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For the Farmers' Register. them in melted grafting wax, and wind them on FECUNDITY OF A EWE.
in such a manner as to make the whole air tight. I think it was on the 25th of January, 1833, that
If well done the pieces will unite at both ends, and
soon extend so as to cover the wound. the only ewe with black wool in my flock, (and which, therefore, could not be mistaken for any
WOOD SNAPPING ON THE FIRE. other,) had a lamb. On the 20th of April, follow
From the Genesee Farmer. ing, that lamb was killed, and eaten. On the 25th
I believe we have no wood in this country that of the same month and year, (the ewe running
is more worthless for fuel than the Butternut. A upon a good clover field) the same ewe took the
few cuts of this kind, however, about ten inches ram-(a broad-tail, since, unfortunately, dead.)
in diameter, had been split in two, left some weeks On the 16th of July, the same ewe had a lamb,
to dry, and then carried into my chamber. On as I was first informed by one of my family, (the
placing one stick on the fire, it began to snap most sheep being then grazing in a lot around the house,) and I went out and found it so. That
remarkably: sometimes there were not less than
fifteen or twenty sparks on the carpet at once; and lamb was not killed, and is still living. From the
the inconvenience was serious. What was to be 16th to the 20th of September, in the same clover
done? I happened to recollect a paragraph in your field, the ewe again took the ram; and during one
second volume, taken from some eastern paper, of those snows, either in January or February,
stating that wood snaps on the fire from the side last past, the boy that attends the sheep says, that
"nearest to the heart. It was so in this case. I one morning upon going to the fodder 'stacks,
just turned the log over, and at once the difficulty where the sheep were kept, he found that this
was at an end; for though it continued to snap for same ewe had lost a lamb>making two births
some time against the back plate, yet no more and a miscarriage in twelve or thirteen months.
sparks came into the room. Probably the miscarriage was occasioned by some
When I put on the next log, I was particular to hurt the ewe might have received.
turn the heart backwards, and I have had no How long do ewes go with lamb? I have be
trouble from snapping since. Now the knowledge lieved about four months and twenty days; if so
of this thing is but a trifle indeed, but it may be were not her births premature? I ask for informa
worth knowing, for I have often seen the guests tion.
round a parlor fire starting up to put out the sparks, 10th April, 1834.
when I presume nothing more was wanting than
to turn over a stick.
Extracts from the New England Farmer. larly apple and pear trees, are stripped of their " For the last twenty years I have paid great bark during the winter by sheep, rabbits, or mice. I attention to this subject, and will give you the reWhen such accidents do happen, such trees should sult of my experience. The first hedge I set out not be looked upon as lost, but as soon as the sap 1(about 500 feet in length) was of the English hawbegins to circulate freely in the spring, they should thorn or quickset. The result was decidedly unbe repaired, by fitting in pieces, on every side, to favorable. The plant is not adapted to this climate keep up the circulation, between the top, and the -it appears better suited to the moist atmosphere roots.
of England; our long summer drought injures it; The following directions, will enable those who it is peculiarly subject to the attacks of the borer; shall be so unfortunate as to have any of their la species of milde'w or blight almost invariably trees injured by mice, or otherwise, to repair them assails it early in August, by which it loses its without incurring any great expense.
leaves, and by the middle of August or first of Where the bark has been taken from the bottom September assumes a wintry appearance. of a tree, as soon as it is discovered, it should be "My next experiment was with the three thorncovered up to prevent the wood from becoming ed acacia, recommended by Judge Buel. The dry. During the month of May, uncover the hedge was not more than fifty feet in length, but wood, and with a chisel, or some other instru- was placed in excellent soil and carefully attended. ment, cut off from the tree, so much wood as will I had supposed that the long thorns with which leave a flat surface, equal in width, to the piece the plant is armed, would have made it peculiarly to be inserted. Let this extend so far up and down efficacious as a fence. The result was even more as to reach the sound bark, and make the cut unfortunate than before. Prune and clip it as I square in at the ends. Procure a piece of wood would, I could never make it grow thick; it apfrom a growing tree of the same kind, whether ap-pears to have a decided tendency to shoot upwards ple or pear, cut it of a suitable length, split off a rather than to spread; the thorns grow only upon piece from one side of it, cut the ends smooth with or near the upper branches, and below there was a knife, being careful not to bruise the bark, fit it nothing but the bare stems to serve as a fence. closely into the place prepared in the side of the It would often, too, lose as much during a hard tree, having the greatest proportion of the sap / winter, as it had grown during a whole summer. flow, or line between the bark and wood, that can After a trial of near ten years I dug up the whole be, come in contact, Proceed in the same way and replaced it with the American buckthorn, on different sides of the tree, after which bind the (Rhamnus catharticus.) With this I have been whole part with some bark, or strings made from completely successful. It has, it is true, but few flax, and cover the whole with earth, if it does not thorns, but it grows naturally so thick as to be a extend too far up the tree. If the bark was re- complete protection to the land enclosed by it. It moved too far up, to be convenient for covering shoots early in the spring, and holds its verdure with earth, take some strips of cotton cloth, dip | till very late in the fall. If properly managed, it
is so close below that a rabbit could scarcely work any appearance of web forming on the stand, or its way through; while above, the strong branches around the inner edges of the hive. It seems neare so wattled and interlaced, that a man could cessary to remark, that the moth or fly, makes its not scale it, nor a bull force his way through it. attacks by a kind of regular approach, first form
"I have now in different places at least half a ing its web on the stand, and then extending it up mile of this hedge, which I shall be very happy to the sides of the hive until it gets complete possesshow to any of your correspondents who may wish sion. By a little attention in cleaning the stand to see it.
and hive, as directed, you will certainly secure “The mode of cultivation is very simple—it is your bees from the ravages of the worm. In the winset out either in the fall or spring in the manner ter, the blocks must be removed from under the recommended by Judge Buel; if in the fall, it is hive, so as to allow it to rest immediately on the clipped the next spring within about nine inches stand, which will secure it against the attacks of of the ground. Next spring it is clipped again at mice, &c. On this plan, it is advisable to make the height of about two feet, the third spring at an entrance for the bees, by cutting a perpendicuabout three feet from the ground, with some side lar slit in the front part of the hive, half way from pruning. The next summer your hedge is com- the bottom, say two and a half inches in length, plete, and you may keep it at the height and thick- and one-eighth of an inch wide, with a kind of ness desired at the expense of a little pruning. shelf just under it to serve as a resting pla
"I have also tried plashing. In 1818 or 19, my the bees going and returning to the hive. After gardener, who was an Englishman, highly re- being a little used to it, the bees seem to prefer commended it, and at last persuaded me to let this entrance to the one at the bottom of the hive. him attempt it upon a young and thrifty hedge This plan has proved an effectual security against made of crab apple. He did it as it appeared to the worm, after every other remedy has failed; me, very skilfully, but it was a very long and tedi- and not a single hive has been lost since it was ous operation, and the result was the hedge was adopted. ruined. His mode of operating (which is I believe the common one) was to suffer the main stem to remain upright, while all the side ones were partially cut and bent down nearly horizontally, and so confined either by interlacing or by staking them down; they did not thrive however-they perished by degrees, and I was at last forced to prune away all the horizontal branches, and lost at least four year's growth.
"With the buckthorn I have never found plashing to be in any degree necessary or useful. If) managed in the way I have described, in three years the hedge will be complete, requiring afterwards very little care, and nearly as thick, and quite as impervious below as above.”
"Buckthorns should be set in a single row, from seven to nine inches apart; as soon as they begin to vegetate, they should be headed down to about six inches from the ground, which will cause the hedge to become thick from the bottom. By keeping the ground clean, and occasionally shortening the stray shoots, it will soon make a beautiful and efficient fence. It is an extremely vigorous, free growing plant, and in our opinion superior to any plant we are acquainted with in this country, (a) Entrance, one-eighth of an inch wide, and two for making a hedge.",
and a half inches long.
(bb) Shelf below the entrance.
MATERIALS FOR MANURE.
or the rarmers' Register. Extract from an article by J. H. Couper, in the Southern As soon as your bees commence working in the
Agriculturist. spring, examine your hives, and with a slab of A sufficient amount of manure is yielded to keep wood, or piece of hoop iron, scrape the stand im- the soil in the most productive state, if a stock of mediately under the hive, also around the inner animals be kept on the plantation, and the dry edges of the box, taking care to remove all the vegetable matter of the fields be carefully carted web that may be attached to any part of the stand to the pens. The expressed cane, tops and leaves, or hive, as the whole secret consists in keeping from an acre of cane, yield about 10,000 lbs. of dry them free from the web formed by the moth or fly, vegetable matter. An acre of corn, including Having completed this operation, provide your-blades, stalks, shucks and cobs, about 2500 lbs., self with four square blocks of wood, and place when the yield of corn has been 20 bushels: and one under each corner of your hive, so as to raise the after crop of peas 1000 lbs., together 4500 lbs. it not quite half an inch from the stand; this will An acre of solid peas 2000 lbs. The potatoe enable you to clean the stand without removing vines, pumpkins and turnips, being eat green, conthe hive. This scraping operation must be re- tribute only to the production of fluid manure. peated every three or four days, if there should be The total quantity of dry vegetable matter to be
applied to the manuring of 16 acres in crop, will of small streams. If we consider the vast extent therefore be,
of country through which an inland navigation is 4 acres in com, at 4500 lbs. per acre, 18,000 lbs. afforded by the never-failing supply of water furu peas and turnips,
2,000 nished by these wonderful rivers, we cannot supI cane, at 10,000 lbs. 30,000 pose them exceeded in magnitude by any other in
the known world. It will easily be imagined what
50,000 a wonderful spectacle must present itseli'to the eye which, if merely rotted by rain, will yield 100,000 of the traveller, who, for the first time, views the lbs. of manure; and if rotted by the urine and dung enormous mass of waters collected from the vast of stock, from 150,000 lbs to 200,000 lbs., or at central regions of our continent, booming along, least 25,000 lbs. of manure to each of the 4 acres turbid and swollen to overflowing, in the broad proposed to be manured. To this supply of ma- channels of the Mississippi and Ohio, the latter of nure,must be added from 50 to 70 bushels of cotton- which has a course of more than a thousand miles, seed, from seven acres of cotton, to be applied to the and the former of several thousands. four acres of corn; and the peas that are ploughed To give you some idea of a booming flood of in, preparatory to the potatoe crop of vines.
these gigantic streams, it is necessary to state the causes which give rise to it. These are the sud
den melting of the snows on the mountains, and MATERIALS FOR CORDAGE.
heavy rains continued for several weeks. When For the Farmers' Register.
it happens that, during a severe winter, the AlleDr. Perrine, American Consul at one of the
ghany mountains have been covered with snow to Mexican ports, has asked of Congress a grant of Ke Benth of several fer
gress a grant of the depth of several feet, and the accumulated land in the peninsula of Florida, for the purpose
mass has remained unmelted for a length of time, of introducing and cultivating the Agave Ameri
the materials of a flood are thus prepared. It now cana, (the famous centennial Aloe) which he re
and then happens that the winter is hurried off by commends as a material for cordage. It is indeed
a sudden increase of temperature, when the acmuch used for that purpose in Mexico and South
cumulated snows melt away simultaneously over America, where its growth is spontaneous. There
the whole country, and the south easterly wind is no doubt that this plant would do well in any part of the peninsula of Florida, for it bears the
which then usually blows, brings along with it a
the continued fall of heavy rain, which mingling with JË however, its cultivation is likely to prove pro the dissolving snow, deluges the alluvial portions 11; however, its cultivation, is likely to prove pro- of the western country, filling up the rivulets, ra
be vines, creeks, and small rivers. These delivering asked to give lands for the purpose; and if not, we their waters to the great streams, cause the latter had then better let it alone.
not merely to rise to a surprising height, but to If any additional material for cordage is requi- | site or desirable in this country, we have one in a On such occasions, the Ohio itself presents a splennative plant, probably not inferior, for that purpose, did, and at the same time, an appalling spectacle; to the Agave Americana. I allude to the Yucca bi
but when its waters mingle with those of the Misfilamentosa, which grows spontaneously in light
sissippi, then kind reader, it is the time to view an sandy soils, (and often on the very poorest) from
American flood in all its astonishing magnificence. Virginia to Florida, and is commonly known under
At the foot of the falls of the Ohio, the water has the name of Bear grass, and sometimes under that been known to rise upwards of sixty feet above its of Silk grass. The fibres of this plant are remark
| lowest level. The river at this point, has already able for their strength, and I have seen ropes made
run a course of nearly seven hundred miles from of it, equal in strength and appearance to any other.
its origin at Pittsburgh, in Pennsylvania, during To obtain the fibres, the leaves are 6 rotted” in
which it has received the waters of its numberless water, or by burying them in the earth. Mr. El
tributaries, and overflowing all the bottom lands liott, in his “Sketch of the Botany of South Caro
or vallies, has swept along the fences and dwelllina and Georgia,” says of this plant, that "it ap ings, which have been unable to resist its violence. pears to possess the strongest fibres of any vege-l i could relate hundreds of incidents which might table whatever; and, if it can be raised with facility,
prove to you the dreadful effects of such an inunmay form a valuable article in domestic economy.” |dation, and which have been witnessed by thouThe root is also a substitute for soap in washing Isands besides myself. I have known, for example, woollens.
of a cow swimming through a window elevated at Of the facility of its production, I entertain no I least seven hundred feet from the ground, and sixdoubt. No plant is more hardy, or bears trans-ty-two above low water mark. The house was planting better. Its roots are extensive, having then surrounded with water from the Ohio, which numerous eyes, or buds, and each one of these will
runs in front of it, while the neighboring country produce a plant. There are millions of acres in
was overflowed; yet the family did not remove from the southern states unfit for the ordinary purposes | it, but remained in its upper portion, having preof agriculture, which would produce this plant very | viously taken off the sashes of the lower windows, well.
H. B. C. and opened the doors. But let us return to the
There the overflow is astonishing; for no sooner Many of our larger streams, such as the Missis- has the water reached the upper part of the banks, sippi, the Ohio, the Minois, the Arkansas, and the than it rushes out and overspreads the whole of Red River, exhibit, at certain seasons, the most the neighboring swamps, presenting an ocean over-' extensive overflowings of their waters, to which grown with stupendous forest trees. So sudden the name of floods is more appropriate than the is the calamity, that every individual, whether man term freshets, usually applied to the sudden risings or beast, has to exert his utmost ingenuity to ena,
ble him to escape from the dreaded element. The ner I have traversed immense portions of the counIndian quickly removes to the hills of the interior, try, overflowed by the waters of these rivers; and, the cattle and game swim to the different stripes particularly whilst floating over the Mississippi of land that remain uncovered in the midst of the bottom-lands, I have been struck with awe at the flood, or attempt to force their way through the sight. Little or no current is met with, unless waters until they perish with fatigue.
the canoe passes over the bed of a bayou. All is Along the banks of the river the inhabitants silent and melancholy, unless when the mournful have rafts ready made, on which they remove bleating of the hemmed-in deer reaches your ear, themselves, their cattle, and their provisions, and or the dismal scream of an eagle or raven is heard, which they then fasten with ropes, or grape vines, as the foul bird rises, disturbed by your approach, to the larger trees, while they contemplate the from the carcass on which it was alláying its cramelancholy spectacle presented by the current, as ven appetite. Bears, cougars, lynxes, and all other it carries off their houses and wood yards piece by quadrupeds that can ascend the trees, are obserypiece. Some who have nothing to lose, and are ed crouched among their top branches. Hungry usually known by the name of squatters, take this in the midst of abundance, although they see floatopportunity of traversing the woods in canoes, for ing around them, the animals on which they usuthe purpose of procuring game, and particularly ally prey, they dare not venture to swim to them. the skins of animals, such as the deer and bear, Fatigued by the exertions which they have made which may be converted into money. They re- in reaching the dry land, they will there stand the sort to the low ridges, surrounded by the waters, hunter's fire, as if to die by a ball were better than - and destroy thousands of deer, mercly for their to perish amidst the waste of waters. On occaskins, leaving the flesh to putrify.
sions like this, all these animals are shot by hunThe river itself, rolling its swollen waters along, dreds. presents a spectable of the most imposing nature. Opposite the city of Natches, which stands on Although no large vessel, unless propelled by a bluff bank of considerable elevation, the extent steam, can now make its way against the current, of inundated land is immense, the greater portion it is seen covered by boats laden with produce, of the tract lying between the Mississippi and the which running out from all the smaller streams, Red River, which is more than thirty miles in * float silently towards the city of New Orleans, their breadth, being under water. The mail-bag has owners, meanwhile, not very well assured of find- often been carried through the immersed forests, in ing a landing place even there. The water is a canoe, for even a greater distance, in order to be covered with yellow foam and pumice, the latter forwarded to Natchitochez. having floated from the rocky mountains of the But now, kind reader, observe this great flood north-west. The eddies are larger and more pow-gradually subsiding, and again see the mighty erful than ever. Here and there tracts of forests changes which it has affected. The waters have are observed undermined, the trees gradually giv- now been carried into the distant ocean. The ing way, and falling into the stream. Cattle, earth is every where covered by a deposite of mudhorses, bears and deer, are seen at times attempt- dy foam, which, in drying, splits into deep and ing to swim across the impetuous mass of foaming narrow chasms, presenting a reticulated appearand boiling water; whilst here and there a vulture ance, and from which, as the weather becomes or an eagle is observed perched on a bloated car- warmer, disagreeable, and at times noxious exhacass, tearing it up in pieces, as regardless of the lations arise, and fill the lower stratum of the atflood as on former occasions, it would have been mosphere, as with a dense fog. The banks of the of the numerous sawyers and planters with which river have almost every where been broken down the surface of the river is covered when the water in a greater or less degree. Large streams are is low. Even the streamer is frequently distress- now found to exist, where-none were formerly to ed. The numberless trees and logs that float be seen, having forced their way in direct lines along, break its paddles and retard its progress. from the upper parts of the bends. These are, by Besides, it is on such occasions difficult to procure the navigator called short-cuts. Some of them fuel to maintain its fires; and it is only at very dis- have proved large enough to produce a change in tant intervals that a wood-yard can be found which the navigation of the Mississippi. If I mistake the water has not carried off.
not, one of these, known by the name of Grand Following the river in your canoe, you reach Cut-off, and only a few miles in length, has dithose parts of the shores that are protected against verted the river from its natural course, and has the overflowing of the waters, and are called levees. shortened it by fifty miles. The upper parts of There you find the whole population of the district the islands present a bulwark, consisting of an at work, repairing and augmenting those artificial enormous mass of Roated trees of all kinds, which barriers which are several feet above the level of have lodged there. Large sand banks have been the fields. Every person appears to dred the open-completely removed by the impetuous whirls of ing of the crevasse, by which the waters may rush the waters, and have been deposited in other into his fields. In spite of all exertions, however, places. Some appear quite new to the eye of the the crevasse opens, the water bursts impetuously navigator, who has to mark their situation and over the plantations, and lays waste the crops bearings in his log-book. The trees on the marwhich so lately were blooming in all the luxuri- gins of the banks, have in many parts given way. ance of spring. It opens up a new channel, which, They are seen bending over the stream, like the for aught I know to the contrary, may carry its grounded arms of an overwhelmed army of giants. waters even to the Mexican Gult.
Every where are heard the lamentations of the I have floated on the Mississippi and Ohio, when farmer and planter, whilst their servants and themthus swollen, and have, in different places, visited selves are busily employed in repairing the damathe submerged lands of the interior, propelling a ges occasioned by the floods. At one crevasse, an light canoe by the aid of a paddle. In this man-old ship or two, dismantled for the purpose, are sunk, to obstruct the passage opened by the still
ODDS AND ENDS. rushing waters, while new earth is brought to fill To the Editor of the Farmers? Register. up the chasms. The squatter is seen shouldering
Brunswick, March 31, 1834. his rifle, and making his way through the morass, I shall be glad to learn from some of the readers in search of his lost stock, to drive the survivors of the Farmers' Register, what I have been tryhome, and save the skins of the drowned. New ing for thirty years in vain to find, a good and sure fences have every where to be formed; even new method to destroy lice on hogs, cows, and horses. houses must be erected; to save which from a like A decoction of tobacco will kill the lice, but will disaster, the settler places them on an elevated not destroy the nits. I have frequently sheared platform, supported by pillars made of the trunks hogs for this purpose, and it is the best means to of trees. The lands must be ploughed anew, and rid them of lice: but shearing a hog is a tedious if the season is not too far advanced, a crop of corn job, which no one will be anxious to repeat. and potatoes may yet be raised. But the rich | What is the best remedy for worms in horses? prospects of the planter are blasted. The traveller
By what means can house flies be destroyed, or is impeded in his journey, the creeks and smaller rendered less numerous and troublesome? streams having broken up their banks in a degree What safeguard can be used against the worm proportionate in their size. A bank of sand, which which cuts off young corn at the first joint in low seems firm and secure, suddenly gives way be- grounds? I am sometimes compelled to plant mine neath the traveller's horse, and the next moment three or four times, before I can get it to stand. the animal has sunk in the quick-sand, either to l What will prevent the ravages of the fly which the chest in front, or over the crupper behind, leav- eats tobacco plants? Mine have been often aling its master in a situation not to be envied. most entirely destroyed by these insects. But I Unlike the mountain torrents and small rivers
am now mostly a cotton planter—though the rot of other parts of the world, the Mississippi rises and low prices together, have made me almost but slowly during these floods, continuing for seve-heartless." ral weeks, to increase at the rate of about an inch When I plant tobacco in lots where I can in the day. When at its height, it undergoes little plough it well, I throw up beds of thirty-nine fluctuation for some days, and after this subsides inches wide, with a two-horse plough, and stick as slowly as it rose. The usual duration of a flood the plants about twenty inches apart, on the midis from four to six weeks, although, on some occa- dle of each bed. I never prime (or take off the sions, it is protracted to two months.
lower leaves) when I top the plants: but when Every one knows how largely the idea of floods they are hilled up, some of the small leaves are and cataclysms enters into the speculations of the taken off-such as probably were on the young geologist. If the streamlets of the European con- plant when first set out. Planting from the 1st to tinent afford illustrations of the formation of strata, the 10th of June, is preferred to any other time. how much more must the Mississippi, with its I generally top high, if the season and the land ever-shifting sand banks, its crumbling shores, its will permit-and if I can get the top leaves to enormous masses of brift timber, the source of make, (or mature) it is all I want. The cold dews, future beds of coal, its extensive and varied allu- late in the growing season, help tobacco very vial deposits, and its mighty mass of waters rolling much. I am much in favor of packing tobacco sullenly along, like the flood of eternity.
loose in the hogshead, (or without tying the leaves
in bundles,) because, it it is manufactured in this DISEASES OF HOGS.
country, it takes much trouble to untie the sixFrom the Genesee Farmer. leaf bundles, and then the tie-leaf is worth but Mr. L. TUCKER-I am engaged in milling, very little. It seems strange to me that any one and have kept a stock of about three hundred should approve of these small bundles. hogs in a large frame pen, divided into twenty-1 I planted a small kind of speckled pea in the four rooms, with plank floor, and lodging rooms same piece of land for three or four years. Those covered and boarded, leaving open only sufficient made the last year that I planted them, were coal room for them to enter. They have been fed on black, and as late as any other pea. To what can bran, shorts, and cross middlings. I have lost, this remarkable change be ascribed? J. K. during the last winter, about fifty-many of them were fat, and would weigh two hundred when
AGE OF SHEEP. dressed.
From the Mountain Shepherd's Manual. They were taken with weakness in the back, The age of a sheep may be known by examinand lose the use of their hind parts-generally ing the front teeth. They are eight in number, live from two to three weeks. On opening them, and appear during the first year, all of a small have always found a great many slim worms a- size. "În the second year, the two middle ones bout an inch long in the leaf and about the back fall out, and their place is supplied by two new bone. I have tried all medicine recommended by teeth, which are easily distinguished by being of farmers in this section, and in no instance had a a larger size. In the third year, two other small cure.
teeth, one from each side, drop out and are reI have a neighbor, who purchased a drove last placed by two large ones; so that there are now fall, and has given them seven hundred dollars four large teeth in the middle, and two pointed worth of corn, and the stock now left are not worth ones on each side. In the fourth year the large the first cost in consequence of the same disease. teeth are six in number, and only two small ones
You or your correspondents will confer a favor remain, one at each end of the range. In the fifth by giving me such information as you or they pos- year the remaining small teeth are lost, and the sess, respecting a remedy.
whole front teeth are large. In the sixth year the Yours, respectfully, R. H. H. whole begin to be worn; and in the seventh, someVenice, Huron co., (Ohio,) April 2, 1834. 'times sooner, some fall out or are broken.