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DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING OX-CARTS, AND FOR / mended, requires no additional labor to overcome USING THIEM.
unnecessary friction. For the Farmers' Register.
| The body should be made of seasoned timber Essex County, September 20th, 1834.
to prevent it from being shaken to pieces; the sills
should be three and a half by three inches, the The tongue of an ox-cart should be about fifteen length pine feet, and twenty inches deep in the feet in length, split as usual, and let into the cart clear; the width should be four inches greater beaxle by mortice and tenon, and confined by three- (hind than before, to facilitate the discharge of the quarter inch iron pins. The axle should be rather load; and to prevent the sides from being broken more than seven feet in length, (I cannot say ex- by a sudden turn of the oxen, the sides should be actly, as some hubs are rather longer than others) confined by four iron rods half an inch in diameter, and about six inches by four and a half, of season- made with heads, taps and screws, and placed at ed timber, or it will spring and the triction will be the sides near each end—a set will last one's life. very great. Saw up a hickory large enough for The greatest breadth of the body at the axle canseveral. Lay off the shoulders four feet apart, not exceed four feet, unless elevated above the neither more nor less, as this is the usual length, hubs, which should not be the case, for the load and if more or less, the labor of the oxen will be will be constantly pressing forward and give too greatly increased, as one wheel will run in the rut much weight before; it to obviate this, a piece that other carriages have made, and the other should be put across the tongue, or nailed to the wheel over the uneven surface along side of the sill of the cart where it rests upon the tongue, the other rut. Draw a line down the middle of the body is raised and of course more inconvenient to broad side, (the side intended for the tongue to be load the centre of gravity is also raised. From exup) which will leave three inches on each side of perience, I think by far the better way is, to hang the line: lay off the diameter of the in-box from it with strong hooks and eyes, not in the way they the bottom, leaving all at the shoulder to be taken are generally hung, for they have too much play, off at top. The difference in the diameter of the and throw the body in contact with the hubs, but in and out-box divide into two equal parts, and lay to make the eyes of three-quarter inch iron, allowoff one part from the bottom of the axle at the ing as little play as possible. The shanks to those end of the length of the hub: then lay off from that go into the axle, should not be more than six that the diameter of the out-box. Now the diame- inches long; when over long the body is inconveter of both boxes is laid off, draw a line from one nient to put on and take off. Taper them a little to the other, and hew off bottom and top. The just at the point to make them slip more easy into reason for dividing in half the difference between the axle, sink the.eyes a little into the axle and let the size of the big and little box, and taking all them stand up straight, not bent down. The off under the axle at the little box and none at the shanks to those that go through the sills of the big one, is to bring the wheel perfectly plumb. cart should be three-quarters of an inch square, Alter finishing the broad side of the axle turn the and confined by screw and tap. Sink the eyes a narrow side up, (the one that is intended for the little into the sills. They should be put one foot top) and draw a line down the middle, which will nearer the hind part of the body than the fore part, leave two and a quarter inches on each side: then and no more, or it will give too much weight betake the diameter of the in-box, and divide it into fore. That mode of loading, as if the necks of two equal parts; one part lay off back of the line oxen were stronger than the cart wheels, is a very at the shoulder, the other on the other side of the mistaken notion: it is death to oxen. In many Jine; then lay off the length of the hub from the countries they have carriages so constructed as to shoulder near which will come the linch pin, take give no weight. A cart-man requesting assistance the diameter of the out-box, and divide it into to enable him to discharge his load by throwing three equal parts; one part lay off back of the line up the body, is a proof that something is wrong at the end of the length of the hub, the other two and should be at once examined into. Are the parts lay off on the other side of the line. Now hooks and eyes too far behind? Has he passed the diameter of both boxes is laid oft, draw a line over uneven ground that has caused the load to from one to the other, and round the squares. The press too much forward? Or has he loaded im. reason for laying off at the little box one part be- properly? hind and two betore, is to make the wheel, in run- The yoke should be, for common sized oxen, ning, gently press to the shoulder of the axle. from four to four and a half feet in length, the Were it equally divided into two parts, the wheel holes for the bows one and a half inches in diamewould be as apt to run off as on, and the conse- ter, and about five inches apart, more or less, to quence would be, should it pass off, there would suit the size of the oxen, and so bored as to be be an open space between the hub of the wheel rather nearer at top than at bottom. The yoke and the axle, into which the wheel would throw should be rather round than flat between the bows, mud and dirt, which would at once sweep out the to prevent galling. The chain of the foremost grease, and the constant and regular supply of grit oxen should not be hitched to the staple in the would wear out boxes and axle. But what would yoke of the tongue oxen, but to a clevice attached be worse than all, it would so much increase the to the end of the tongue of the cart, which should labor of the oxen. Inattention to making cart not be nailed to the top and bottom, but to the axles probably costs Virginia 1000 oxen annually. sides: and the wooden pin under the tongue which At best they are badly provided for, and the ad- is used to prevent the cart from running on the ditional labor which this imposes upon them, they oxen, should be sufficiently long not to let the end are very unable to bear, and as they become re- of the tongue touch the ground, which will preduced in strength, the lash is applied to supply the vent the clevice from being broken loose by the place of strength, and thus the poor animals are dropping down of the tongue. When fixed in murdered. An axle made in the way here recom- this way they pull much more, but cannot in any way pull much, compared to the tongue oxen. / any other kind of horse power that I have ever Some farmers drive three yoke to one cart, but seen. It performs the same work with less horsethere is nothing gained by it. A load of grain power or with more ease to the horses, than others, with us for one yoke of oxen is twenty bushels, because there is little or no friction, there being no for two yoke thirty bushels; so the foremost yoke gear wheels—the motion being obtained from the of oxen are allowed to draw only half as much as chain-band winding from the whirl in the band the tongue oxen; the third yoke of course would wheel shaft into the forked ends of the levers from draw only in proportion without allowing any thing which the horses draw, so that the whole strength for the weight of the cart. They do well in hot laid out by the horses, is immediately applied to and dry weather to walk before and kick up the turning the band wheel, without the usual loss dust, to suffocate those that are laboring behind, there is in geared horse-powers by friction. This and in the winter to pick their way and jerk those horse-power must, I think, be durable, as there is behind to the right and left that are doing all the but very little wear upon any part of it, except the work. One yoke well kept will do more work chain, and that, if it is kept out of the dirt and than three poor anes, because they pull to a much oiled, will wear a long time; and it being the same greater advantage.
kind of chain in common use upon plantations, it A marl cart body, for four oxen, should be made is very easily mended or made anew by common of light materials, and should be about six feet blacksmiths. long, lour feet two inches wide behind, three feet. Those horse-powers are light and portable, not ten inches wide before, all outside measure, and weighing, I presume, over 800 to 1000 pounds, one foot deep in the clear, and without a tail-board. but may be made stationary for the same cost of Then when loaded it will hold about fifteen bushels. portable ones, and their being but little cast iron The hooks and eyes should be three inches nearer about them, they may be easily made in any part behind than before. For further fixtures respect of the country, They are well adapted to giving ing this body, see a piece written by me, and pub-motion to a small grist mill, thrashing machine, lished in Vol. I, page 197, of the Farmers' Re- cotton gin, and for all other purposes for which gister.
horse-powers are used. Mr. Parker's price for EDMUND F, NOEL. them, including a good leather band and all ne
cessary fixtures, is $100; but, I presume, they may
be built for much less, where timber and labor are EMMONS' CHAIN-BAND HORSE-POWER, low, To the Editor of the Farmers' Register.
Of Cincinnati, Ohio, I have noticed in your Register of May last, an inquiry respecting Emmons' chain band horse, SKINLESS OAT, AND NUT BEARING PINE. power, advertised on the cover of a previous num
s num- To the Editor of the Farmers' Register. ber of your Register, by (the proprietors of the patent right for Virginia) Messrs. Jabez Parker &
Hickory Grove, Northampton County, ?. H. M. Smith of this city, and expressing a desire ! .
N. C. Ist October, 1834. to see a more detailed account of it from some In a visit to the Virginia springs during the past practical mechanic--of its applicability to a horse summer, I formed an acquaintance with a very mill, its cost, &c,, as also an account of the ma- worthy gentleman (Mr. Arthur G. Rose) from chinery made at Mr. Jabez Parker's agricultural Charleston, S. C., in whom I discovered a conmachine shop. And considering myself a practical geniality of taste with myself in experimenting mechanic, having served as an apprentice to, and upon the rare productions of nature. In our confollowed the machine making business for the last versations on the subject, I learnt that he had protwenty-eight years; and having travelled through, cured some of the "skinless oats," and the "nutand resided in the Northern and Western States, bearing pine," and he was kind enongh to promise and seen and witnessed the operation of the most me some of the seeds of both. On my return; of the horse-powers and other machinery now in home, a short time since, I was highly gratified to use; and having boarded for about four months find that they had safely arrived through my compast opposite to Mr, Parker's shop, which I have mission merchants in Norfolk, to whose care I very frequently visited, and noticed particularly requested Mr. Rose to consign them. I designed the before mentioned horse-power, (which he oc- sending you a few of them, but finding in the easionally uses in giving motion to a grist mill, August number of the Farmers' Register that a thrashing machine and circular saw,) as well as correspondent had sent you some of the oats, I the other kinds of machines made and sold at his shall herein send you six of the pine nuts, only. shop; I therefore consider myself a competent The nuts grow in a bur resembling a large unripe judge of them, and in the way of duty, as called bur of our common pine, (except the color, which upon to answer the inquiry in your Register before is the same as that of a perfectly ripe bur)-that mentioned, and as a friend to improvement, and is, the scales between which the nuts are enveto the agricultural community, I with pleasure loped adhere closely together. From the hardness undertake to do so.
of the nut I should infer, that it will take a cons I have not time to give a lengthy detailed account siderable time to vegetate. I design planting some of the chain-band horse-power, nor do I think it forthwith, both in the open ground and in a box, necessary: but this much I will say, that the one and also in the same way, early in the spring. Mr. Parker has in use works very well; it is the Mr. Rose informs me by letter, that he has two most simple in its construction; requires less horse Aourishing young trees from the seed, but does not power to do the same work; is apparently more say when the seed were planted, or in what mandurable, and less liable to get out of order, than ner, or whether the bur sent me grew on one of
his trees. He says the seed were brought from ty of Richmond. We have already noticed the Algiers. I recollect seeing some account of the exertions of Mr. John Carter—the various grapes nut-bearing pine, (perhaps in the "American Far- which he has cultivated, and the wines he has mer) sent to this country by Commodore Porter made. from Constantinople, but whether any attempt was! We have also been much gratified lately by a made to propagate it, and with what success, I visit to Mr. William Anderson's vineyard. It is have not learnt.
enriched by a variety of vines—foreign and doIn speaking of the skinless oat at the springs, mestic. The Catawba, the Isabella, and the after Mr. Rose left, some gentleman put into my Schuylkill particularly, flourish in great perfection hands “Atkinson's Saturday Evening Post for the -and the vines are this season loaded with the country," in which was a history of that grain; most delicious fruit. He will probably make three which stated that it was brought from "Chang- or four pipes of wine. tang," I think, an interior province in China, to We have been happy to visit the vineyard of Amsterdam, and from thence to England. But Dr. Norton, and to taste his wines. Among the the oat I have received from Mr. Rose, does not various specimens of the vine, to which he has come up to the description of it given in that paper. directed his attention, we saw the Catawba, the
Whilst writing on the subject of oats, I beg Isabella, the N. Carolina Scuppernong, but espeleave to inquire, whether there are on James cially the Norton's Virginia Seedling," which River, either above or below Richmond, a kind of seems to us to possess some very fine qualities.oat called the winter or spring oat. A gentleman We understand it has been produced by his imfrom Baltimore, who has an extensive acquain-pregnating the Bland grape flower with the pollen tance in Virginia, informed me that there was such of the genuine Burgundy grape. The new fruit an oat grown on James River or some of its wa- has the advantage of uniting the abundant sacchaters. Ir I understood him correctly, I inferred that rine character of the Burgundy with the never-failthe oats were sown in the fall of the year, and were ling productiveness of the Bland. The vine is a fit to cut in the spring, or at least much earlier than great bearer; and when the fruit is pressed, it prothe common oat. I have a kind of oat known duces a rich, luscious wine, which resembles the here, indifferently, by the names of the ruffled and Burgundy Madeira. The Doctor was also kind feather oats. I think they are preferable to the enough to show us his wines that had been extractcommon oat, but about ten days later. I divide ed from the Catawba and the Isabella—both of my crop about equally between them and the which are very agreeable. But, as the three vaiicommon oat, which I think is an advantage. Ieties are the produce of the last vintage, they of saw but few of them growing in Virginia, and course want the benefit of age to impart to them from the limited quantity, I inferred that they were all their excellence. These wines are the pure either not generally known, or were considered to juice of the grape, unadulterated with any foreign be inferior to the common oat.
spirit. The fermentation which they have passed The crops of cotton in this section of the coun- through, has produced alcohol enough to preserve try, wear a gloomy aspect, owing to an unpre- them in their strength and purity. cedented drought, which caused the cotton plant The Doctor has also in his vineyard, a fine redto shed its forms or squares, blooms and incipient dish grape, a native of Prince Edward, which he bolls, in a great degree, after the last working; has brought into notice. It promises to do well. succeeded by series of wet and warm weather, The experiment of Dr. Norton, of impregnating which produced the rot to an alarming extent, and one grape with the pollen of another, and of raiswhich continues up to this time; and, I think, I ing a new vine from the seed, and then engrafting am warranted in saying, that there will not be half the slips on the wild vine, opens a field of discovethe quantity made in this quarter, as last year. ry to the vine-dresser, to which no perceptible The same may be said of the corn crops, with the bounds can be assigned. It may lead to some of exception of the high fertile lands, and the alluvial the finest varie:ies, both for the use of the table, bottoms of the Roanoke-the latter being subject and for the making of wine. to freshets, we feel alarm in consequence of the We confess we were sceptics before, about the continued rains.
art of making good Virginia wine. We are so w. B. LOCKHART. no longer; and we congratulate our enterprising
neighbors on the results which their experiments P.S. I have concluded to enclose a few of the are calculated to produce. skinless oats, for the purpose of comparing with those you have. I find that the Chinese province of Chang-tang,
INSECTS AND THEIR DESTROYERS. or Chang-tong, is described as being a fertile re
Prince Edward, July 9th, 1834. gion, but subject to long droughts. It lies in about to the Editor of the Farmers' Register. the same latitude as part of North Carolina, and Worms, bugs, and other insects, do incalculable the adjoining, and other parts of Virginia; perhaps injury to the whole circle of vegetation. Scarcely in the same as the whole of North Carolina and a tree or plant is exempt from their ravages. Like Virginia--the capital, Toi-nan-fou, being in lati- time they hold their destructive course almost untude 36° 30', north longitude 117° 25', east.
seen, or but little observed, except in cases of ge
neral prevalence of some particular species, that CULTURE OF THE VINE, AND WINE-MAKING carry manifest destruction wheresoever they arNEAR RICHMOND.
pear. Yet it must be certain, that such infinite From the Richmond Enquirer.
numbers as occupy almost every foot of the earth,
must consume and injure a very large portion We are happy to see the attention, which has of its vegetable productions. Every means that been paid to the culture of the grape in the vicini- I can be devised to lessen their numbers, or to pre
vent their increase, should be adopted. The in- sums of money for the produce of small quantities crease of every innoxious animal that preys upon of land. Three or four years since, teasels were insects, &c., should be promoted, Birds are gene- sold at 75 cents per thousand, and some as low as rally their enemies, many species of birds are very 67 cents; now the manufacturers give from $2 37 little injurious to vegetable production, and others to 2 50 per thousand. Two farmers in Williamsnot at all so, as bats, both leather-wing and feather-burgh have recently sold teasels to the amount of ed, the whole marten and swallow tribes, which 1500 dollars. In Hatfield, a single acre has in prey alone on insects, and do no harm to any thing some instances yielded 100,000 teasels, which have valuable to man, except the bee-eater--and these brought over 237 dollars. There are very few should be made the special objects of protection by acres, however, that do this. Two years are nethe agriculturist. If you think likewise, can you cessary to bring a teasel crop to maturity; the not call the attention of your readers forcibly to plants require much care and labor, and are liable this subject, and implore the clemency and protec- to be winter-killed and to other injuries. After the tion of the community for the whole race of birds price fell to 67 or 75 cents, the cultivation was reand other animals, which do either little or no linquished by many, and the present high prices harm to any useful production of the earth? Could are owing to a great diminution in the quantity not our high-minded generous Southern brethern raised. particularly, be induced by a hint from you, to abstain from killing and eating the innocent martens
RAINY DAY REFLECTIONS OF A PRINCE EDthat do nothing but good? And could not our
WARD FARMER. own people be induced to spare the lives of the harmless highland frogs and lizards, &c. &c. To the Editor of the Farmers' Register. CHARLES Woodson.
| After the drought which has been severely felt in our county for some time past, the morning has
set in with a gentle and refreshing rain-refreshTO GIVE TO NEW CHEESE THE FLAVOR OF
ing to the tobacco crop; but the largest portion of OLD
the corn has passed the period when the benefiFrom the Agricultural Journal. Jcial effects of rain would have been felt. As I it be required to communicate to a new will probably be within doors most of the day, I cheese the flavor and appearance of an old one, it know not how to spend my time more pleasantly may be done by the insertion in the new cheese of than by making some remarks on farming: not portions of the old one containing blue mould. that I have the vanity to think that any thing The little scoop which is used in taking samples of which may drop from my feeble and inexperienced cheese is a ready made means of performing the pen will greatly promote the agriculture of our operation, by interchanging ten or a dozen of the country, but that il' possible I may be able to prerolls which it extracts, and placing them so as to vent the formation of gullies, and promote the fildisseminate the germ of the blue mould all over |ling up of those already formed. the cheese. A new Stilton cheese treated in this. The present degenerate state of agriculture in way, and well covered up from the air for a few Middle Virginia, seems to be owing principally weeks, becomes thoroughly impregnated with the to two causes, viz: grazing and injudicious ploughmould, and generally with a flavor hardly to be ing. What is known as the "three shift system," distinguished from the old one. I have sometimes is the one almost universal in this country. While treated half a Lancashire cheese in this way, and some have adopted a better system, yet as a gehave left the other half in its natural state, and neral observation it is true, that our farmers have have been much amused with the remarks of my no standing pastures for their cattle. While in friends on the striking superiority of the English other parts of the State which have adopted a over the Scotch one,
system of improvement on their lands, the luxu| riant and fertilizing clover is seen to carpet every
field at rest, ours are trampled and grazed to barMANGE IN HOGS.
renness by little half starved cattle and sheep, From the Southern Pianter. which can hardly by unceasing industry through McDonough, Ga. 19th May, 1834. la long summer's day, get enough hen-nest grass
and broom-straw to keep them alive. After harMr. Editor-During my travels through the vest all the sheep, hogs, cows, and horses, are state, especially in towns and villages, I see a vast driven to the stubble-field, to devour the scanty number of swine dying with what is called the provision made by nature to improve the soil. I mange, while many others are upon the eve of ex. have no doubt that land would iniprove if suffered piring. This disease is very easily cured if persons to rest every third year, (land which has not been would only take the trouble of pulverizing sulphur, entirely killed by injudicious management) simply anl give to each hog affected one table spoonful in by an effort of nature to that effect; but this kind a little corn meal dough twice a week fortwo weeks; of management would produce barrenness in the they will shed the scurf and become perfectly clean most fertile lands I have ever seen, much more on and fatten. The sulphur at the same time de soils naturally thin, sandy, and subject to wash. I stroys lice and fleas on the swine. S, M. have doubts whether or not this part of Virginia
can ever be profitably employed as a grazing TEASELS,
country, under the best system that can be applied, From the New Hampshire Gazette.
Be this as it may, we have convincing evidence
arising from the diminution of our products, and There has been a great rise in the price of the the numerous galls and gullies on almost every teasel or fuller's thistle, and some farmers in Hat- farm, that it will not do at the present day. Arfield and Williamsburgh have lately received large guments have been used in favor of large stocka of cattle; but all reasoning, however plausible it, and intellectual point of view. As to the truth of may seem at first view, must be rejected as falla- this remark I shall not undertake to speak; this cious and unsound, which leads to results diamet- must be done by some one better qualified to do it rically opposite to those desired by every judicious with impartiality than the writer;—but will those farmer. The manure of a drove of cattle is a who value those things as they should, together small consideration when placed as an offset with a healthy climate and good market, go on ag unst the evils of grazing; for after all he has with a system which has inflicted so heavy a only a part of the herbage transferred from one curse on this part of Virginia, and if not forsaken part of the farm to the other. The same reason- will eventually render the rest a “howling wildering will apply to winter as well as summer. The ness?" If we should stop even at this late day and requisite quantity of provender for keeping a stock adopt a system of unyielding improvement, our of cattle as they should be, would amount to more country which in many places has grown gray in manure, it spread on the land, than if eaten and youth, might again, by plaster and clover, be trod during the winter. If this reasoning be just, I made to smile in all the beauty and freshness of and if we will keep more catile than our interest the "Old Dominion.” Then we should feel strong dictates, for one I must look on the distemper which inducements to stay in Virginia, much stronger has taken off such numbers of cattle in the south, than some feel to seek a home in the uncuilivated not as it is generally viewed, but as a remedy for wilds of the West. Should not every consideraone of the sorest evils which has befallen our ag- tion induce us to do it? Our own private interests, riculture. When the distemper comes and takes those of our children and of our country, conspire half of our cows, (and it generally takes a larger in a loud and united call for thorough and instanproportion) more ample provision can be made for taneous reform. those that are left, and less injury will be inflicted
A. A, L. by grazing, while at the same time the profits in Aug. 20. 1834. butter, milk, &c. will be more ample from the few, than from the many.
With these unconnected reflections, I leave this COTTON-ITS INTRODUCTION, AND PROGRESS part of the subject, and pass on to one of equall OF ITS CULTURE, IN THE UNITED STATES. importance—that of ploughing. I lay it down as
From the Southern Planter. a maxim, the truth of which will not be questioned by any one who makes just pretentions to skill Gossypium or Cotton, a genus of the polyandria in any business, that whatever is worth doing at order, belonging to the monodelphia class of plants, all, is worth doing well. If this be the case in and in the natural method ranking under the 37th other matters, it must apply with increased weight order, Columnisera. The calyx is double, the exwhen brought to bear on the subject of farming-terior one tripid, the capsule quadrilocular, the an occupation which gives prosperity and support seeds wrapt in cotton wool. There are four speto all others—the main-spring of all trades and cies, all of them natives of warm climates-İst. professions. Judging from the manner in which Herbaceum or common herbaceous cotton, has an most of our operations on the farm are performed, herbaceous smooth stalk, two feet high, branching we conclude that this rule is not respected as it upward, five lobed, smooth leaves, and yellow should be, even by those who acknowledge its flowers from the end of the branches, succeeded correctness. Of this class (and a numerous one by roundish capsules full of seeds and cotton.-28. I am pained to say it is) are those who plough up The Hirsutum or hairy American cotton, hath and down hill. Reason with people on the impro- hairy stalks branching laterally two or three feet priety of such a practice, and they will tell you high, palmated three and five lobed hairy leaves, they hav'nt time to turn at short rows—that theirs and yellow flowers succeeded by large oval pods is the "good old way"--as if their lands would not furnished with seeds and cotton. 3. The Barwash, and as if a gulley formed in the day, it badense or Barbadoes shrubby cotton, hath a would close up in the succeeding night. After all shrubby stalk branching four and five feet high, that has been written on the advantages of hori-three lobed smooth leaves gladulous uuderneath, zontal ploughing, all that has been seen of its and yellow flowers succeeded by oval pods congood effects in improving the lands, and after taining seeds and cotton. 4ih. The Arboreum years of experience of evils on the opposite side or tree cotton, hath an upright woody perennial they will still persist. This is what I call Thom-stalk branching six or eight feet high, palmated sonianism (in other words quackery) in farming; four or five lobed, smooth leaves, and yellow flowand the effects of the one on the soil will work its ers succeeded by lurge pods filled with seeds and own cure eventually, though as certainly as the cotton.- Encyclopedia Britannia, vol. 8, p. 21. other has burned and steamed itself to death in The above extract will more satisfactorily give many infatuated communities of our country. the classification or order in which the cotton plant Thousands of acres of land are now to be seen, stands in the vegetable world than I could do, and once valuable and highly productive, now not I have the more readily adopted it, because it disworth the taxes. I think we should profit by the tinctly embraces all the cottons that are extensiveexperience of such farmers, and that the day has ly cultivated in the United States, and little need come when we should have a better reason for do- be added except that the seeds of the first and seings things as some of us do than the one which cond varieties, besides the cotton wool that covers actuated the young Dutchman when he preferred them, have the seeds in whole in the second variethe old road up to the axletree at every step with ty, and in part in the first, covered with a close stiff mud_"my fader did drive dis way, and I short fur very analagous to the under fur of an drive dis way too."
| animal; and in the United States all the cottons In old Prince Edward many are disposed to seem to have an increasing propensity to the prothink this the garden spot of creation in a moral duction of the fur or down. It increases the diffi