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From the Cultivator. penditures. All grapes, introduced into notice, SOILS SUITABLE AND UNSUITABLE FOR
either foreign or indigenous, except the two varie
ties above named, are subject to rot, mildew, and WHEAT
other casualties, in such a manner, that you can 1. H. J. inquires of us, in the Maine Farmer,
never rely upon any other return than an occasionif the culture of wheat has not declined in the old a small vield for ihe table At great expense I counties of this state, and the cause of this de
have collected most of the varieties in a continuous clension. It has declined materially; and there
lined materially; and there line, from Rome to the upper Rhine, and these are several reasons for it. One cause is, that we have all been discarded as worthless; having left cannot compete in its culture with the great west, on
me with an enipty purse, as a requital, for many account of the latter growing double the crop, and years hard labor. The house (in which I now with less labor and expense in its production, than live) stands upon the site, once occupied by the Pied we do. The west is emphatically a wheat soil, a Rouge, Malvoisie, Muscat de Frontignan Mamsecondary formation, abounding in lime and ani- molo, Cariniolo, Nigrillo, Verdillo, &c. &c. sent mal matters, the specific food of that grain. Ours to me from Havre, Leghorn, and the island of Mais but partially a wheat soil, being principally deira. Foreign vines seem detective in strength transition formation, and containing less, naturally of leat: the scalding suns, and innumerable tribes of the specific food of wheat. Another reason is, of insects of this state, and other regions of our that our lands have been injudiciously cropped country, destroy the foliage, so that during the and impoverished. They have been made to car- months of July and August, the fruit perishes ry wheat too often. A better system of manage- from inability to feed on the proper constituents for ment is obtaining among us, and the quality of completing their maturity. Examine, yourself, all our wheat is rather improving with good farmers, lof our native vines, and remark the dense, and although the inducement for raising it is lessened most indestructible fibre of the leaves, and you by the facilities of the west for competing with us can readily conceive, that nature has so fashioned in this great staple. The vallies of the Hudson them with a view to withstand the casualties and Mohawk, formerly great wheat districts, do above mentioned. Look at the foreign vines, with not at present, we think, grow wheat enough for their delicate foliage, and think how illy they are the subsistence of their population, throwing out of form
wing out ol formed to resist the agency of burning suns, and the calculation the cities of New York and Albany.
10. Albany. voracious insects. The vine from the banks of 1. H. J., who appears to be a practical farmer, the Douro, that variety from which the Port wine may render us a favor, and possibly the communi- is fabricated, I am told throws out a large, tough ty a service, by one or two experiments, no matter leaf. and will perhaps, from this circumstance, suit upon how small a scale. We have intimated that our climate better than those hitherto introduced lime and animal matters are essential to the suc- from abroad. cessful growth of wheat-that they constitute its The Catawba grape, with proper care, produces specific food. These, it is believed, do not natu- a wine of fine quality, having the lusciousness of rally abound in primitive formations, particularly the Malmsey Madeira, combined with a smack of in old fields. We wish to have the correctness of the French Muscat. Wine of this fruit, one year our opinions tested, and our request is, that they old, has been sold by me this winter, for three dolmay be artificially applied, separate and jointly, on lars per gallon. I regret to say that in some lodifferent parcels of ground, to be sown with calities it is subject to rot--never, however, to such wheat, and that the result may be accurately
rately extent but that you have a tolerable return for noted and published. Crushed bones would sup
would sup- your expense in the cultivation. ply both materials; or, if the lime is applied sepa- The Isabella is worthless, in every respect, save rately, slaughter-house manure, the urine of ani
ni-one, (the making of tarts) used as you would the mals, soap-boilers' waste, comb-makers' shavings,
gs, young apricots and gooseberries. Whoever atfish, &c. would either of them supply the other
ier tempts the fabrication of wine from this meager material. It is proper to caution against applying berry, will meet with disappointment. For the any of these materials in excess—as a small
most part, it does not equal the common twenty quantity will suffice, and the result will be more
cent cask claret of commerce. It it also subject satisfactory if the fertilizing materials are applied
ito acquire acidity, bitterness, or a musty taste. to the crop which precedes the wheat.
Norton's Virginia Seedling, has never been
known to rot or mildew: neither is the wood at all ON FOREIGN AND NATIVE GRAPES. injured by the most severe winter, in any expoTo the Editor of the Farmers' Register.
sure. The bloom for the last ten years, that is,
ever since its first bearing, has resisted the ravages Magnolia, near Richmond, Dec. 11, 1834.
of spring frosts. The berries are so closely conI regret that when writing you my short note gregated on some bunches, as to indent one anoof the 20th of September last, the hurry of the ther; yet they all prove equally ripe at the same moment prevented me from expressing myself period of time. So replete are they with the sacmore at large, respecting the Norton's Virginia charine principle, that if a bunch at full maturity Seedling, and the Cunningham's grape, of the be closely compressed in the hand, it will continue county of Prince Edward. After the experimen- to adhere even after the fingers are expanded; and tal culture of the grape for nearly twenty years, if a bunch is accidentally suffered to remain on (for I commenced it when a boy at school,) I con- the vine after the first frosts of autumn, the bersider that I have at last arrived at the point so ries become raisins, a circumstance I have never much desired, (that is, the discovery of a grape, known to take place with any other grape, indior grapes, which afford abundant annual crops; and genous or exotic. I have a small cask of wine to the culture of which we may lend our labor and made from the Seedling last year. It is luscious care, with the certainty of proper return, for all ex- beyond any thing you can conceive. Some say
it resembles the Burgundy Madeira-others the ence of opinion to the very different qualities of the Lachrima Christi of Mount Vesuvius. A young grapes examined. So far as may be inferred from gentleman not long since from that country, (Ita- what has been published on this subject, we think that ly) says that abroad he should have drank it for Mr. Smith cannot be charged with having done injus. the last named wine.
tice, and that he would be pleased to be convinced, The Cunningham's Prince Edward grape alike and then be ready to acknowledge, that Norton's Seedresists the winter and spring frosis, and never line
[ling in Virginia has a very different character from the fails to produce a crop of excellent fruit both for the table, and the press. As yet I have not a suf
specimen which he examined.] , ficient number of vines, to test in a satisfactory
For the Farmers' Register. manner, the quality of the fruit. What has been
MONTHLY COMMERCIAL REPORT. made upon a small scale, resenibles the wines imported into this place from the house of Murdock
The course of trade has been so regular for and Company: unquestionably the best wine we some time past as scarcely to furnish any subiect get from Madeira.
on which to remark. The Worthington grape vine is a great grower,
Some depression in the price of cotton has ocbut not abundant as a bearer; the intensely high
curred this month, in consequence of the opinions
expressed by some well informed merchants at used to advantage in tenting wines. If it ever
the South and West, that the crop of the United bears in quantities sufficient for making wine, you
States of the present years' growth, would exceed may expect it to yield a rich port.
that of the last to a considerable extent. The The Scuppernong, or White Bullaee, of Roan
price declined from 16 cents, its maximum, to 15 oke, ripens its fruit with me in October. It pos-C
cents for prime quality, and would have gone lowsesses a honied sweetness, and musky flavor. [er, had the decline not been checked by counter think in a few years it will be more cultivated in statements, that the probable extent of the crop Virginia-for the richness of the grape will event will be about the same as that of 1833-say, rathually recommend it to the vigneron for the purpose
er more than 1,200,000 bales. Time only can of enriching the weak must of other fruits.
solve the correctness of either opinion, and meanThe editor of the American Farmer received while speculation will be influenced as one or the fruit purporting to be Norton's Virginia Seedling,
other way prevail. The quantity exported from from Pennsylvania, and made the report upon it
unon the United States since the 1st of October, exceeds which was afterwards published in your Register.
that of last year to the same date. The latest acThis gentleman's opinions were so at variance
:counts from England (15th November,) may dewith what I had published to the world, that both
press prices here. myself and friends were at considerable pains to
* Tobacco is in brisk demand, and sells at higher undeceive him, and to convince him that 'he had prices than usually prevail so early in the season. taken the wrong pig by the ear. Yet the decree
when the quality of what is brought to market is has been recorded, and like the laws of the Medes generally very interior, consisting of the worst porand Persians cannot be reversed. If I really sup
tion of the cron, only partially cured and unfit for posed the circumstance could at all retard the in
exportation. The current sales are from $4 to iroduction of these two vines into culture (the
$71 per 100 lbs. The foreign export of the old Seedling and Cunningham) I would be at more
crop has latterly been chiefly to France, to which pains to combat his opinion. Relying however,
market, until the present month, only one cargo had upon the truth of my assertions, and the strongest
been shipped this season. The stock remaining testimony to support them, I do not hesitate again
on hand at the Virginia inspections on the 1st to say, that these two grapes properly cultivated,
inst. was but 5,500 hhds. against 15,000 on the will, at no distant period, be a nucleus whence will
1st December, 1833, and this small stock will be emanate an advantage in our exports, scarcely to
considerably reduced by shipments during the prebe calculated.
sent month. Markets abroad are not very favoraDANIEL NORBORNE NORTON.
ble for this article-nor does the consumption of it increase.
Flour continues to decline in price under the While offering thanks for the interesting matter pressure of heavy supplies from the West, and contained in the foregoing communication, we feel the absence of foreign demand. In New York, bound to say something in defence of the judgement 34 62 to $5 25 embraces all quotations, except of the former editor of the American Farmer. In for Richmond City Mills, which is worth $6. the article referred to above, Mr. Smith expressed his The crop of wheat in Virginia is nearly exhausted. opinion, and no doubt both impartially and correctly, | Indian corn commands $3 to $3 25 per bbl. of several kinds of grapes sent to him for that pur- of 5 bushels, and higher prices in the interior, pose from Pennsylvania, where they grew. That where the crops were injured. among them called the Norton grape, might have been
Pork sells readily at $58 to $6 per 100 lbs.
There is no change in the value of stocks, exrendered harsh in taste by removal to a northern re
m re. change, &c. to require particular notice. gion-or it might have been altogether a different grape, improperly designated. But under any such December 20th, 1834. circumstances, Mr. Smith could only report the qualities of the new grape as he found them, and with the
TO CORRESPONDENTS. name by which it was accompanied. However op- Communications have been received on the followposed his report was to ours, lately made under ing subjects: New mode of keeping sweet potatoessomewhat similar circumstances, we have as much Preservation of posts, &c. &c.- Observations on wild confidence in his as in our own, and impute the differ- rice_Queries respecting cedar hedges.
ON THE USUAL COURSE OF PROCEDURE OF management and condition of his own farm, (if AGRICULTURAL SOCIETIES.
he has one,) for the preceding six or twelve
months. These, when written, might be in a tabTo the Editor of the Farmers' Register.
ular form, such as I myself know, (for I have Dec. 1, 1834.75
seen them) were constantly made by Gen. WashThe rapid increase of our agricultural societies, ington's manager, at Mount Vernon, and which since the establishment of the “Farmers' Regis - were as minute and particular, as any that he ever ter," to which I confidently ascribe it, has been a required from the heads of the different departsource of much gratification to one who has been, ments in his army. Reports made on similar prinso long as I have, a firm believer in their great ciples, and with equal care, to our agricultural soutility. But many things are wanting in their cieties, by their respective members, would form a usual management to render them as beneficial as body of agricultural statistics, highly valuable to they might be, to the general interests of husban- each, at the same time that they would diffuse dry. The cause of this deficiency it is needless to more rapidly than by any other means, over the investigate; but it is highly important, if I am entire country within the limits of every society, right as to the fact, that the errors should be the whole stock of knowledge possessed by its pointed out, and some remedy suggested. This menibers, in all the different branches of husbanI propose to do, if an old campaigner in such mat- dry. Then, indeed, but not until then, would ters may hope to be acquitted by his agricultural these societies soon prove how much good they are brethren, of presumption in taking upon himself capable of effecting, and how rapidly by their this monitorial office.
agency, the now melancholy aspect of most of our In the first place, there is too little punctuality arable lands might be changed to an appearance on the part of their members, in attending their of exuberance and joyous plenty. One of the happeriodical meetings. There are two great disad- piest effects of this conviction, would be to check, vantages in this one is, the total loss of their at least, if not entirely to banish from good old personal co-operation; the other—the usual non- Virginia, that desolating spirit of emigration which payment by such absentees, of their annual sub- has long been, and still is tearing asunder among scriptions, which is almost sure to produce displea- us, the ties—not only of neighborhood, long acsure, is not withdrawal, when these arrearages are quaintance, and friendship, but of blood--of famidemanded; especially if they have been suffered ly union-of fathers—mothers, and children of to accumulate for two, or three, or four years. brothers and sisters—and in some instances, even
In the next place there is far too great a back- of husbands and wives. When once these bonds wardness on the part of those who do attend these of natural affinity are ruptured, a cold blooded selmeetings, in communicating individually, either fishness-an insatiate money-getting spirit - is verbally, or in writing, the results of each mem- apt to get possession of us, to the exclusion of alber's own agricultural experience for the past most all our better feelings and affections. We year, or six months, according as their meetings soon lose all attachment to the homes of our famay be annual or semi-annual. A false modesty, thers—we never again feel settled; and are ready or still less excusable indolence, is the cause of at a few hours notice, to flee with the speed of this, and the consequence to the society is, that wandering Arabs, to the extremities of the earth, each attending member returns home very little in search of other new lands, provided only, we wiser than he was in regard to the chief objects have persuaded ourselves, that they will yield us for which such societies are established. "The more money! more money! most important of these surely is, to enable each Another evil which greatly lessens the utility member to add something to his own professional of our agricultural societies, at least where their knowledge, by free and frank communications in- funds enable them to have shows and fairs, is terchangeably made by all. Until this can be reg- the principles upon which they award their pre. ularly and constantly done at the regular meetings miums. Although these principles have again of every society, they will prove but little more than and again been demonstrated to be both false and mere convivial assemblages of friends and ac- highly pernicious, especially by that excellent farquaintances, who like to see each other face to mer Timothy Pickering, so long president of the face, and to shake hands at least once or twice a most celebrated of all the northern and eastern year.
agricultural societies, yet they still continue to reThe remedy which I would respectfully suggest gulate the distribution of premiums in every sofor the first evil is, the punctual attendance of the ciety with which I am acquainted. Let it suffice members at all the meetings of their respective to exemplify my accusation by stating the cases societies—an attendance which nothing should be of' fattened animals, whether exhibited on the hoof, suffered to prevent, but some urgent necessity- or slaughtered. Here the premium is invariably and the no less punctual payment of every annual awarded to the one which is judged to be the fatsubscription.
test, without the slightest inquiry whatever, as to To prevent the second evil, I would most ear- the expense of feeding—even where a statement nestly recommend that every attending member upon honor of the process is required in their handshould hold himself bound to make some state- bills. The consequence always is, that the comment, either verbal or written, no matter how con-petitor who is most profuse in feeding--who is cise, provided it be sufficiently particular, of the most anxious to obtain the premium without re
gard to the cost of his prize, will gain it from his sents itself. These harpies care no more for the rivals. But the object of all these premiums interests of agriculture than they do for those of should really be, to ascertain and establish the the Grand Turk, and generally know quite as litmost economical way of fattening stock of every tle about them. But they will always be found kind; and consequently, a particular and trust- hovering over, and ready to pounce upon the worthy statement of the mode of fattening, should funds, however slender, of every agricultural 80never be dispensed with in any case whatever. ciety, where there are shows and fairs. Their By no other means can the poor farmers be ena- motives, however, usually carry their own punbled to compete with the rich, although to encour-ishment along with them; for like gamblers in a lotage this competition, without a risk of loss to tery or at faro, they almost always leave more moeither, ought surely to be one cardinal purpose of ney than they carry away. Although each is ready every agricultural society; and this can be done to say, “farewell, ye agricultural gulls," as soon only by making economy, and not profusion in the as he clutches the miserable pittance for which he process of fattening, the chief test of superiority. came, this is generally more than reimbursed by
In reviewing the previous remarks, I find that I the greedy contributions of his unsuccessful comhave omitted what seems to me the strongest ar-petitors of the same squadron or troop. Verily guinent in favor of annually requiring, as a matter they get their deserts in the loss of some two or of duty, verbal or written statements from all the three dollars, and the gain of angry and grievous members of our agricultural societies, who are cul- disappointment in failing to make some six, seven, tivators of the soil. The consciousness of this ob- or eight hundred per cent. upon their petty out-lay ligation would be a powerful incentive to increased of some two or three hundred cents! Add to this, effort in all their agricultural operations, while its they are always sure of a rich recompense of refulfilment would teach them method-a thing in ward in the scorn and contempt of all who underwhich most southern agriculturists are deplorably stand their motives. deficient; for not a few may be found who keep no
J. M. G. farming accounts whatever—who have no knowledge of what their net profits, (if any,) may be; P. S. To make myself better understood in renor can tell any thing scarcely, about their farms, gard to the annual reports recommended to be but the gross amount of sales. The apprehension made by all the members of our agricultural sotoo, of each reporting member, lest his own state- cieties, who are cultivators of the soil, I will take ment might fall below the average standard, the liberty of suggesting the following heads for would certainly excite a more constant and judi- each, in a form sufficiently abbreviated, yet micious attention to every part of his professional nute, to answer the purpose. business, than if no such public expose was re- Let each report state the number and kind of quired to prove how far he had fulfilled all the du- laborers on the farm-the number of fields, of culties of a good farmer. It is true that such a re- tivated acres in each, and rotation of crops: the quirement would tend strongly to produce exag- number of plough team, and whether horses, gerated reports, but men must trust each other to mules, or oxen: how fed and sheltered, and whethsome extent, in almost all situations; and in this er kept up constantly, or occasionally grazed: avercase we ought to hope, that the sentiments of age number of acres to the plough: average protruth and honor would so far check the long-gun duce per acre in bushels of corn, wheat, oats, rye, shooters” to be found in all large associations of and root crops: pounds of cotton and tobacco per men, as to secure unvarnished statements from a acre: preparatory ploughing for corn and other great majority of the members of every agricultu- cross, how and when performed: corn, with what ral society, who could be prevailed upon to report implements, and how cultivated and harvested: at all. The performance of this duty would not, what use is made of the offal: small grain, how of course, be expected from any but the cultiva- seeded and harvested: number of different kinds tors of the soil. These, however, should feel of stock, other than plough team, with their anthemselves bound to perform it, and then each nual increase or decrease—how fed and sheltered: would become more and more attached to his par- how much land nanured by each kind, or all toticular society, from a consciousness that he was gether, and from other sources, it any: time and every year contributing something more than his distance of hauling out manure: what increase of mere subscription money, towards the benificent product by its application, and how applied-by objects of its establishment. All members need ploughing in, or surface dressing: fallowing, if not be farmers, planters, or graziers; but all should any, how and when executed: what artificial be, at least, thoroughly convinced of the great grasses are cultivated, and how fed away: how utility of agricultural societies, and constantly de- many of each kind of stock are fattened for marsirous to co-operate actively in promoting their ket, or family use, and what has been the process purposes. Then would the salutary efficiency of|of fattening. these associations soon be rendered so perfectly The minute particularity of the foregoing statemanifest to all, that there would scarcely be a ment, I dare say, will cause many to exclaim, "oh! county in the state without them. There is but too troublesome entirely: I can't go it;" while one class of persons among those who are apt to some of "the goodenoughs,” in all the ineffable become members, that I think ought to be care- pride of their self-sufficiency, will even make a fully excluded, if there was any mark by which jest of it. But since it must be perfectly obvious, they could be previously known. I mean the on the slightest reflection, that all these circumdragoons of that flying squadron of pretended ag- stances are regarded as matters of importance, on riculturists, who dash in, wherever they expect every well regulated farm, they are certainly worsome paltry pecuniary gain, by carrying off pre- thy the attention of all agriculturists desirous of miums, and then, as suddenly, dash out, when improving in their profession. To such as care the prospect of such petty plunder no longer pre- little or nothing about it, or believe themselves
omniscient in husbandry, the remarks are not ad-ADDRESS TO THE NORFOLK AGRICULTURAL dressed at all. But we will venture to affirm, of
SOCIETY. . all others who could prevail upon themselves to attend to them so far as to undertake the making
By William GARNETT, Esq., President. of some such report once a year, that they would Ordered to be published in the farmers' Register by a resolution not only greatly increase their own knowledge
of the society. thereby, but would render their farms and every Gentlemen-I now avail myself of the first opthing on them, both more profitable and interesting. portunity that has offered, since our organization, Their fondness for their profession and customary to return you my thanks for the honor you have employments, would augment in proportion to the done me, in calling me to preside over the Norfolk additional advantages and enjoyments which such Agricultural Society. I must, however, be perattention to it would procure; and they would soon mitted, at the same time, to express my regret that make a pleasure of their business, instead of a your choice did not fall upon one better qualified business of their pleasure, as too many of our to serve you in that capacity. And this disclaimer, land-owners in Virginia have been doing from the I can assure you, is not made merely in complis earliest settlement of our state. This dereliction ance with a customary form, but under a thorough of agricultural duties—which seems to have been conviction, that I can lay no claim to the knowhereditary in numerous families—co-operating ledge, either theoretical or practical, which it is with an indiscriminate, most wasteful, and foolish desirable that the presiding officer of such a sociepride of hospitality, has done more to prostrate ty should possess. If, therefore, I should be so the husbandry of our beloved state, or rather pre fortunate as to contribute, in any degree, to the advent its attaining any high improvement, than all vancement of the objects which we contemplate, other causes put together. Not that I am an en- I shall be indebted, almost entirely, for such conemy to hospitality properly so called—that I mean, tribution to researches into the recorded experience which springs from the heart, and increases pari of others. passu with the means of indulging it: no, God In this way, I may perhaps, occasionally, be forbid. But the kind which is to end in the ruin able to bring to your notice facts which might, of those who display it, is rot only spurious, but otherwise, not be so generally diffused. And, in as much to be dreaded and deprecated as the cho- this way, every member of the society may conlera, or any other destructive disease. It begins tribute his quota towards the dissemination of the in vanity, or idleness, or inordinate love of what agricultural information which past experience is falsely called pleasure; and ends in poverty, long-has accumulated. But we should not rest satisfisuffering, and ruin; or in the heart-rending aban- ed here—every day new additions are making to donment, by emigration, of home, friends, kin- the acquired stock of agricultural knowledge, and dred, and the dearly cherished land of our na- it should be our aim, both individually and collec
tively, to add our mite to the general contribution.
To pursue the study of agriculture rightly, we [The foregoing communication treats on a subject should, as in the case of other sciences, adopt the of much importance, and which greatly needs such inductive method, and rest our principles upon the comments and strictures, if indeed any can have ef- solid foundation of well attested facts, the result of
attentive and intelligent observation. And it is the fect. Perhaps every reader, like ourselves, may ob
province of societies like ours, to collect, record, ject to some parts of the details recommended by J.
ecommended by J. and to excite, as much as possible, public attention M. G.; but there can be none, who have considered to the proper improvement of the information thus this subject, who will not admit the value and impor- obtained. To this end, it is hoped, that every tance of the writer's general remarks, as well as their member of this association, which we have volcorrect application. We have frequently, but fruit- untarily entered into for this purpose, will zealously lessly, attempted to call the attention of the members co-operate. None of us, we trust, will be content of new agricultural societies, and of those intending to be mere sleeping partners in the concern, but let
us rather anticipate that all will be impelleà, both to form societies, to the general and similar defects of
| by duty and inclination, to take an active part in such associations. Judging from such results as are promoting the objects for which we have associbefore the public, our suggestions have been useless; ated. Then may we hope to realize benefit to and by their being repeatedly brought forward, possi- ourselves, and to impart the advantages which we bly may have given offence. As a last effort, we re- may derive, to others. quest that every member, or intended member of an But permit me, again and again, to repeat, that agricultural society, who may read the foregoing com- we can never calculate upon so desirable a result, munication, will also read two pieces which, with sim
unless we pursue the objects we have in view
from the establishment of our society, with spirit ilar views, were inserted in the early part of our first and activity, and can succeed in exciting in our volume—"A report on agricultural premiums," at p. members generally, an interest in the concerns 147, and a communication on the "Advantages and and operations of this institution, which will induce defects of agricultural societies," p. 201, v. I. Far. Reg. them to engage actively in the advancement of its However, we should be altogether unworthy of con- welfare. One of the most obvious modes by ducting a journal devoted to the "support of the inter
which this can be accomplished, is by a free comests of agriculture" if we feared to give offence by
munication of all important facts relating to the uttering unpalatable truths in the performance of onr
subject of our science, which may come to the our knowledge of any of our members. Much very
important and highly useful information, it is to be feared, is withheld from the agricultural community, from an unwillingness that many persons have