostly sprouted. sustained if the wheat had been standing. But My notes state as the supposed estimate of gene- this was of the purple straw kind. Before I knew ral loss through our part of the country, from one the difference, I permitted some white wheat to go half to two-thirds of the crop. Some good ma- through the same treatment, and found much of it nagers, and many bad ones, did not make as much sprouted by rain in the stooks. wheat as they had sowed, and that of such bad As to the quality of the grain, for making flour, quality, as to be unfit to sow again. Indeed the I believe it is generally conceded that the wheat destruction of wheat was so general, and so little reaped green is best. was left good enough for seed, that it caused many What is the extent of the gradual advancement who were before hesitating about such a change of the usual time of reaping, I cannot state, though of crops on light soils, to abandon wheat entirely, aided by written memoranda of my own farm buand take cotton instead, as their principal crop for siness for most of the years of the last twenty, Ma. market.

ny of those who have never noted such things, are The saving made that year by early reaping not aware that they now venture to reap in a state was enough to pay for all the loss to be incurred of greenness which they would have thought very by that plan in twenty years: and though such a hazardous formerly. I remember well that fifteen spell of weather may not occur in a long life, there years ago, our festival of the 4th of July always is scarcely any year in which more or less is not came in harvest, and that no one finished reaping lost by rain compelling wheat to stand (or to lie,) before that time, unless he had sowed early wheat, too long in the field. When rain stops the reap- and had a very small crop. In 1819, I began to reap ing of green wheat for three or four days, the on June 23d, (golden chaff wheat,) and the entry farmer is left just where he would have been with-1 on the journal of that day states that the grain was

not quite hard. I suppose that time to have been expressed. - They were in much the greatest numbers as early as any one would have ventured then. in woodland where the soil was stiff and close: and in

The following are all the dates of the commence- all such places, every tree was supplied with loment of my harvests, which were recorded before custs in suc

custs in such numbers, that a traveller for miles togethmy change of practice, and for some years after

er could perceive no cessation, or change in the loud wards. 1818 June 25th.

but monotonous chorus kept up by their voices. These 1819— " 23rd.

insects caused no injury. They were not much more 1822- " 8th.

than half as large as the common green and black 1823— 66 13th.

locusts, (or dry flies, as vulgarly called,) which, in small 1824 66 llth.

numbers, appear here every summer. The color of 1825— 16 10th,

the former was touched with a pale dingy red, instead 1826— " 12th.—and might have been begun 5.

of the green which the common locust has. The days sooner, if the state of other crops had permitted.

" name applied to both these insects is doubtless in1827— " 16th.—the ripening stated to have been correct, a

have been correct, as both differ widely from the great plague of made unusually late, by the the earth in other regions, of which we are so fortu- depredations of Hessian Fly, nate as to know nothing in this country, except by added to a cold season. cord season.

report. 1828 6 12th.

There is too much of the marvellous in the regularly 1829-'1 19th.—the beginning having been de

returning visits of our locusts for the statement to be layed two or three days by the pressure of other work.

altogether credited, though it has been stated in seveThe purple straw, and golden chaff wheats, ral publications besides that quoted above. But at any were the kinds sowed.

rate, there must be enough in the habits of these inThere is so much difference in these dates, ad-sects, that is both true and strange, to excite curiosity, ded to my recollection of our late harvests in gene- and invite attempts at investigation.) ral, formerly, that I am somewhat tempted to think that there has been an increase of average tempe

HARDENING OF IRON. rature, as well as of change of practice in reaping.

From the Southern Planter. But if that was the case, so important a fact could / Dr. Bartlett-It may be considered presumpnot have escaped the notice of the many curious tion in me to attempt to give directions to a blackand particular observers of the changes of tempe- smith how to temper a tool when he has made it. rature, as indicated by the thermometer.

If I cannot teach a blacksmith I can tell a farmer E. R.

how to avoid imposition.—I have noticed for several years that ploughs made and tempered by

some smiths would last twice as long as the same REMARKABLE HABITS OF THE AMERICAN LOCUST.

kind made by others—this is owing to the manner

of tempering.- In tempering a plough, all that is There is no longer any doubt that these singu

necessary is to give it a thorough heating and lar insects are to make their usual periodical ap

cool it quick. In order to cool quick, it is necessapearance the present season. They are already

ry to have plenty of water, and that of a good easily to be found, at the depth of six or seven

seven quality.-To undertake to cool a plough that inches, in gardens, and especially in orchards, un- weighs 8 or 10 pounds in two or three gallons of der old trees. By skimming off the surface of the

e water, is absurd; more especially if that water has earth, thousands of holes are perceptible, where

been heated a great many times. they have been penetrating to the surface, in order we presume, that their way may not be ob

WM. H. RAIFORD Etructed on their day of general resurrection. An

Henry co. May 5th, 1834. old gentleman of this place, informs us that his father kept particular note of their appearance in

BUTTER MAKING IN CHILE. four instances, and that he himself has followed it

From Waldie's Journal of Belles Letters. up, and preserved observations, also, in four in-1 In Chile, butter is packed in sheep skins, w stances and that they have uniformly appeared the wool side out, and would be very good. '. every seventeen years; but what is singularly strik- spite of appearances, were it not so much sal, i. ing, that in all these eight instances, they were found The operation of churning is performed by it to have a general resurrection day, which has re- donque [an ass;] the cream is put into large gourds, gularly occurred on the 25th May. He further or dry skins, placed on his back, and then thg says, that two or three days previously, a few animal is kept trotting round the yard till the love make their appearance, as a reconnoitering party; ter is made. In this art they seem not to have inl. but on the 25th, the whole country is deluged with vanced a single step since its discovery; for weit one interminable swarm.-Germantown Tel. | told that a countryman somewhere lost a large je

of cream, by carrying it for some distance ? [If it is indeed true that there is so much regularity hard-trotting horse, which accident led to the line in the continuance of the dormant state of these insects, 1 portant invention of churns and butter. A friend the time of their coming forth is not the same in differ

told me, that he had presented, some years ago

| Yankee churn to a family residing near the capiat.

in pro- and taught them to use it. So long as it was a digious numbers in this county, (Prince George,) I novelty they were pleased, but at the end of a tiny wbere they had not been observed before within the weeks decided the donque made butter just as vell recollection of any person whose opinions we heard and consequently threw it aside!


Regarding Horse Teams. Extracts from the Farmers' Series of the Library of Useful It is a just observation, that one can hardly be Knowledge.

| at a loss to determine the character of a farmer Animal labor is an object of the deepest impor- from the condition of his horses*.' Very fine. tance, both to the public and to those individuals

high-fed cattle, exhibiting the appearance of being who employ it: to the former, inasmuch as the

prepared for sale, rather suggests the idea of idleamount of food thus consumed is so much ab

ness than of labor; but, on the other hand, lean, stracted from the general means of subsistence;

spiritless creatures, worn out by toil and hunger, and to the latter, as the value of its employment

ue of its employment are the certain indications of a bad farmer; of one consists in the proportion of its cost to its power. not thriving and who does not deserve to thrive. It is, therefore, in every point of view, desirable The man who employs bad instruments cannot to economize it, so far as may be consistent with have his work well done, and one important and its efficient use, both through the saving of the previous step towards good farming, is to keep the labor and the feeding of the cattle by which it is laboring stock in good condition. Horses regularly performed; but to these considerations must be fed, and regularly wrought, will perform a great added a due regard both to the effectual perform- deal of work without falling off either in strength ance of the work, and to the sufficient support of or appearance: it is, therefore, of great importance the animal. Less has been done for the farmer to distribute the labor as equally as possible through. than for the manufacturer, in the improvement of the various seasons of the year; and to take care machinery, and unless the power of the steam- that if, as must sometimes be the case, an extraengine should at some future period be applied to ordinary exertion is to be made, they are in the the plough, he must still be dependent for the proper order to make it. When once allowed to production of his crops upon the labor of cattle, fall off, it requires much more to restore them, than which absorbs so large a portion of his profits, that might have kept them in a good state. he cannot be too careful of this branch of his ex- ! The feeding of farm horses forms so material a penditure. In this, however, as in the regulation part of the charges on agriculture, that the manof manual labor, true economy lies more in duly ner in which they can be cheapest maintained is a apportioning the strength of the teams to the matter deserving the most serious attention. It is work to be performed, than in any mere saving of an established principle, that animal power can expense; and there is no part of a farmer's busi- only be exerted in proportion to the quality, as ness that demands a sounder exercise of judgment well as the quantity, of the food with which it is than the selection and mangement of his working sustained. In conformity with that rule, hay and stock.

oats, or beans, given in their natural state, were It is usually considered that one team, if well long considered as the only horse provender poskept, is sufficient for the cultivation of from 40 to sessed of the requisite degree of nutriment, and in 50 acres of heavy land, and from 50 to 60 acres of consequence of its cost, penurious farmers stinted lighter soil, under common rotations; but the their horses, or those of an opposite disposition, strength of that team depends so much upon the who indulge in the pride of teams,' were put to breed and condition of the animals, as well as upon very great expense. Experience, however, has soil and culture, that this is subject to much va- proved that substitutes may be used to a very conriation. Some tenacious clays cannot be worked siderable extent, without injury to the animal itself, with less than four strong horses, or even more, or diminution of its strength; and that different on breaking them up; while a free loam may gen- modes of preparing its ordinary food may be adopterally be managed with a pair and whip-reins; anded with advantage. a course of constant tillage necessarily requires a The vegetables most commonly resorted to as greater number of ploughs than when a large substitutes for corn and hay, are potatoes, turnips, portion of the land is allowed to rest for some carrots, parsnips, and mangel-wurzel, with straw, years under grass.* Teams should never be be- and the haulm of beans and peas. Among these low the work to be executed: every such apparent the potato ranks foremost, both in quality and in saving will turn out a real loss to those who at- being more commonly cultivated than either partempt it, and even a supernumerary horse, for snips or carrots; but it is attended with the inconcases of emergency, will seldom be found bad eco- venience of requiring to be boiled, or steamed, as nomy. The great point is neither to be above nor its juice has been found prejudicial, and in some below the mark: no example need be adduced to cases even fatal, to horses, when given raw, and tv, that if too little power be employed, the both it and the yam, which has lately been much 1 must be imperfectly done; and that if too employed for the same purpose, are apt to ferment Cuandh, a portion of it must be thrown away; nor, in the stomach, and occasion dangerous colic, righough working-cattle should not be pampered, when used in a crude state. Of turnips, the Swedi i necessary to prove the truth of the old saying, ish is the only one that can be recommended to be if they won't pay for feeding, they won't pay for given alone, though the common kinds may be Tarving.'

advantageously mixed with potatoes; but, when

given in that manner, they should be boiled sepala the report of the Morvich and Culmaily farms rately, in order to preserve their juice, which if not

"mer's Séries, No. 18,) consisting of 650 acres of given to the horses, will be found serviceable for l' e land, it is stated that the whole work is perform- ' store cattle and pios. Carrots are much relished a. seven pairs of horses, including one pair of hva

pair olby all cattle, and when combined with dry food, * sin foal, and one pair of young horses, thrown off

have a most perceptible effect upon the horse's iss during summer: but the rotation on the greater $,-1st turnips; 2d barley; 3d, 4th, and 5th, grass;

ad coat, soon imparting to it that glossy appearance th, oats: on the remainder, 1st rape and naked whic

faked which is one of the best tests of condition, and 116 W; 2d wheat; 3d and 4th, grass; and 5th, oats; or y one-half in grass.

* E. Lothian Survey, p. 197,

« AnteriorContinuar »