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result to this inquiry cannot be obtained before the our middle and southern Atlantic States than a nuexperiment has been carried on in various sites, merous population of honest, industrious and sober soils, and expositions, and at considerable distances people?" If it be not one of the principal duties of from each other. The particular kinds of grapes governments to aim at producing such a state of suitable for the different soils and situations, is also things, in the name of common sense, what were a subject of no trifling difficulties, and the solving they instituted for? Were they formed merely to of them requires, of course, many and very care- pilter, worry, vex, render criminal, and punish fully made experiments. The effect of the insuf-poor simple man? It such be their objects, give oficiency of experiments on this particular subject, me anarchy and the savage state. has been a hasty conclusion, that foreign grapes Taking things as they are, however, may we will not do in this country, thereby discarding at not succeed in some degree in cultivating the vine one fell sweep, a whole, and probably the best to advantage? Time and perseverance will undoubtfamilies of the vine, from which success should edly effect what might have been done by more sure have reasonably been expected. I do not intend, and speedy means; and let us endeavor to correct by this, to intimate that we cannot hope for success our errors and proceed as well as we may in our from our native vines; for I believe that many are circumstances. On examining carefully this fruitful very valuable--and especially, great expectations subject, we find that, in some localities, several of may be formed from vines raised from the seed of the varieties of the vine which have been cultivanative vines, impregnated with good foreign ones: ted here, not only succeed well, but very seldom but the fault usually found with the imported vines, fail of producing a plentiful crop. Whether this is also frequently found (in unsuitable situations) be due to soil, exposition, or other cause, we ought with some of the native ones; some of which will to be satisfied that whatever may be, and is acturot, decay, or otherwise fail in the same manner ally done on a small scale, cannot be absolutely as those imported. By thus rejecting, without impossible on any scale, soil, &c., being suitable. sufficient cause, all the imported vines, we give As for the cost necessary to obtain such a result, up the chance of producing those fine and elegant (if it can be obtained by any means in our power,) wines, for which foreign countries, and particularly it success could be once tolerably certain, it would Europe, are so celebrated. To take a detail view be of no consequence; for what could be too exof these numerous experiments, is almost certain pensive that would produce from $500 to $1,500 to produce an abandonment of the difficult task; I per acre? We must next consider whether the for each of them requires many years to afford a object is worthy of the effort. Not taking now in satisfactory result, and several of the trials can the account the great and public advantages, or only be made one after the other. It seems to the possible great pecuniary profits, merely hinted follow, from all this, that these experiments are at above, some of the individual advantages may above the means and perseverance of men in their be detailed. A farmer, a country gentleman, or individual capacities, unless possessed of great even one residing in a town as a professional man, wealth, and an unchangeable determination to fol-or a man of wealth retired from business, may cullow them on to a successful termination. I have tivate, in his leisure moments, by himself and his long come to the conclusion, that experiments of house servants, from one-eighth of an acre to one this nature should be undertaken at the expense, or two acres of vines, according to his means, his and under the protection of government, or of industry and his zeal; and from this source of large and wealthy patriotic associations, capable healthful, interesting, and most innocent amuseand willing to pay competent men to carry them ment, he will obtain in usual seasons, a most abunon in the various soils and situations of the country; dant supply of a wholesome beverage, a wine which and, with sufficient means, they (or most of them) he will know to be pure and unadulterated. He may be undertaken simultaneously, by which, time will be able to make at least two kinds of wine and expense would be greatly economised. First from the same grapes, and gradually improve in ascertain that a particular culture is desirable and the qualities of each as he acquires experience in its advantages great, (and those from the culture the making of them. These wines will excite in of the vine are incalculable, in moral, political, and him an honest pride in regaling his friends with financial points of view,) and, after this, why hesi- the product of his own industry, and protract and tate to adopt adequate means of success?
invigorate that health which he will have estabI know it will be said, that it is contrary to the lished by the cultivation of his vines. He will spirit of our governments and institutions, to un-form in his family and domestics, habits of indusdertake any thing of this sort at the public expense, try, useful exercise, sobriety, and consequent hapand that the enterprise of individuals will soon ef- piness, and his posterity will bless his memory. lect it, if it promises profit to them. . It appears. As you seem disposed, Mr. Editor, to republish to me, that the expense and care of an enterprise one or more pieces of mine, formerly published in should be incurred by those who are to derive the the American Farmer, it may not be unnecessary advantages—and the country is to derive them; for to say a word concerning the discrepancies that is it not a public benefit, that the citizens should seem to exist between my present observations and be temperate, industrious, moral, and the country some in former pieces. Not that I care for what itself increase in a denser and happy population is usually understood by consistency, for I sincereIt cannot be doubted at this day, that drunkenness is ly wish to be only consistent in my attempt at comparatively unknown in wine countries, and that stating the truth, and in doing whatever little good the cottage of the vine cultivator is the abode of I may have in my power. It will be found in industry--therefore of honesty and happiness; some of my former writings, that I reject the idea that each individual can cultivate only a limited of any very great difficulty attending the culture extent of vineyard, hence a dense population is of the vine; and, notwithstanding all that I may the necessary consequence. Is there any thing have said above, I still say the same thing. The more desirable in any country, and particularly in knowledge of the thing, trifling though it may be,
must be had; but having the proper kind of vines growth, so well inured to the climate; besides planted in a suitable soil, the difficulties all vanish, which, I had received it several times from differor none remain but such as any man with a little ent quarters as a native, that I was warranted in practice and a common understanding, can usually my supposition; but I have no doubt now of its overcome.
being an imported one. The instability of our climate is undoubtedly at
N. HERBEMONT, great obstacle to our cultivating the vine in this country, in any situation indiscriminately. The ON OBTAINING NEW AND IMPROVED VARIElast season is a very striking example of this. We
TIES OF GRAIN BY CROSSING. had here, frost as late as the 17th of May,-much!
To the Editor of the Farmers? Register. later than I had ever known it. The weather continued cold sometime longer; and when the tem- ' In sending my monied contribution to the Farperature changed, it rose at once, or rather in the mers' Register, which I am sure you will consider course of a few days, to almost the highest degree the best evidence that I could offer of its merits, to which it usually rises in the hotter parts of our I beg leave, very briefly, to suggest a few thoughts summer. Although that very late frost was not, on the subject of seed corn. I believe, then, that in many places, sufficiently severe to kill the young there is but one genus of wheat, and one of maize, bhoots of the vine, yet it must have checked vege-or Indian corn—and that all the varieties of either, tation very greatly: and it seemed to me to have known to me, are the results of climate, culture, produced a sort of paralysis, if plants are ever sub- seasons, soil, &c. &c.—and I believe, that by the ject to such a disease. The quantity of fruit agency of man, these results may be still further thrown out by the vines was very great, and there diversified, and made subservient to his good. By never was a prospect of a greater crop. It seems the agency of man, in the simple act of selecting however, that the vigor of the vines was insuffi- from existing varieties of wheat, the agricultural cient to nourish the fruit; and this high degree of community have been furnished with that called temperature producing a great exhaustion of mois- the Lawler, generally admitted to be less liable to ture from them, greater than their capability to injury by the Hessian fly, than any other known sustain the due equilibrium, the grapes withered variety-and from the fact, as I believe, that its and perished in a shorter time, and to an extent lower leaves, commonly called the boot, do not never known to me before. We have usually, in adhere closely to the stalk; but like the same leaves the first great heat in June, a period of rot or decay on rye, fade as the stalk begins to form, leaving like this; but never so destructive, and always leav- any deposite of eggs which would have been susing a quantity sufficient to have such a second pe- tained to the injury of the stalk, by a gentle presriod of rot, and still leave enough for a tolerably sure of the boot, to perish for want of that presgood crop. I have several times, I may say, or- sure. But whilst the Lawler wheat has the addinarily, after two such periods, obtained from my mitted quality of being less liable to injury by the vines in my garden, at the rate of from one thous- fly than any other known variety, it is cultivated and to one thousand five hundred gallons of wine reluctantly, from a belief that it is less producper acre, on about the sixth part of an acre. The tive in grain, than some other varieties. Now vines at my farm being much more exposed and reasoning from analogy, and not doubting the in still more sandy soil, have never done as fact, that by means of judicious crosses alone, the well as this; but it is an undoubted fact that the English breeders of cattle have been able to crewine produced from the more sandy and poorer ate new species of that stock, combining the best soil of my farm is of a superior quality to that made qualities of several varieties—why not expect like from my garden.
results from like means, if made to operate on It is worthy of notice, that wherever vines are wheat or Indian corn? For instance, we desire a protected by houses, &c., they are proportionably kind of wheat that shall unite the qualities, say of free from the effects of these periods ol' rot or de- the blue stem and Lawler-is it not very reasonable cay. Situations, therefore, sheltered by mountains, to suppose, that from the seed of these varieties hills, &c., are likely to prove the most advanta-promiscuously grown in the same field, a stalk geous for the vine, particularly where the soil con- would be found, here and there, exhibiting the tains calcareous matter, or is otherwise suited loose boot of the Lawler, and the many grained
How far these views of mine may be correct, head of the blue stem? If yea, my theory for it is very difficult to say; for, I have had generally, creating a vew variety of wheat is establishedvery strong reasons for attributing the rot to the and the world is welcome to it, without a charge great rains which we usually have in the latter of patent fees. But that which, in my own opinpart of June, after a long and severe diought. ion, is only probable as to wheat, I have no doubt The operations of nature require a very close and is true in relation to Indian corn, for every body accurate observer, who has time, and knowledge knows (or may know by a single experiment) that to bring to his assistance, or else the results of his any two or more varieties of Indian corn, when observations will scarcely be any thing but a chap- promiscuously grown in the same field, mix freely ter of contradictions.
and extensively, combining in the product the You ask me, sir, what is the origin of that vine qualities of the parent seed, more or less equally which is called “Herbemont's Madeira.” It is a as it may happen: thus affording the planter of vine which I found cultivated by the name of "Ma- this invaluable grain, by the casiest means imadeira” in this place when I first came to it. I had ginable, an opportunity of fashioning his corn to for a long time, reasons to believe it a native vine; his own fancy, And yet how few for that conbut a gentleman of Georgia, to whom the culture sideration, or the still greater of adding to the of the vine is very greatly indebted, (Mr. Thomas' contents of their crib or their purse, have ever McCall,) assures me that he knew it to have been made an effort to improve their corn? As excepimported from France. It is so vigorous in its tions 10 a negligence so general, I consider it my
duty to say, that there are two gentlemen in this celebrated as orator, statesman, and general, hav. county who have made very laudable efforts to ing conquered nations and governed provinces, improve their corn by means of a careful annual derived the highest and most durable honors from selection of seed. The fancy of one led him to having written a voluminous work on agriculture.'' desire that his corn should excel in weight, and Virgil has lent his genius to the same topic, and making his selections with that view, but only embodied in the flowing harmony of his numbers, from his own crops, has brought it, as I am well and the glowing beauties of his versification, the assured, to the unusual standard of upwards of precepts and the pleasures of the farmer's life. sixty pounds to the bushel, being about five pounds Pliny; Varro, and many other Romans of equal heavier than mine, which I would reluctantly have celebrity, composed treatises on the same subject, rated below the average of the county. I have and were held in high estimation as public benecompared this improved corn with my own, be- factors, for contributing their aid to the improvecause I believe that both are from the same variety, ment of the tillage of their country. The Greeks. as it existed twenty years ago, proving most con- also, devoted as they were to politics, cominerce, clusively, what may be done, if we would only and conquest, did not neglect the business of agtry to do.
riculture, but gave a portion of that genius which The other gentleman whose efforts to improve had illuminated so many other subjects to an eluhis corn are so commendable, seems to have ex- cidation of the principles of rural economy. Hesiod. perimented more with a view to quantity by mea- Xenophon, and others, have written on this subsure than by pounds; and instead of selecting for ject. Other nations of ancient times held this art seed, such ears as he would like his next crop to in high esteem, and contributed to accelerate its have, prefers taking the upper ear of stalks bear progress. The Carthagenians carried it to a high ing two or more ears--and he appears very con- state of perfection for the age in which they lived. fident, that this mode of selecting seed, continued In modern times, the inhabitants of other counfor, say the last twenty years, has given him a tries and other states of this confederacy, have species of corn, which hardly ever fails to have done much to advance it. Philanthropists have two ears to the talk-and that his crops have been expended their efforis on its improvement-philosgreatly increased since he adopted it for cultiva-ophers have investigated and speculated upon its tion.
theory and practice, and statesmen and states have
contributed substantial aid to its advancement. An Rockbridge, Nov. 18th, 1834.
employment which occupies seven-eighths of the population of all civilized communities, which is
the source of occupation, and the paymaster of all Extract from the journal of the Agricultural Society of King other trades and professions, is certainly one well William and King and Queen.
worthy the investigation of the scientific, the patResolved, That Mr. William Boulware be re- ronage of the benevolent and patriotic, and the quested to furnish a copy of his address to this protection and bounty of governments. The econmeeting for publication.
omists of the 18th century, perceiving its superior THOMAS HAYNES, Secretary.
importance in a state, and the intimate connection
and dependence on it of all other departments of A SKETCH OF AN ADDRESS DELIVERED BE- industry, were led erroneously to consider that aga
FORE A MEETING, CONVENED AT AYLETT's, riculturists were the only producers, and the rest of KING WILLIAM COUNTY, FOR THE PURPOSE mankind mere consumers. In the commenceOF FORMING AN AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY ment of this art the principles of science have
been applied with much advantage. Chemistry By WILLIAM BOULWARE.
has poured a flood of light on the whole circle of An interesting subject has called us together. agricultural topics. By it, much that was doubtAmong all the arts, sciences, and professions of ful has been decided; much that is new and valuman, there is rone so comprehensive in its influ- able bas been added, and the means are afforded ence, and so universal in its interest as agriculture. by chemical analysis, of establishing principles and All the citizens of a state are blessed in its pros- practice as sure and determinate in agriculture, as perity, and all languish and suffer in its adversity. in the science of mathematics, or any other. It It is the basis on which repose all other arts; and, has torn down the pillars that sustained the fabrics indeed, civilization itself; for without it man would of many systems built up amid darkness and ignobe a wandering savage, roaming the forests in rance, and in their place has afforded the instrusearch of an uncertain and scanty subsistence. ments for rearing a science on a basis firm as adaThe Egyptians appreciated so highly its benefits, mant, and lasting as truth. By an analysis of that they ascribed the invention to one of their the soil, whatever is noxious may be detected; Deities, and in the excess of their gratitude wor whatever constituent is wanting that is necessary shipped the ox for his services in the cultivation of to the crops proposed to be grown, may be ascerthe soil. The nations of antiquity soon learned to tained, and thus the character of land and its vaestimate the art of agriculture, and in many re- lue be decided. A specimen of a soil of good apspects Virginians of the 19th century have cause pearance but remarkable sterility, was placed in to blush at their inferiority. In the purest period the hands of Sir H. Davy for his examination. of the Roman Republic, to be called "an indus- Upon a chemical analysis he detected sulphate of trious and judicious husbandman," was esteemed | iron. This he knew to be unfavorable to vegetathe highest encomium that could be given an il- tion, and recognized it immediately as the source lustrious character, The most distinguished citi- of the sterility. The remedy was obvious to the zens devoted their talents and labor to the cultiva- chemist-a top-dressing of lime, which converted tion of the soil, and the improvement of the mode' the poisonous principle into a manure. The lime of husbandry. “M. Cato, the censor, who was, was applied, the sulphate of iron was destroyed, for the sulphuric acid which was in combination is lost. There are very many estates of which with the iron, on account of its greater affinity for the produce of the soils talls für short of rendering the lime, united with the lime and produced sul- the owners a legal interest on the whole investphate ot' lime, which is the plaster of Paris of ments, and the only means of sustaining so unprocommerce. Thus was the poison of the soil ren- fitable a business, is to raise negroes for the southdered a fertilizing and valuable constituent, and ern market. the barren land became very productive. Again, Blessed with a soil naturally productive, and it is at this time a controverted point in our section well adapted to a great variety of crops, in a cliof country, whether manures would better be ap- mate mild and genial, midway between the "driftplied before decomposition, or thrown out and ex- ing snows and driving sleets of the North, and posed to suffer a thorough putrefaction. My im- the poisonous exhalations and burning suns of the pression is, that a majority have adopted the latter South, we have nothing to accuse but our own opinion. The same distinguished chemist has waywardness and prodigality in squandering the shown, to a certainty, that in the process of fer- bounties with which a kind providence had enmentation and decay, there is a loss of one-half or riched us. While other countries have been immore in weight, and an escape of a large quantity proving their lands, and increasing their products, of carbonic acid and ammonia, which are both very ours has been the downward course of deterioranutritious to plants. The odors which escape from tion and destruction. While England has been our manure heaps, and assail and disgust our ol- doubling her products every twenty-five years, factories and contaminate our atmosphere, would, while New England, and most of the States if preserved, contribute to the sustenance of crops north of us, have been very rapidly augmenting and the subsistence of man. But it has been said theirs, we have continued in the habits of our that experiment has decided that a crop that has fathers, rejecting improvements, and have been received rotted manure will be more abundant. going on to destroy the fertility that remained after This may be true as to the first crop, and yet the so long a period of exhaustion. The relative dipermanent utility of the manure be diminished minution of our exports, the slow increase of our one-half and more. And if there be a necessity population, compared with that of many other for fine rotted manure, the loss may be prevented States; nay, the absolute decrease in fourteen by throwing on the heaps previous to fermentation, counties east of the Blue Ridge, the rapid tide of earth to absorb and preserve the fertilizing princi- emigration that is making out from our confines, ples that would otherwise be evaporated. Thus all attest the disease that is wasting the energies the investigations of the chemist assist the agri- of Virginia, and blighting her once fair prospecte. culturist. But with us, in Virginia, for the most While her population is yet sparse, her citizens part, but little application has been made of sci- flee from her-the ties of kindred, the endearments ence in the cultivation of the soil. Heretofore, of home, all the tender associations that cling improvements that have been introduced, and dis- round the place of their nativity, cannot bind them, coveries that have been made of practical utility for their wasted fields yield them a poor subsistelsewhere, have been received by us with indif- ence. They wind their way to the far distant ference and neglect. Indeed, with many, a pre- South and West, and take refuge on soils not yet judice seems to exist against every thing of the marred and destroyed by the reckless hand of kind. Changes are denounced as innovations, and man. Mr. Jefferson in his Notes, written in 1782, the cry of theory is sufficient to overthrow the predicted that in 1835, our population would be most important fact. Theory is the bugbear that 2,2700. By the census of 1830, we have fallen frights their imagination, and woe is pronounced short a million of it. At that time Virginia was on the man who is the victim. Singular as it may the first State in the confederacy—first in wealth, seem, such individuals are usually the most per- strength, and population. She has now fallen to severing, devoted, and inveterate theorists. "So be third, and in a short time will probably be enamored are they of those of their own concep fourth. But need we wonder at this result, when tion, that they give no ear to those of others. For we contemplate the system of husbandry that has all the phenomena which they witness, they as- been so long practised among us? Ours has been sign abundant causes, and they are fluent on the for the most part, a regular succession of clearing relations which facts bear to each other. The and killing, and clearing and killing again, until misfortune is, that often there is no connection be- there is but little left of the original forest, and we tween their causes and their phenomena, and no have nearly realized the fable of killing the goose existence for the relations of their facts, save in to get the golden egg. We have pursued the protheir own minds. When this is the case, an erro- cess of depletion and exhaustion to that extreme, neous practice is the inevitable result. This has that the patient must expire unless there is a had its influence, combined with many other change of practice. Intelligent travellers have alcauses, in producing the present state of our agri- ready described a large portion of that section of culture. Such is the impoverishment of many the State lying between the head of tide-water and farms under the system of tillage that has prevail- the sea shore, as barren wastes, affording a bare ed, that they will not restore the husbandman subsistence to a thin and scattered people. But I the expense of cultivation. It has been estimated, rejoice that the energies of our soil are not exand I am inclined to think, correctly, that the cost hausted, though lamentably worsted and enfeebled. of cultivation averages in Virginia, five dollars per I believe that with judicious treatment, the "vis acre. There is much land in our vicinity, and medicatrix naturæ" will resuscitate our suffering that too in cultivation, which does not yield pro- earth, and restore her to her gay and brightest exducts that would sell for half this sum. But if it istence. The original vigor of her constitution brought the full amount, that only pays the cost of will facilitate the efforts of the physician. In malabor, and the wear and tear of implements; and ny cases there are reposing in the bosom of our the interest upon the capital invested in the land, land, inexhaustible stores of fertility, laid up, it would seem, against this hour of need, and we modes of management canvassed, and the expehave only to apply them and receive a rich reward. rience of members elicited on the various points of Upon other farms not favored with calcareous husbandry. They promote experiments. There treasures, there are almost universally, other is nothing more wanting in our section of country sources of enrichment, which preclude doubt and than a series of accurate experiments on the vadespair as to the possibility of recovery. I cherish rious modes of culture and improvement here, and the hope that a change has already commenced, elsewhere, with a view to ascertain which are best which portends much good to Virginia. The es- adapted to our soil and circumstances. This is a tablishment of an agricultural paper among us, new field for investigation—for such has heretofore edited with great ability, well sustained by contri- been the extraordinary apathy of ourcitizens, that butors, and supported by an extensive patronage, notwithstanding the reports that have reached is a most favorable omen. A spirit of improve them of the wonderful products of farms in New ment appears to be abroad: experiments in culti-York and elsewhere, they have, for the most part, vation, investigations into the modes of culture in walked in the good old way, that has come down other countries, and an examination of the princi- to them sanctioned by ancestorial usage. The ples of agriculture are now heard of among us. information which we have derived from books, These are auspicious signs.
and periodicals, has been, until recently, obtained But there is wanting some bond of union among exclusively from experiments made in other secfarmers-something which may connect them in tions of country. These should be made on our one body, dignify the profession as a separate in- own soil and among our own citizens, and I doubt terest, and give it power and consequence. Agri- not, that many facts would be ascertained of great cultural societies are what are now wanting. "In practical utility. Another advantage of these sosome places where such institutions have first been cieties is, in the manifestation of the value of vaproposed and formed, prejudices have arisen ried knowledge and science to the agriculturist. against them. It is possible that some of the same The subject is susceptible of a division into two feeling may exist here. They have been pro- parts—theory and practice. There is much imnounced of no practical utility. It is a general portance to be attached to each, and unless both be truth so clear that no one has ever had the folly to correct, there is danger of fatal errors. deny it, that individuals associated for a common One would scarcely expect to find an able surpurpose, whose feelings and energies are enlisted veyor, or a skilful statuary who had not studied in the attainment of one object, may enlighten, the theory of his art. Much less need we expect aid, and benefit each other. This being obvious, to see an able and successful farmer who manages what constitutes agriculture an exception? What his. estate to the best advantage, who has not is there in the nature of the case to prevent the learned the principles on which his art is based. usual effects of union and concert? It is an axiom There are good theorists whose practice is bad, that union is strength: why may not this force because they do not carry their principles into exbe as effectually applied to the improvement of ecution; but, there can scarcely be good practitionthe cultivation of the soil as to the colonization of ers of any art, whose theories are incorrect. As Africa, or any other object which societies have well might we expect figs from thistles, as good accomplished. Men coming together from difler husbandry from erroneous principles. When agent parts of a district, of unequal capacities and riculture is more studied, perhaps it will be found experience, brought up under different circum- that there is as much necessity for the establishstances, and having had different opportunities of ment of schools for its promotion, as for the enobservation, would be able to communicate much dowment of military academies and other instituthat was new and valuable, one to another. What tions—such as are the usual objects of the support one may never have tried, another may have sub- of governments. If the patronage of the state mitted to the test of experiment. What one may should be regulated by the importance of the obnever have thought of, another may have exam-ject, there is certainly none more worthy of its ined. What may have been invented by one, support. It is as much within the province of our another may have improved. What is unintelligi- legislature to establish a professorship of agriculble to one, another may explain. Thus would ture in our University, as that of Moral Philosothere be mutual improvement,each contributing his phy, or any other. There are many examples of store of observation and information, and receiving this kind in other countries. in return that of all the rest. What was private pro- Again, the farming interest, by uniting in assoperty, would become a common possession. The ciations of this kind, will increase its strength, encollected wisdom of the body would be attainable hance the respect due to the profession, and be by each member of it. There is no art that can able to act with more efficiency when its rights are be so perfected by individual skill, as by mutual in danger. It cannot be doubted, that the culticommunication. The sublimest geniuses that vators of the soil constitute more than nine-tenths have made discoveries and inventions both in sci- of the population of the United States. Here is ence and art, could have received assistance and much the greater portion of the wealth, and phybenefit from the co-operation of others. In the sical, and moral strength of the country. Let this works of Newton, errors have been detected by power be brought into harmonious action, and it is far inferior men, and corrections made. Upon the perfectly irresistible. The manufacturing interest inventions of Arkwright and Fulton, improve- is indebted for the power it has wielded, principalments have been made. Thus it is useful both to ly, to its acting in masses. Being collected for the the skilful and the ignorant, to avail themselves of most part, in establishmenis of from 100 to 1,000 the experience and information of others. Agri- persons, they have produced an impression by no cultural societies furnish one of the best means of means commensurate with their numbers. Ten diffusing useful intormation. At their meetings, disciplined soldiers will keep in subjection a hunthe results of experiments are detailed, the best dred citizens not united. C'pon a similar princi