« AnteriorContinuar »
sisting of 530 Scotch acres; that I have cultivated rying a crop or not, so that in taking one year to land to a considerable extent with the spade for the fallow the land, and another to grow the crop, two last three years, and that the result has exceeded years' rent must be charged against the crop, or at my most sanguine expectations. “As facts are least there must be a rent charged against the rostubborn things,' I shall lay before you my system, tation of crops for the year the land was fallow. crops, expense, and profits.
As I felt satisfied that by trenching with the spade, "In 1831, I determined to ascertain the differ- the land would derive all the advantages of a ence of the expense and produce between trench- summer fallowing, and avoid all the disadvantages ing land with the spade, and summer fallowing attending it, I determined on trenching 34 acres of with the plough in the usual way: I therefore my fallow-break immediately on the crop being retrenched thirteen acres of my summer fallow-break, moved from the ground, and had it sown with in the months of June and July; I found the soil wheat by the middle of November, 1832. I may about fourteen inches deep, and I turned it com- here remark, that I did not apply any manure, as pletely over, thereby putting up a clean and fresh I thought the former crop was injured by being soil in the room of the foul and exhausted mould, too bulky. As it is now thrashed out and disposed which I was careful to put at the bottom of the of, the crop per acre stands as follows: trench: this operation I found cost about £4 10s. By average of thirty-four per Scotch acre, paying my laborers with ls. 6d. bushels per acre, at 7s. .
£15 8 0 per day: the rest of the field, which consisted of To rent of land per acre, £2 10 0 nine acres, I wrought with the plough in the usual Expense of trenching, 400 way, giving it sis furrows, with the suitable har Seed, . . . 1 10 rowing. I manured the field in August; the Cutting, thrashing, and trenched got eight cart loads per acre, the plough "marketing, . •
1 10 0 ed land sixteen; the field was sown in the middle
970 of September. The whole turned out a bulky
£15 8 0 crop as to straw, particularly the trenched portion, which was very much lodged. On thrashing them out I found them to stand as under:
“The advantages of trenching over summerBy trenched wheat per
fallow, are, in my opinion, very decided, as it is acre, 52 bushels at
not only cheaper, but, as far as I can yet judge, 6s. 9d.
£17 11 0 much more effectual. I am so satisfied of this, To two years' rent at £2
not only from the experiments above noticed, but 10s. per acre, . , £5 00
from the apparent condition of the land after it has Expense of trenching, . 4 10 0
carried the crop, that I have this autumn cultivated Seed, three bushels at 6s.
about a hundred acres with the spade, and the 9d. . . . . 1 0 2
crops at present are very promising. When I first Eight cart loads of ma
commenced, I was laughed at by my neighbors, nure at 4s. . . 1 12 0
but now when they see me persevering in what Expense ofcutting, thrash
they considered a very chimerical project, they ing, and marketing, 1 10 0
are suspending their judgement, and several of Profit, . : 3 18 9
them have made considerable experiments this £17 11 0 year. I should think there are at least 250 acres
urder crop cultivated in this way this season in By ploughing wheat per
East Lothian; in 1831, the year I commenced, acre, 42 bushels at Os.
there was not a single acre. I have therefore the 9d. . . . .
£14 3 6 satisfaction of knowing, that I have been the Totwo years' rent, at £2
means of causing £ 1000 to be spent this year 10s. per acre, . . £5 00
amongst the laboring classes in my immediate Six furrows and harrow
neighborhood, and I feel confident, that should the ing, at 10s. . . 3 00
season turn out favorable for the wheat crop, and Seed, three bushels, at 6s."
fair prices obtained, their employers will be hand9d. . . . . 102
somely remunerated for their outlay. I do not say Sixteen cart loads of ma
that this system will succeed in every description nure, at 4s. ..
of soil, as it must necessarily be of some depth to Expense of cutting, thrash
admit of the operation; but there are few districts ing, and marketing, .
where such soil will not be found in sufficient Profit, . : 0 9 3
abundance to give ample employment to the sur- £14 3 6 plus population of the neighborhood.
"Now this is going on in a county where agri
cultural laborers are better employed than almost "I now saw, that though it might be difficult to any other in Great Britain. The system was not trench over my fallow-break during the summer introduced, nor is it persevered in, for the purpose months, it was by no means making the most of of giving employment to the poor, but entirely for the system, as the operation was not only more the benefit of the employer. expensive, owing to the land being hard and dry “The East Lothian Agricultural Society are during the summer, but that it was a useless waste now offering premiums for the most satisfactory of time to take a whole year to perform an opera- reports on the subject. I last year received a tion that could be as well done in a few weeks, melal from the Highland Society of Scotland for provided laborers could be had; and as in all ag- introducing the system; and what I value still ricultural operations, losing time is losing money, more, I received a piece of plate from the laborers as the-rent must be paid whether the land is car- I employed as a token of their gratitude.
“The system, I admit, is only in its infancy, but on upper wings. The insect lays its eggs in the I have this year put it completely to the test; and commencement of autumn, at the roots of trees should it succeed as well as it has done hitherto, it and near the ground; they are hatched early in must take root and spread over the kingdom; and May. The habits of the cut-worm have been the landed interest in those districts of England, otien and fully detailed. They eat almost all kinds where the poor laws are so oppressive, and still of vegetables, preferring beans, cabbages, and corr. more, the Irish proprietors, will do well to investi- | They continue in this state about four weeks; they gate the system, and have it introduced with the then cast their skin and enter the pupa state, under least possible delay, that what is now a burden on ground. This is a crustaceous covering, fitted to their estates may become a source of wealth, and the parts of the future insect. In this way they what is now a curse may become a blessing.'
continue for four weeks longer, and come out in " This system if it succeeds to my expectation, the fiy, or insect state, about the middle of July. possesses all the requisites you require ; it fur- | All those chrysalids that I exposed to the sun, nishes employment for the surplus population by died; and all those that were kept cool under earth, substituting manual labor for that of horses, and produced an insect; hence ( infer, that the heat of certainly if there is a lack of food for both, it is de- the sun will kill the chrysalids. If, then, the ground sirable that the one should give place to the other. I be ploughed about the first of July, many oi those It will make bread plenty, as the naked summer- insects might be destroyed, and the destruction of fallows of Great Britain will be covered with the productions of the next year prevented; for the grain instead of lying waste for a season; it will pupa is never more than a few inches under render corn laws unnecessary, as we will be then ground.. independent of foreign supplies; farmers will be! The phalana devastator is never seen during enriched who are enterprising and industrious, the day; it conceals itself in the crevices of buildand they only deserve to be so; it will raise rents, ings, and beneath the bark of trees. About sunby increasing the capabilities of the soil, enabling down it leaves its hiding place, is constantly on the farmer to cultivate wheat to double the pre- the wing, and very troublesome about the candles in sen: extent; it will raise up a home-market for houses. It flies very rapidly, and is not easily taken. our manufactures, as the paupers, who are at pre
Such is the description of this formidable enemy sent starving, or living a burden on the parish, will to vegetation. No efficacious method has yet find employment, and thereby be enabled to'pro- been taken to prevent its ravages, but the one who cure the necessaries and comforts of life ; it will could acconiplish it, would do the cause of agriculcheck the poor laws, as there will then be none but ture an essential service. the aged and the helpless dependent on parochial aid.
From the Baltiinore Chronicle. "If you should think it worth while to make
RAILWAY TRAVELLING. further inquiry afier the writer or his system, I beg As soon as the rail road from Boston to Provito refer you either to the Marquis of Tweeddale, dence is finished, the strange prophecy of Oliver Lord-Lieutenant of the county of East Lothian, Evans, made in 1789 or 90, will be amply fulfilled. or to Robert Stewart, Esq. M. P. for Haddington | Mr. Evans, said that the man was then living who district of burghs, both of whom are at present in would see the Ohio and Mississippi covered with London ; or if you would like a more detailed ac- steamboats, and the child then born who would count of the agricultural part of my scheme, I travel from Philadelphia to Boston in one day”shall feel most happy to give you every information meaning 24 hours. in my power.”
The distance between Philadelphia and New The only remark which this satisfactory letter York has been made by the rail road and steamrequires is, that it is hardly fair to charge the boats in five hours--and it is threatened to be yet trenching with only the real, while the ploughing made in two hours, as we suppose that it may be, is charged with an imaginary expense. It is when there shall be a continuous line of rails; but known, and can easily be ascertained by calcula- we have yet 19 hours for the distance between tion, that the maintenance of a man and a pair of New York and Boston. It may be done, even horses does not cost the farmer more than three now, in less time. shillings a day, whereas each furrow and harrow-! We learn from the Gazette of last evening, that ing, which is just a day's work, is charged ten the extension of the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road shillings.
to Harper's Ferry, has been succeeded by an im
mediate and increasing business both in travelling From the American Journal of Science. DESCRIPTION OF THE PIIALENA DEVASTATOR, ready the travelling averages thirty passengers dai
TIIE PARENT OF THE CUT WORJ. iv-and an average of five-hundred barrels of flour This moth, whose larva is one of our most de- is receiving every day, besides other articles of structive enemies, belongs to the Linnæan family produce from the ferry. This trade and travelling noctua, in the genus phalæna. Its specific char- will continue to increase regularly--if not rapidly, acters are as follows: Wings incumbent and hori- ' until the opening of the Winchester and Potomac zontal, when at rest; body long and thin; thorax Rail Road, by which a direct, permanent and thick: but not crested; head small; eyes prominent speedy intercourse between the extensive and ferand black; antennæ setacious, gradually lessening tile valley of the Shenandoah and the city of Baltowards extremities, and slightly ciliated; palpi : timore will be effected. This may be expected to two, flat, broad in the middle, and very hairy, take place in July next. In a month after that tongue rolled up between them, not very prominent; opening, the travelling and transportation between cylpeus small, legs long, small and hairy; wings Baltimore and Winchester will be as great as it long as body; under wings shortest; color a dark was last summer between this city and Frederick silvery gray, with transverse dotted bands of black -and within the year, will greatly surpass it.
SMUGGLERS TEACHING POLITICAL ECONOMY. smuggling. "According to an estimate grounded [The two following extracts, from our last number
on the most extensive investigations, the protect
ing power of the French custom-house is on the of the Foreign Quarterly Review, present amusing
whole limited to thirty per cent. on manufactures; examples of this truth—that in countries where the so that the average rate of smuggling is probably despotism of ruleis, or ignorance of the people, have about twenty-five per cent. on real value." -(Reserved to establish the system of protecting duties, or port, p. 48.) Fixed insurance lists exist at each restrictions on trade, to its utmost and worst extent, irontier and line of coast, and the contraband busithe most important relief for the country, and most ness is carried on by large and wealthy smug. effectual opposition to the system, will be found in the gling companies, with all the order and almost all enterprise and devices of smugglers; who being invited the security of regular business. The following to illegal and vicious acts by the government, then
story has been already repeated on both sides of
the water, but it affords such a felicitous proof of serve to restrain the still more abomiñable course of
the unconquerable ingenuity of fraud, that we the government itself. Some years ago, when the shall insert it in our own pages. evils of the restrictive system seemed destined to prey “The director of the (French) custom-house on the agricultural and general interests of the United says, that since the suppression of smuggling by States, without hope of redress from the wisdom or horses, in 1825, dogs have been employed. In 1823 justice of government, we expected, and hoped, that a it was estimated that 100,000 kil. of goods were
thus introduced into France; in 1825, 187,315; in change would be ultimately produced by the smuggling
Smugg.18 1826, 2,100,000 kil.—all these estimates being re
is remedy, which when brought fully into operation, ported as rather under the mark: the calculation would be far more effectual in this country than in has been made at two and a half kil. as a pro rata either France or England. We are not afraid of avow- per dog. The dogs sometimes carry ten kil., and ing these sentiments, because of the outcry and cant sometimes even twelve. The above estimate about the demoralizing effects of smuggling. True it supposes that one dog in ten in certain districts, is, that violations of law-even of the most iniquitous and in others one in twenty, was killed; but these laws—tend to bring all legal restraints into neglect and
calculations must necessarily be vague. In the
opinion of many of the custom-house officers, not contempt-and that the persons who engage in smug
inore than one in seventy-five is destroyed, even gling are always criminal, and often the worst mem- when notice has been given, and the doors are exbers of society. And it is also true that the skilful pected. Tobacco and colonial produce are genephysician must sometimes administer a hurtful and rally the objects of this illicit trade; sometimes cotdangerous remedy to the patient, when it is the only ton twist and manufactures. In the neighborhood means of counteracting a more powerful and fatal of Dunkirk, dogs have been taken with a burthen
of the value of six, eight, or even twelve hundred poison under which he is suffering. In establishing
establishing francs. The dogs which are trained to these disthe restrictive system, government is the great poisoner honest habits are conducted in packs to the foreign of the morals as well as of the interests of the country, frontier; they are kept without food for many hours; in comparison to whose acts, those of the most des- they are then beaten and laden, and at the beginperate smugglers are trivial: and their vicious acts ning of the night started on their travels. They
reach the abodes of their masters, which are genemay be at any time stopped, and these free booters
rally selected at two or three leagues from the rendered harmless, by the government returning to a
frontiers, as speedily as they can, where they are course of justice and honesty.]
sure to be well treated, and provided with a quanExtract from the Review of French Commercial Policy. tity of food. It is said they do much mischief by
the destruction of agricultural property, inasmuch The indirect effect of this precious system is as as they usualiy take the most direct course across mischievous as its direct operation. Smuggling the country. They are dogs of a large size for is carried on in France in all the prohibited articles the most part. Among the measures proposed for to an extent that would be incredible were it not for the suppression of this mode of smuggling, a prethe unimpeachable authority of the English Com-mium of three francs a head has been allowed for missioners. “An investigation on the Belgian every frauding dog ( Chien fraudeur destroyed; frontier leads us to estimate the amount of British but this, as appears by the tables, has been wholly goods (manufactures) smuggled into France, from insufficient, though the cost has not been inconsithat side alone, at more than two millions sterling derable, namely, 11,000 francs per annum before a year!" -- (Report, p. 52.) A prodigious mass of 1827, and 15,000 francs per annum since that pecolonial produce is also introduced clandestinely riod, when the premium was allowed in the Thionacross the same frontier. The same frauds are ville district, where the trade is still carried on by likewise committed along the whole Atlantic and the aid of dogs, more extensively than elsewhere. Mediterranean coasts, and across the Spanish and It appears by the return that 40,278 dogs have Eastern borders, where, strange as it may appear, been destroyed between 1820 and 1830, and preEnglish merchandise finds its way for the pur: miums to the amount of 120,834 francs paid for pose; and to this must be added the produce of their destruction,”-Report of Messrs, Villiers and other countries, smuggled in the same manner in Bowring, p. 47. very large quantities. These enormous frauds are committed, and go on increasing, in spite of the
From Alexander Dumas's Travelling Impressions. most vigilant, ingenious, and unsparing preventive service that exists in Europe. Messrs. Villiers "The most fashionable of the jewellery wareand Bowring have collected some highly curious houses in Geneva is beyond doubt that of Mr. inforination relating to the risk and cost of French Beauté; it is difficult even to dream of a collection more rich in those thousand wonders that win the the western waters. He observes that on the 1st female heart; they are sufficient to turn the head of ot' January last, an official list of the boats emevery Parisian lady, and make Cleopatra jump sloyed in this navigation which was obtained from with envy in her tomb.
an authentic source, give the whole number at “These bijoux are subjected to a heavy duty on 230, whose aggregate capaci'y amounted to about their entrance into France; but for an insurance of 39,000 tons. Of this number, 60 exceeded 200 five per cent. Mr. Beautté undertakes to smuggle tors, 70 were between 120 and 200 tons, and 100 them; the bargain between the buyer and seller is were under 120. Of those, whose capacity exmade as publicly as if there were neither custom-ceeded 200 tons, 25 were employed between Louhouses nor custom-house officers in the world. It isville, New Orleans, and Cincinnati, seven beis true that Mr. Beautté possesses marvellous ad-tween Nashville and New Orleans, four between dress in baffling these harpies: one anecdote out of Florence and New Orlcans, four in the St. Louis a thousand will show how justly he is entitled to trade, and seven in the cotton trade. Before the this compliment.
introduction of the steamboat in 1817, about twen“When the Count de St. Cricq was director- ty barges, averaging about 100 tons, afforded the general of the customs, he heard so much of the only facilities for the transportation of merchaningenuity that baffled the vigilance of his agents, dize from New Orleans to Louisville and Cincinthat he resolved to ascertain personally if these re- nati, and as they made but one trip within the ports were true. He went to Geneva, presented year, furnished the means of bringing up only himself at Beautte's warehouse, and bought 2000 tons. The present tonnage employed in this jewellery to the amount of 30,000 francs, on con- trade exclusively, may be supposed to give occadition that it should be sent duty-free to his resi- sion to the conveyance of considerably more than dence in Paris. Mr. Beautté accepted the condi- a million tons. From five to eight dollars for one tions like a man accustomed to such bargains; he hundred pounds was the old price of the carriage merely presented the purchaser with a private of goods from the seaboard in Pittsburg. Withbond, stipulating that he should pay five per cert. in the last five years, merchandize has been defor insurance. The latter smiled, took the pen, (livered in Cincinnati, from Philadelphia by the and subscribed De St. Cricq, director-general of way of New Orleans, at one dollar per hundred. the French customs, and then handed the paper to The writer gives also a statement of what he Mr. Beautté. The merchant looked at the signa- calls the mortality among steamboats, from the ture, and making a low bow, simply said "Mon autumn of 1831 to that of 1833. During that sieur director-general of customs, 'the articles period, 15 were abandoned as unfit for service; which you have done me the honor of purchasing, seven were lost by ice; 15 were burnt; 24 were shall be in Paris as soon as yourself.' 'The Count snagged, and five were destroyed by collision with felt himself thrown on his mettle; he scarce gave other boats, so that, aster deducting those which himself time to dine, when he ordered post-horses, were abandoned as unseaworthy, fifty-one were and was on the road an hour after the bargain was lost by accidents peculiar to the trade: equal to concluded.
an annual loss of 12 per cent. upon the whole “As he passed the frontiers, the Count made number, and of ten per cent. upon the amount of himself known to the officers who came to search tonnage employed. his baggage; told their chief of the recent trans- It is stated in addition, that there is a vast action, recommended the most active vigilance aniount of surplus tonnage, and that the business along the entire line, and promised a reward of is entirely overdone: the capital invested in boats thirty louis d'or to the officer who should discover has been, as a general rule, a losing investment, the prohibited goods. Not a single officer got a and in many cases, a total sacrifice. wink of sleep during the next three days.
“In the mean time the Count reaches Paris, IMPORTANCE OF GEOLOGICAL SURVEYS TO alights at his residence, embraces his wife and
VIRGINIA. children, and goes up to his dressing-room to rThe letter referred to in the following editorial rechange his travelling attire.
| marks of the Southern Literary Messenger, was first “ The first thing he sees on his mantel piece is a beautiful box, of singular workmanship, with
published in the Farmers' Register, (page 504, Vol. I.) whose appearance he was unacquainted. He
and therefore a knowledge of it has not been necessagoes over to examine it, and reads on a silver plate
rily confined to the few readers of our public docu'to M. the Count de St. Crica, director-general of ments. But this mistake, though requiring the correcFrench customs;' he opens it—and finds the jew tion here given, does not affect the object, nor impair ellery he had purchased in Geneva!
the main value of the prefatory remarks which we co“Beautté had a secret understanding with the py below. We are gratified to have the aid of another waiters of the inn, and they, while aiding the able advocate for a geological survey of Virginia-an Count's servants to pack his baggage, had slipped
gage, had shipped object which we consider all important to a proper in the prohibited box. On their arrival in Paris, the Count's valet de chambre, seeing the beauty of
knowledge and full developement of the value, the rethe casket, and the particularity of its direction,
sources, and the improvement of our country.] had carried it direct to his master's apartment.
From the Southern Literary Messenger. The director-general of the customs was the chief The following interesting communication from smuggler of the kingdom.”
Peter A. Browne, Esq. of Philadelphia, was submitted last winter, by the Governor of Virginia,
to the General Assembly. It was printed with STEAMBOATS.
the documents accompanying the annual mesA writer in the Western Magazine, states some sage, and bound up with the legislative journals, interesting facts, relating to steam navigation upon but has had no other publicity. It is therefore new to nineteen-twentieths, if not to all of our spurs for his delence, and he is endowed with a readers. We confess we feel somewhat mortified, courage which often causes him to die rather than that the valuable hints and suggestions thrown out yield to an enemy. by an intelligent and scientific stranger, should “The female is remarkable beyond all other have failed to attract the attention of our public birds for her fecundity; she continues to lay eggs functionaries. We are not without hope, how-throughout a great part of the year; the period in ever, that a subject of such vital importance as a which she ceases to do so, or does so very sparinggeological survey of the state, will claim the ear- ly, is that of moulting, which generally lasts from nest and speedy consideration of the people, as one to three months. After having laid a certain well as their representatives. It is one of those number of eggs, the desire of incubation takes subjects upon which all parties, however divided place. This is indicated by strong emotions, and by sectional jealousies or other adverse views, a peculiar cry; and she will sit on any eggs that may meet on common ground, and unite in har- may be presented to her. Many expedients, monious action. There is no portion of the com- some of them very cruel, are practised to check monwealth which is not deeply interested in the the instinctive passion, so as to cause the animal developement of its mineral wealth-none which to lay eggs rather than to hatch. ought not to lend its hearty sanction to a scientific "It is remarkable that while some of the anisurvey of the country by a skilful geologist. To mals show this desire in the strongest manner, say nothing of the noble example of other states, others scarcely manifest it, or, showing it, it quickamong them some of our youngest sisters-our ly leaves them. Hence, while some are engaged interests are too deeply involved in the proposed in producing eggs, others are ready to serve the undertaking, longer to defer it. Agriculture, office of mother, and on this account there is no commerce,—the arts,—are alike concerned in the kind of the domestic fowls that can be propagasuccessful prosecution of a work which promises ted so quickly, and in such numbers. to each such essential benefits. The people of “The period of hatching is 21 days. The feVirginia have been too long ignorant and unmind- male during this time manifests increasing watchful of their own vast resources. Who would have fulness. She will scarcely be induced to forsake dreamed a few years since, that a vein of precious her charge, even by the most pressing claims for gold, which, for two centuries, had escaped obser- food, and hence food should be placed within her vation, actually enriched our soil ? Who now can reach. The number of eggs which one mother form an adequate conception of the various hidden is allowed to hatch, is generally from 9 to 15. treasures which science and enterprise may bring "The young is gradually nourished within the to light? Can the paltry consideration of a few shell. It lies without motion; its position is rethousand dollars expense, outweigh the magnifi- markable; its breast is towards one end of the egg, cent advantages which are likely to result? Shall which is forined large for that purpose; its legs are the present generation fold its arms in supineness, bent forward to the breast; its head is couched beand leave every thing to be done by posterity neath one of its wings; and its beak rises from beWe earnestly exhort our legislators to take the tween the wing and the back. subject into serious consideration.
“When the time of its maturity is at length arThe writer of the subjoined communication will rived, the desire of life and motion awakes. The be pleased to learn that the mineral springs of the little creature employs its beak, thus singularly state, (which might in themselves be made a placed, for the purpose of breaking its covering. source of boundless wealth,) have been subjected It is heard to tap the shell; the emotions of the to careful analysis during the past summer, by an mother increase as she listens to the attempt of the able chemical professor in one of our colleges.* It young to come forth. The beating of the beak is understood that the results of his observation is generally continued for two hours, sometimes will in due time be laid before the public.
for six hours, and sometimes for a longer time. At length the shell is broken, and the young is ena
bled to come forth from its marvellous mansion. THE PROCESS OF INCUBATION OF THE COM
E COM- «The anxious mother has no milk to give to MON HEN. .
her young when they come into day; but Nature Extract from Professor Low's Elements of Agriculture. Thas provided for all their wants. The mother “The first in importance of the gallinaceous teaches the young to find their food almost as soon fowls is Phasianus gallus, the Domestic Cock. I as born, and their little bills are sufficiently hardenTo what region we owe this creature is unknown. ed at their birth to pick it from the ground. He is found from the equator to the limits of the "The change of nature in the parent is very temperate regions. In Asia and its islands he is remarkable. From the most timid of creatures, very abundant, and sometimes of large size and she now becomes fierce and courageous; she will great beauty. The large cock of the forests of attack the largest animal in defence of her young; the East, termed the Jungle Cock, is one of the she watches them with surprising solicitude; she species or varieties in its wild state, and is supposed shelters them under her wings, and leads them by some naturalists to be the origin of the domestic where food is to be found. After a time her cares kinds.
cease; she gradually recovers her natural timidity; “The male of the domestic species, were we she finally resumes all her habits, and leaves her not daily familiarized to the sight of him, would long-cherished offspring as if never to know them appear to be a very graceful bird. His gait is more.” erect, his eyes are sparkling, he is armed with
* Professor William B. Rogers, of William and Mary College.-ED. FAR. REG.