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ple have the manufactorics exerted a power out of favor of the means suggested for the resuscitation all proportion to their intrinsic strength. Thus, if of the worn and exhausted energies of our soil. agriculturists will unite in societies, and cherish Washington, Madison, and many others, have their own interests, it is beyond the power of all borne testimony to the good consequences which other trades and professions together, to secure would be the natural result of societies properly legislation that is obnoxious and oppressive to this constituted and maintained. Let us avail ourselves department of industry. The natural tendency of the sources of fertility which abound among us; of societies of this kind is, to promote a spirit of let us enter with spirit, activity and perseverance, competition and improvement. When the mem- into improvements of our land and our system of bers are collected at their annual meetings, and cultivation, and we shall no longer suffer reproach statements are given of the modes of culture, the on account of the poverty of our soil, or its irraproducts and results, the advantages of judicious tional and wretched management. management will be so obvious and attractive, as to excite emulation. The habit of exhausting and

For the Farmers' Register. destroying the soil will give way to the calls of interest. When it is made so manifest that none PERFORMANCE OF A THRASHING MACHINE, can doubt, that it is more profitable to improve,

AND WHEAT FAN. than to destroy, the system of destruction will! We were present, by invitation of Jeremiah cease. At present, it is quite common to hear in- Nicols, Esq. of Kent County, Eastern Shore of dividuals calculating how long a piece of land will Maryland, on the 10th of September inst., to witlast. When accounts reach us of great crops that ness the operation of his thrashing machine, and are made at a distance, many are incredulous, wheat fan. others doubt if the expense of cultivation is not too The thrashing machine was put in motion, and large, and few are willing to attribute them to a was run without cessation, for one hour and fortygood, system of culture. But when some one nine minutes, when the stack of wheat was examong us produces one hundred and thirty, or one hausted. The straw was cleared away, and the hundred and seventy bushels of corn to the acre, machine again started, and worked without cessa(which have been made to the North, and which tion for one hour and thirty minutes, when the our lands with equal improvements are more com- second stack was finished. The sheet was then petent to produce, for our climate is more favora- spread, and the fan was put in motion, and worked ble,) then, perhaps, the faculty of sight will pro- until the sheet on which the fanned wheat was reduce conviction. The honor attached to pre- ceived, was filled; the time employed was twelve miums is also very efficient, in rousing and exciting minutes, and the product measured fifty-three to extraordinary exertion. A feeling of salutary bushels. The fan was again started, and continrivalry is induced which is well calculated to have ued to run fifteen minutes, when the sheet was happy effects. Again, the example of other coun- again cleaned, and forty-nine and a half bushels tries forms a powerful argument in favor of the measured up. The fan was again run for nine establishment of societies for the promotion of ag- minutes, when the wheat in bulk was exhausted riculture. The great improvement and immense --and, upon being measured, there proved to be increase of the produce of England, have been twenty-six bushels. The wheat scattered about generally attributed, principally, to her societies, the machine, and at the tail of the fan, and about and her National Board of Agriculture. An Eng- the floor, was estimated by us at from eight to ten lish writer, speaking of this latter institution, says, bushels--and Mr. Nicols has since reported, that “it made farmers residing in different parts of the after we left him, it was chaffed, and measured kingdom acquainted with one another, and caused ten and a half bushels. The statement, therefore, a rapid dissemination of knowledge through the stands thus:whole profession. The art of agriculture was Whole time of running the thrashing brought into fashion-old practices were amended machine,

. 3 hours 19 min. -new ones introduced-a degree of exertion Whole product,

139 bushels. called forth, heretofore unexampled in this island.” | Average per hour,

41 181 We have no reason to believe, but that similar ef- Or near 42 bushels per hour. fects would be produced here by the use of the Whole time of fanning,

36 minutes. same means. Bonaparte looking to the sources of Quantity chaffed,

1281 bushels. national wealth, and the means of augmenting the Average per hour

2145 do. resources of France, with his wonted sagacity, es- The occasion of the difference at the different tablished many agricultural societies and Profes- experiments with the fan was, that the richer sorships, Botanical and Economical Gardens for parts of the bulk, with less straw, and nearer to the exhibition of the different modes of culture, ihe fan, were first taken: there was afterwards more and the dissemination of plants. But we need straw, and the wheat was taken somewhat farther not travel abroad to see the salutary influence ex- from the fan; and the three hands with their baskets, erted by such institutions. The states of Massa- did not always keep the fan supplied. We think, chusetis and New York, have both taken these that a full supply of wheat would have produced societies into their patronage, and the former has throughout, as large a yield as the first twelve mincontributed largely to their funds. The appear- utes-which was at the rate of 265 bushels to the ance of these states, (and the Northern states hour. generally) where these associations exist, fully at- / The thrashing machine is one made by Arthur tests their happy effects. With climate and soil Kitchen, which has been running seven or eight by nature inferior to our own, they have surpassed years—was worked by four horses, and with a us in their products and improvements. I might, light draught. The lan was manufactured by Sinwere it necessary, quote the authority of the most clair and Moore, of Baltimore, with a slight alterillustrious politicians and patriots of our state in íation made by Mr. Nicols, who informs us, that until altered by him, it was with great diffi- , their attention to an affair where their interests culty, he could get 60 bushels chaffed in an hour are so deeply concerned, that I presume to offer with her.*

a few cursory remarks. As this is the season when In giving the number of bushels, we are to be the hopes which the husbandman had founded on understood, as intending clean wheat-an allow the success of his corn crop will either be realized ance having been made in measuring, more than or disappointed, they may perhaps, in addition to sufficient, in our judgements, to meet any dininu- the more practical remarks of other writers, be the tion in a subsequent tanning.

means of eliciting a greater degree of attention to The number of hands employed while thrash- a matter of no trifling importance to the interests. ing the first stack was-one man hand who drove of every farmer. all the time; one man hand who fed all the time; The observations which I have been enabled two who handed wheat to the feeder; one man to make on the corn crop under my care, and on chiefly engaged in oiling the machine; one man that of several surrounding farms, where the pracand a boy to load the cart at the stack and drive to ' tice of pulling fodder and cutting tors is pursued, the machine; one boy cutting the bands of the has been sufficient to convince me that the syssheaves, assisted by the man who oiled, and two tem is a bad one; I and have no hesitation in saymen attending to clearing the separator and re- ing, that the farmer who adopts this system, loses moving the straw-in all eight men, and two boys: one-fifth of what his corn crop would produce afterwards, in thrashing the second stack, and him were the blades and tops allowed to remain while fanning, one of the men who had been em- on the stalks until the corn became perfectly maployed in handing wheat to the feeder, was ab- tured. sent.

To a person even slightly acquainted with vegeE. F. CHAMBERS, table organology, it must be self-evident, that the THOMAS WILKINS, | leaves and tops of a corn stalk form one of its prinHIRAM BROWNE, cipal conservative parts, and as such, have important

BARTUS TREW. functions to perform in the vegetable economy of 15th Sept., 1834. .

that plant: and that these functions are indispen[The necessary exclusion of this communication sably necessary to the growth and perfection of from No. 6, (for want of space) has given us time to

| its reproductive organs cannot be doubted. Admit

this, and it naturally follows, that to deprive the write to Baltimore to inquire about the improvement

plant of these organs before they have fully comof the fan abovementioned. It is described as very pleted the functions which nature allotted them to simple--and perhaps our description may enable others perform, or before the whole vegetable economy to use it. The improvement by Mr. Nicols consists in of that plant is completed, and you inflict on it a two boards being placed one above the other, and positive and irreparable injury. If com, or any across the fan, and between the vanes which force other grain, be prematurely deprived of parts perthe wind, and the riddles. The parallel edges of the forming functions so indispensably necessary to its boards next the vanes are about nine inches apart, and propagation, as are its tops and leaves, whether

such deprivation be inflicted systematically or by six or seven towards the riddles. They form a kind

accident, shall so far tend to diminish the quantity of long funnel through which all the wind is directed of its produce, and it follows as a necessary conto the riddles and its force concentrated precisely sequence, that the quality even of that diminished where it is required.]

quantity suffers in the same ratio—thereby diminishing its nutritive qualities and weakening its re

productive powers, and by this means perpetuating ON THE LOSS CAUSED BY THE USUAL MODE the evil on every succeeding crop: a good crop

OF GETTING FODDER FROM CORN. cannot be expected from bad, or imperfectly ma

Brookfield, (Henrico,) 9th Nov. 1834. tured seed. To the Editor of the Farmers' Register.

Corn may justly be considered an indispensable In some of the foregoing Nos. of your Register, article of food in this section of country, and one several articles have appeared, deprecating the of the principal sources of profit to the farmer. system generally adopted, of pulling fodder from, Why then, should it alone, of all cultivated grains and cutting tops off corn stalks, before the corn and grasses, be subjected to this unnatural miode of itself is sufficiently matured. That this system is treatment?-for, that its tops and leaves are less highly injurious to the corn, and an injudicious essential to the properly maturing of its seed than mode of management, cannot be doubted. Some that of any other plant, cannot be admitted. The writers on this subject, have estimated the loss of farmer therefore, who adopts this system, is not corn, sustained by the stalks being thus premature- only guilty of a direct infringement on the estably mutilated, at from eight to twelve bushels per lished laws of nature, but also of inflicting a posiacre; how near either of these estimates may ap- tive injury on himself, inasmuch as he is the active proximate to the real general loss, I cannot from agent in so far destroying the remunerating part experience or observation, deterinine. Notwith- of his corn crop, without receiving any adequate standing the many articles which have been writ- compensation; for, under no circumstances will the ten on the subject, it does not yet appear that any fodder compensate him for the loss sustained in the of them have obtained that attention amongst quantity of his corn. Let him calculate his loss farmers to which they were justly entitled; and it of corn at one-fifth, (which I think, rather under is with a conviction of the importance of this mat- than above the real loss) add to this, the expense ter to agriculturists, and with a view of inviting of pulling and curing his fodder,even under the most

favorable circumstances, and he will find the ba* The improved fans will be manufactured and for lance heavily against him. I am aware, that on sale by Sinclair and Moore next spring.

many farms fodder is considered an indispensable

PHINEAS SANBORN.

hil

article of food for cattle in winter. Cases of this tops were cut, and those that were left uncut; but nature, may at first sight, exhibit some seemingly not exactly so with the second piece. In this, the plausible reasons for pursuing this system, on the blades on the cut rows were somewhat drier than law of necessity; but a little reflection will easily those on the uncut. At gathering time, we could adduce proofs that the general necessities of these not perceive any diflerence in the corn; but I was cases do not require any such heavy sacrifice. not as particular as Mr. Clark. If I had been, Any farm generally, capable of producing a tolera- perhaps I might have found much more difference ble crop of corn, will also, in most cases, produce than I observed. (I very much admire his mode an ample supply of corn, and other grasses for the of managing the experiment.) I continued the support of a stock of cattle on the farm throughout above experiments for three years, and found the the season, and at the same time be the means of result the same—since that time, I have only cut improving and ameliorating the condition of the the tops to feed my horses with, in a green state, soil.

finding it so difficult to save the tops in our wet secAs a means of coming to an exact knowledge tion of country. of the extent of the injury which the farmer in

Most respectfully yours, flicts on himself, and the community at large, by adopting so ruinous a system, it would be necessary to make various experiments in different sections of the country. Experiments of this nature,

[We present above, opinions both for and against the I am aware, have been repeatedly made; but ii is

common practice of stripping the leaves and cutting in the power of every farmer to try the experi- off the tops of corn, while the plant is still green and ment for himself—it can put him to very little in- full of sap. The experiments of Mr. Sanborn were convenience, and no extra expense. Suppose a made with so little care and attention to accuracy, (as portion of the corn field of any convenient or wish- he seems fully sensible of

he seems fully sensible of,) that they are but little to

tha ed for extent, be selected for the experiment, on be relied on-or rather, are entirely inconclusive. which, the corn is all equally good; divide this

This we regret, although his opinion is opposed to that into five equal divisions, containing each the same number of hills and stalks on a hill: from the first which we have several times expressed. The commudivision of this selected piece of corn let the fodder nication of our correspondent A. N. would have been be pulled and the tops cut, as generally done; far more valuable, if he had made and reported the refrom the second, pull ihe fodder from the whole of sults of some of the experiments which he proposesthe stalk, but do not cut off the tops; from the and we request of him, and of others, to make careful third, pull the fodder from the stalk only so far up

and varied experiments the next season. He was proas the ear, leaving the tops as in the preceding division; from the fourth, at the time when it is usual

bably prevented, as we were, from doing this the last to cut off the tops, cut the stalk even by the ground season, because it could not have been done so as to with all its leaves, and top on, and set it up in present correct results, and such as may be expected small quantities together;—(this part of the experi- in general. The long and severe drought of August ment would, I think, clearly prove that at this had more or less burnt the leaves of the plants generstage of the growth of the corn, that the leaves and op

ally when the grain was not more mature than is usual tops are a much more important conservative part of

when fodder is gathered and therefore, drought servthe plant than even the roots;) and in the fifth division leave the whole entire on the ground until ed to cut short the growth and filling of the grain, just the corn is perfectly matured-and when such is as gathering fodder might have done—and leaving the case, pull the corn from all the divisions on plants untouched, would have been attended with much the same day, and carefully weigh the product of less benefit than under different circumstances. The each separately. Probably some more eligible greatest injury must occur when the season is favorable method might suggest itself to some of your rea- to the most perfect maturity of the whole plant. ders—however, I think some general experiment

1 Preceding the extract which we have taken from such as the above, would at once show the imperfection, and consequent loss to the farmer of the

irmer of the Mr. Sanborn's letter, he had stated that when “stalks present system of pulling fodder and cutting tops. of corn are broken off at the first joint above the shoot, The sooner it is exploded the better for every before the corn, or even the cob ,is half made," instead

A. N. of being barren, or nearly so, “that these stalks gene

rally have the best ears on them. I have sometimes From the Farmer and Gardener.

pulled out the tassel when I could but just see it, but New Lebanon, Camden County, N. C.) September 26th, 1834. }

never knew a stalk to be barren in consequence of it.'

Of the first of these facts, our observations do not furI cut the tops of a piece of corn above the first nish either confirmation or denial—though our impresjoint in the following manner. I began with the sions were that the stalks broken off early by violent first row, left the next, cut the third, and so on, cut- winds, were not so productive. The latter fact we fulting every other row through the piece. This was ly admit---but draw from it quite a different conclusion. done when the corn was soft-say when it would The tassel is provided by nature (not as the leaves are, answer to roast. In about two weeks I cut ano- to elaborate and prepare the sap for feeding the plant, ther niece in the same manner, and watched the

and to gather other aliment by absorbing carbonic acid At the time my corn of the first piece was

ng we term it here, gas and water from the atmosphere, but) merely to .) I found it was as produce the fecundating farina, which is afterwards d, tind there was no scattered by the winds, and falls upon and impregnates 30 rows where the I the "silk," or female blossoins of the plants. This fa

firmer.

[graphic]

rina is furnished in such abundance, that if : busi ve toit diminution of the grain (whatever that of every second row of corn (or p. huic may be) almost a clear loss. We have never heard of many) were taken off before the

LD-*nch in experiment but once. This was made in 1888 ed, the remainder would be

.

by a very attentive and industrious fariner, whose work the plants in the field. But tor..

is generally executed well and economically, and who process, there a little doubi buit . - Le pro- may be relied on for the accuracy of his observations fitable, and cert,inly, not hurt út von To form and statements. He had no labor to furnish for securthe iurina, the flant mis make some ell it, and there- ing his fodder (from a field of very good corn,) except irits Dove sugg de nimewhat exhausted--and if that is that of some able young fellows then cutting wood for Į' bitki, (by removing the male blossoms) that ef- sale, and who were hired at the high rate of 49 the it would be directed to increase its grain, which month. They gathered and secured the fodder-and would 3 well impregnated from other plants. The from an accurate account of the time and expense, the benefit (under this supposition) would be similar to labor alone made the fodder cost its owner sixty-six that found in the increased tendency to fatten caused cents the one hundred pounds, which is nearly its usuby the castration of male animals. Soon after this al price at the stacks, after good seasons. The blades function is performed by the tassels, they wither and were stripped to the tassel, and of course, no tops become dry, and are evidently worthless as a part of were cut. In addition to the crop being very good, the still green plant-which is another reason for be- and of course being the more profitable to gather, the lieving that their being removed earlier could have season was good, and nothing lost by bad weather. A done no harm. But whether the drawing out the tas- different report would have to be made of such a seasel early would do good, or merely be not hurtful, it is son as the last, when the fodder was half burnt before altogether different from removing the top with all the being pulled, and a spell of ten days rainy weather ocle ses above the ear—and still more different from that curred before the whole crop could be secured.

ben preceded (as usual in the South) by As yet, there has been nothing known on this importElm all the blades below the ear-leaving none to ant subject in the Southern States, from actual expeIr il the speedy death of the before green plant. riments. Nothing is better worth the attention and in

Ni'r could it much affect the question if the very vestigations of our new agricultural societies -and if Pally cating of the tops in Mr. Sanborn's experiment a series of experiments were instituted, which would did no more harin than he believed. When mutilated clearly settle all doubts on the subject, the reports so early, the plant has time to recover by means of the thereof might prevent the loss of millions of dollars to leaves left, and it lives long enough still to provide the farmers of this region. One such series of experienough aliment to the grain. But when this is done ments, carefully observed, and satisfactorily reported. near the close of the plant's life, and when all the would do more for the welfare of agriculture, than all leaves are taken at once, or within a few days' time, the labors of all the agricultural societies that have yet no other effort can be made by nature, and the plant existed in Virginia. And yet this would be but one of dies from the mutilation. A healthy child, or robust a thousand such benefits which their properly directed youth, may have both legs amputated, and not only re- labors and investigations might produce.] cover, but appear as well, and live as long, as if no such loss had been suffered. Indeed, if only a single

For the farmers Register. case of this kind had been noticed, it would not be

DE PROCEEDINGS OF THE NEW LONDON AGRIvery strange that such a loss of limbs might be sup

CULTURAL SOCIETY. posed, (however unreasonably,) rather to increase the developement of the other limbs, and perhaps of the

The first Show and Fair, (fully attended,) of the

New London Agricultural Society, was held at man, in his general health and bodily powers. But

ou New London, on the first Tuerlay und Wednegcertainly it would be a most strange conclusion, that

at day of November, 1834.

u of NA because the man could bear this early loss, the like might be inflicted as safely, when his life was nearly

FIRST DAY. ended, and all his remaining energies were wanting for Hector Harris, chairman of the committee on sotne last effort.

Original Essays on Rural Economy, made a reIn addition to the loss in the growth of the grain port, recommending the Essay, by Achilles D. supposed to be caused by the usual mode of gathering Johnson, of Campbell, as entiled to the society's fodder, there are other important considerations to premium; which was adopted, and the premium which we wish to direct the attention of those wbo a

William L. Bell, chairman of the committee on will make experiments next year, for the purpose of grain crores, made a report, recomendug that testing the truth of either opinion. The loss of corn the society's premiumn for the highest product of in ears broken off in gathering fodder, is very great, maize, on any two con'iguous arremete given to but cannot well be estimated by itself. There is ano- Charles Anthony, of Campbell, for 190 bushels of ther expense, however, which may well be estimated god pierchantable com, Miule on two acres of al

luvial land, (rch river byttom:) and staing that -the actual cost of gathering and securing a crop of

Benjamin A. Doral, of Bedford, and Alexander blade and top fodder-add if properly estrated, we Austin, of Camall, were also competitors for the suspect it would in the average of wasons) be found same preunium, the former of whom hesi produsere to mount so nearly to the value of the crop secured, from two acres of alluvial land (a rich old unill pond) 152 bushels of the like eore itza inje. To 190.)th " have selected the following, as deservgon loads of pumpkins; and the lattei ili, bosvels. 11. file respetive premiums offered by the Socieof the like corn, from two acres of poor ruya with a single manuring; also recommending that is nie of pulpeling, nanufactured by Mrs. the society's premium for the highest product oi Dabni i9:10 Costs wheat on any two contiguous acres, be given to 2. A piece si fine linisien !, }', onufactured William Radiord of Bedford, for 1612 bushels of by Mrs. Alexandrini l oodanty, good merchantable wheat, made on 4acres of 3 A yarn counterpan unitarit','*: D *re. land, being about 36} bushels per acre; which was James Leftwich, of Brdoni. adopted, and the premiums awarded. *

L 4. A specimen of sewing sibh, mare factur!! Odin G. Clay, chairman of the committee on Mrs Robert Mills, of Bedford. stallions, brood mares, colts, fillies, jacks and The committee further reported, that the top and mules, made a report, recommending that the so- sundry other excellent articles exhibited to the use ciety's premium for the best stallion be given to spection, for which the society have oficred in J. Wright, of Bedford, for his stallion, Faultless, premiums: and should there be funds in the treaby Shakspeare; that the premium for the best brood sury, they would earnestly recommend that some mare, be given to William W. Austin of Camp- suitable premiums be awarded for the following bell, for his brood mare, Florizella; that the pre- articles, which they have selected with great care, mium for the best colt, be given to Robert Campbell, from a variety of others: which was adopted, and of Bedford, for his colt, Go-ahead by Shakspeare, the regular premiums awarded, together with the three years old, and that the premium for the best following: jack, be given to Francis Adams, of Campbell, for To Mrs. William Radford, of Bedford, for a cothis jack, Sancho; which was adopted, and the pre- ton counterpane, a silver cup. miums awarded.t

To Mrs. Claiborne Creasey, of Bedford, for a Robert Campbell, chairman of the committee on yarn counterpane, a silver cup. bulls, cows, calves, rams, boars and sows, made a To Miss Elizabeth Robinson, of Bedford fopo report, recommending that the society's premium bearth rug, for the best Durham bull, be given to John Smith, To Mrs. John Tyree, naririna of Bedford, for his full blooded bull, Bolivar; that of fancy work, the premium for the best bull, of common stock, be To Mrs. Charles M. orman, or (int belt.. given to John T. W. Read, of Bedford, for his piece of carpeting, bull, Clear-the-cow-pen; that the premium for the i To Mrs. Rowland M itarbell, for a best cow, be given to William Radford, of Bed- papaw carpet,

$3 ford, for his three-quarter Durham cow; that the To Mrs. William Adams, of Bedford, for a premium for the best calf, be given tó William piece of yarn cloth,

3 Owens, of Campbell, for his half-blooded Devon To Mrs. William L. Bell, of Bedford for a piece calf, Tecumseh, 10 months old, weighing 600 lbs; of counterpane, and that the premium for the best boar, be given To Mrs. William Steptoe, of Bedford, for do to John Callaway, of Bedford. The committee do, also reported, that there were several other very good To Mrs. Francis Adams, of Campbell, for do bulls, calves, and a cow, exhibited, to wit: the bull do Bishop, by Ralph Smith of Campbell, and the bull. The president, according to the constitution, deof William C. Leftwich, of Bedford, both part livered his address, which was concise and pertiDurham, and another by John Callaway, of Bed- nent, and for which he received the unanimous ford; a black calf, Prince, by William Davis, of thanks of the society. Campbell, 5 months old, weighing 500 lbs, and It was resolved that the Editors of the Lynchanother calf of William Owens, of Campbell, a burg Virginian and of the Farmers' Register be half Devon, 10 months old, weighing 550 lbs. respectfully requested to give the proceedings an Also a cow of the Jefferson breed, by Samuel insertion in their respective papers, together with Smithson, of Campbell. The committee further re- a copy of the constitution and the president's adported, that there were several other subjects ex- dress. Also that the secretary susbcribe for the hibited, which, in their opinion, were excluded Farmers' Register, and procure, if practicable, all from premiums by the 11th article of the constitu- its numbers, and have the same well bound, for the tion; which was adopted, and the premiums use of the society. awarded.

The election of officers, for the ensuing year, re

sulted as follows: Wm. 'Radford, president; GeSECOND DAY.

rard Alexander, lst vice president; Benjamin A. Exhibition of Domestic Manufactures. Donald, 2d vice president; Alexander Austin, sec

retary; Henry Brown, sen. treasurer; William Odin G. Clay, chairman of the committee of do- w.

inmittee of do- W. Austin, Thomas Steptoe and James S. Dillard, mestic manufactures, reported, that they had per-executive committee, all re-elected. formed that very pleasing duty, and that, from the The meeting then ad ourned until the first many beautiful and excellent articles exhibited to Tuesday in May next.

*Gerard Alexander, of Campbell, made 621 bushels

ALEX. AUSTIN, Sec'y. of wheat, weighing 65 lbs. per bushel, on two acres of land, part of a larger field. "The constitution, relative No decision having been made by the committee to grain crops, was unanimously amended; for which, on stallions, &c. &c. relative to fillies, that subsee the constitution.

ject was referred to the executive committee. + The pedigrees of stallions, &c. &c. having been withdrawn by their owners, nothing inore than is stated, is remembered by the secretary,

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