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to appear before the public as authors, arising from plough up the land, upon which they had penned a diffidence of their powers in the art of composi- their cattle during the summer, as soon as the cow tion. This might be a good reason for such re-pens were removed, to avoid the loss, which he serve, if the object of the writer was to make a had taught them to apprehend from the evaporadisplay of his skill in the art of writing; but tion of the manure if left exposed upon the surface where nothing is contemplated but the communi- of the land to the action of the sun and moisture. cation of useful facts, the graces of composition Whether from accident, or design, it so happened, may well be dispenzed with. We shall never that some of the cow pens remained unbroken unvalue the information that may be thus imparted to til the following year, when they were ploughed us, a whit the less for any deficiency in the polish up to plant in corn; and much to the astonishment ot the style in which it may be conveyed; but will of those who had implicitly believed in the supever prize one useful and well attested fact bear-posed loss from evaporation, it was found that this ing upon the subjects to which the attention of our land produced much better than that which had society is directed, to the finest theory, which the been ploughed as soon as the cattle had been taken most brilliant imagination can suggest. All that is off. The consequence has followed, that the requisite in the communications, which we solicit, practice of breaking up cow pens, upon their reis a plain statement of the facts communicated, moval, has been abandoned in the part of the with such of the accompanying circumstances as country alluded to, I believe, without a single exmay be necessary to enable us to draw correct in- ception. From my own experience, therefore, on ferences from them. Many of our members, we this subject, as well as upon the testimony of sevehave no doubt, could aid us essentially by furnish- ral experienced farmers, whose experiments have ing us with the result of their agricultural experi- led them to the same conclusion, I do not enterence; and I trust that none, who have the ability, tain the least doubt as to the superiority of the will, like the unprofitable servant spoken of in the method of applying manure herein recommended, scripture parable, prefer to bury their talent, rather over the mode formerly used. than put it into useful circulation.

With regard to the implements of husbandry, I As may have been anticipated from what was am not sufficiently acquainted with the state of said in the commencement, I have but little worth agriculture in our region to know how far the modcommunicating from the very slender stock of my ern improvements in this particular have been own agricultural experience; nor have I as yet adopted with us. But I have been informed and had the leisure to draw from the sources of infor- believe, that very little attention has been paid, in mation alluded to in the beginning. But there is this section of country, to this important branch one impostant fact in relation to the application of of rural economy. Being however, almost entiremanure upon which I can speak experimentally, ly unacquainted with the extent of our deficienand to which I will therefore call your attention, as cies in this respect, I will postpone this subject for I deem it much more deserving of consideration another communication, by which time I hope to than it is generally thought. Some years ago, in be better acquainted with our wants and the sources reading the proceedings of an agricultural society, froin which they can be supplied. But before I somewhere in the state of New York, I observed take my leave of it, I will briefly describe to you that the owner of a farm, who obtained a premium an implement much used in the part of the counoffered for the best managed farm in that part of try in which I formerly resided, in the preparation of the country, stated amongst other matters in rela- newly cleared land for cultivation. It is called tion to his management, that for many years, he the new ground coulter, and differs from those forhad applied all his manure to the surface of his merly used in that part of the country, in having land after planting his crops, instead of previously a blunt edge in place of a sharp one. The advanploughing it into the land, as had hitherto been tage gained by this change, is, that the roots are his practice. Since then, I have applied the broken, and torn out of the earth, instead of being greater part of the manure I have collected in the cut and left in the land; nor it is ever impeded in same manner, and have invariably found the crops its progress, by sticking in the roots, as is frequentbetter than they were upon the land where the ly the case where the sharp edged coulter is used. manure had been used according to the old method. Oxen are generally employed as better adapted to

This difference is much more manifest, where such work, where frequent stoppages occur, than coarse litter is used, than in the case of well rotted horses; and a hatchet is carried on the brake of manure; and of a very dry season, I think I have the plough, to chop such roots as are too stubborn witnessed a difference of at least one hundred per to be broken. The new ground coulter is also cent. in favor of the surface dressing, though I much used to open furrows for planting corn; and have never tested the matter by actual measure for this purpose two short mould-boards are fixed ment. But during severe droughts I have seen upon the upper part of the helve, while the coulthe corn fired nearly to the shoot, upon land into ter going several inches below the bottom of the which coarse litter had been ploughed previous to furrow, opened by the mould-boards, prepares the planting, when the corn, which had the manure land underneath, for the reception of the small spread over the surface after planting, was perfect- roots of the corn as soon as it vegetates. Some ly green and flourishing. In further corroboration tarmers likewise use this plough for siding corn, in of the opinion herein advanced, of the superior stiff land, preparatory to weeding; but, in this case advantage of an application of manure to the sur- it is used without any mould-board. In short, I face, over the practice of burying it in the land, I do not know a cheaper or more useful agricultural will mention one other fact. Soon after the ap- implement than the new ground coulter, or one by pearance of some essays signed “ Arator," and which so great an amount of labor can be saved, written by Col. John Taylor, a celebrated agricul- at so little cost. I have seen large new grounds comturist, it was the practice of many farmers in the pletely prepared for the use of the ordinary plough part of the country in which I then resided, to by running this coulter previously through the

land; and the work of 15 or 20 hands, which would completed by the lst of July. The rails, it is prehave been otherwise employed for several weeks sumed, may be laid in the course of the summer in grubbing and hilling the ground, entirely saved. and fall, so as to admit of the use of this portion Mr. Richard Baylor, an officer of our society, has of the rail road by the 1st of December next. one of them, which I ordered for him, and I have It is the intention of the company, if the usual had another made at the request of Mr. A. Fore- subscription of two-fitihs should be made by the man, also one of our officers, which will furnish an state, to place the remainder of the road to Fredopportunity to such as think the matter worth in- ericksburg under contract in the month of May or quiry, to examine the plough for themselves. The June, so as to insure the completion of the whole construction is so simple, that the most ordinary road in the course of 1836. blacksmith can make them by these models. In The distance from Richmond to Fredericksburg conclusion, I would remark, that few things are of" will be reduced by the rail road from sixty-seven more importance to the farmer than a judicious miles to tilty-eight; the time of travelling it, from selection of the implements of husbandry, both as fourteen hours to three hours; and the journey beit regards the economy of labor, and the due pre-tween Richmond and Washington, from twentyparation of the soil for cultivation. And if I have four hours to betiveen eight and nine. not been greatly misinformed, much is required in The cost of the trip between Richmond and this department to place us upon the vantage Washington, now between ten and eleven dollars, ground occupied by our more enterprising and in- will be reduced to 86 50 per passenger. dustrious brethren of the north, or even of many With the facilities afforded to the travel, by the parts of our own state. I therefore recommend proposed work-in connection with the great line this subject to your particular attention. Much of steam boat and rail road communication bemay be done to better our condition in this respect tween Washington and Boston, now on the eve before we meet again, if we can but infuse new of completion--the friends of the improvement are energy into our operations, and excite something sanguine that so large a portion of the travel now like interest in agricultural pursuits in this and the taken by packets between New York and Charlesneighboring counties. But candor compels me to ton, may be diverted from the coast to the interior, add, that if we continue to manifest the same in-i as to afford, immediately on its completion, to difference to the well being and progress of our stockholders, a dividend of six per cent., from this society, which has, so far, characterized our first source alone. Independently, however, of the travel, efforts, we may, at once, abandon all hope of ad- a great trade may be expected on the rail road. vantage to ourselves, or utility to the public, The line passes within about 3 miles of the Deepthrough the agency of this institution, which with Run coal field. By a branch to it, soal will be out more spirited exertions than have yet been transported from these mines both to Richmond made, we may consider as virtually dissolved and Fredericksburg; and cotton, now brought by

the Petersburg Rail Road, to Petersburg and Richmond, may be expected to be conveyed to Freder

icksburg; and the water-power of the last named From the Richmond Enquirer.

town made use of, as at Richmond and PetersPRESENT STATE AND PROSPECT OF THE RICH

burg, for its manufacture. In agricultural proMOND, FREDERICKSBURG, AND POTOMAC

ducts, the trade of the rail road will be any thing

but inconsiderable. RAIL ROAD.

It is true, that the country

through which it passes is not generally tertile; Richmond, Fredericksburg, and Potomac Rail but the cheapness of transportation will bring Road. The three-fifths of the stock, with the ex- lands into market not now cultivated, and increase ception of about 370,000 has been subscribed by pri- largely the amount of its products; and improvevate capitalists of undoubted responsibility-about ments of the North and South Anna Rivers, al8150,000 by gentlemen in Philadelphia-and 5 per ready projected, or branch rail roads, will extend cent. actually paid in. The 70,000 dollars will be the benefits of the improvement to the counties of readily made up, and is pledged to be subscribed, Louisa, Spottsylvania, Orange, and Madison. before the state will be called on to subscribe its Whilst the prosperity of our sister town, Fredertwo-fifths. A bill is now before the House of icksburg, will in many respects be promoted, and Delegates to subscribe the two-fifths or $280,000. cannot be impaired by it, Richmond may be exWe entertain no sort of doubt of the value of the pected, by the execution of the work, to be placed investment-nor of the great utility of the pro- in the relation to her which Baltimore now occuposed rail road to the publie at large. We have re- pies; and produce, which would otherwise leave quested some inforination on the subject from Mr. the state to find a purchaser, be brought to this Moncure Robinson, the engineer, who has been place. But a more probable result will be, the so obliging as to address us the following letter. improvement of the markets in both towns, in

consequence of the facility of intercommunication Richmond, Dec. 28th, 1834.

afforded by the rail road, which will enable the Dear Sir.-I hand you, agreeably to your re

merchants of either town to make purchases adquest, the following information in relation to vantageously in both. the Richmond, Fredericksburg, and Potomac Raill. I will add only in addition to the above, that the Road.

definite location of the work, as far as it has proTwenty-seven miles of the road, extending from gressed, shows that it will be executed at much Richinond to the North Anna, were contracted for le

tracted for less than it was at first computed at. The origion the 27th, (yesterday,) at an average expense nal estimate, based on the experimental line first of $8,000 per mile. The work was let to contrac- traced, was $763,000 for the whole work, inclutors of the highest responsibility; and the grading ding the necessary depots, locomotive engines, and masonry of this portion of the road, are to be cars and carriages. Great improvements have


been made in the line, and it is now ascertained | is to connect the cities of Washington and Baltithat it will not probably exceed $680,000, or at more; and that this work will have been completed farthest $700,000, inclusive of the above items. in the course of two years from the present time.

I remain, dear sir, yours, very respectfully, and By means of it and the contemplated improvement truly,

between Richmond and Fredericksburg, a travel

may be expected to be diverted from the bay and T. Ritchie, Esq.

the coast through our towns, and an increase of

that on the line of the improvement, the extent of The following extracts from the address of the which can only be appreciated by those who have commissioners, published in this city in May last, witnessed the vastly increased intercourse prowill throw additional light upon the value of the duced by similar improvements in other quarters of proposed improvement:

our country.

In the absence of specific data on the subject, EXTRACTS FROM THE ADDRESS, &c.

the experience of the Petersburg Rail Road ComAddress of the Commissioners, to the Citizens of

pany furnishes some facts which are pertinent. Richmond and Fredericksburg, and the inhabi

Previous to the execution of that work the average tants of Henrico, Hanover, Caroline, and Spott

147 number of passengers in the line of stages besylvania,

tween Petersburg and the Roanoke did not, it is

understood, exceed three each way per day, or By the report of the engineer, communicated to varied between 30 and -40 per week. Since the a committee of citizens of Richmond, on the 4th execution of that work, the number has averaged of January last, it appeared that the distance bc-generally between 30 and 40 per diem, or from 300 tween Richmond and Fredericksburg, by the ex- to 350 per week; the increase of the travel on the perimental line surveyed prior to that time, was route occasioned by the execution of the rail road sixty and a half miles, and that the whole cost of having been nearly in the ratio of ten to one. the work, including depots, warehouses, and water Presuming only half the increase between Richstations, locomotive engines, cars, and carriages, mond and Washington that has taken place on the was estimated at seven hundred and sixty-three Petersburg Rail Road, or an increase in the ratio of thousand dollars. The farther surveys which five to one, (and when we recollect the great fahave been since made by the engineer, show that cilities which will be produced by the contemplated a reduction in distance of one and a half miles improvement, the estimate seems to be at least a may be effected between Richmond and the Pa- very moderate one,) we should have about 420 munkey, by a line terminating in H street, on passengers per week on the contemplated rail road; Shockoe Hill, and the cost of which will be about or estimating the fare of each passenger at $4, $40,000 less than that of the line first traced. sixteen hundred and eighty dollars per week, on the

The commissioners understand from the engi- proposed improvement, from passengers alone. neer that no doubt is entertained by him, that far- With every confidence in the above views, the ther reductions in the length and cost of the road, commissioners respectfully present the following as will result on its definite location, so that the whole a probable estimate of the annual receipts on the cost of the road, with all its appendages to Fred- I proposed line of rail road: ericksburg, will not probably exceed $700,000, if For passengers, 429 per week, or 21,840 indeed it should reach this sum; and that the per annum, at $4,

87,360 whole length of the road may probably be reduced For the transportation of the mail, 10,000 to fifty-eight miles.

On cotton, coal, agricultural products Presuming these views to be correct, (and that and merchandize,

25,000 they are so, the commissioners have as a guarantee the professional reputation of the gentleman

122,360 to whom their surveys were committed,) there can be but little doubt of the productiveness of the | Deduct for repairs of road, wear and improvement, and that as an investment, none tear of locomotive engines, cars and carwhich has been offered for many years to the pub-riages, and expenses of transportation, 50 lic can be more advantageous.

per cent.,

61,180 In confirmation of the above positions, they would respectfully submit,

$61,180 Ist. That every rail road hitherto made in our country for the accommodation of travel has been And we have a nett balance of $61,180, or productive.

nearly nine per cent., to divide to stockholders im2d. That the line of rail road in question, would mediately on the execution of the proposed imnecessarily take, not only the whole travel between provement. the city of Richmond and town of Fredericksburg | But there can be no doubt that the above inand the north, and that between the city of Wash-lcome must largely increase with the growth of ington and towns of Alexandria, Georgetown, and our country and its increasing trade and travel. Fredericksburg, and the whole south, and all the With the facilities offered by the proposed comlocal travel on this line, but also the largest portion munication for the transportation of coal and cot. of the large travel between the north and south, I ton to Fredericksburg, there can be little doubt now accommodated by the packets on the coast that the last named town will become like Richand the bay steamboats.

mond and Petersburg, rapidly manufacturing; and That the above view is correct, it is only ne- its excellent water power, so readily available, but cessary to advert to the fact that the Baltimore and now so little used, be employed to give a new Ohio Rail Road Company are now executing with stimulus to the industry of the country in which it great energy the branch of their rail road, which I is situated. The effect of an increased prosperity


will be, to extend in a still greater ratio, not only winter subscribe the remaining two-fifths; and the intercourse between our towns, but that be that to organize the company a subscription of tween them and the northern cities; whilst the 8300,000 is by the charter made sufficient. Two travel of that class of persons who visit the cities dollars per share is to be paid at the time of subof Washington and Richmond, during the sessions scribing, which sum, of course, will be repaid to of congress and the legislature, from motives of each subscriber, if the amount necessary to organbusiness or pleasure, may be expected largely and ize the company should not be made up. steadily to increase.

JOHN H. EUSTACE, The commissioners, looking at the subject in

FLEMING JAMES, these aspects, can scarcely doubt that in the

LEWIS WEBB, course of a reasonable period the improvement will produce to the stockholders, in dividends, the

JAMES BOSHER, maximum (15 per cent.) authorized by the char

RICHARD C. WORTHAM, ter; and this maximum, if produced by the tolls,

CONWAY ROBINSON, it will be recollected, is completely secured to the

WILSON ALLEN, company for a term of thirty years after the com

FAYETTE JOHNSON, pletion of the rail road, by a clause in the charter,

W. S. BLACK FORD, which guarantees the company during that period

JOHN L. MARYE, against all competitions from any rival work.

JOHN DICKINSON, The above views go to show that an investment

JOSEPH M. SHEPPARD. in the proposed improvement cannot fail to be secure and productive; but other considerations still more decidedly recommend its patronage to the

From the New England Farmer. citizens of Richmond and Fredericksburg and the EXTRACT FROM A DISSERTATION ON MAKING intervening country. To the owners of property AND APPLYING MANURE, BY JAMES HALE, between Richmond and Fredericksburg it will in ESQ. sure a cheap and speedy transportation of their For which a premium was awarded by the Merrimac products, and of course, a large enhancement in ihe value of their lands. To the merchants and

Agricultural Society. shippers of both towns, a facility in keeping their It has been observed by a writer on agriculture, assortments complete and in making their pur

that manure stands in the same relation to the farchases and transacting business in either town-to mer, that a stock of goods, calculated to meet the the hotels and boarding houses in both towns, an market, does to a merchant. Whether the comincreased business, proportionate to the largely in-parison is correct or not in every point of view, creased amount of travel. But by the property it cannot be denied that manure is an article of holders in both towns, the benefits of the improve the greatest importance to the farmer. It is the ment will be more particularly felt. Its enhance- intention of the writer to present to the public, in a ment may be greater in some than in other por- plain and concise manner, for the aid of the practions of each town, but will be felt in some degree tical farnier, as well as to excite an investigation, a in all. A street in Richmond, now so partially few ideas on the subject of making and applying built, may be expected to become in a few years, manure. throughout its whole extent, what Broad street in Philadelphia, since it has been occupied by the

MAKING MANURE. Philadelphia and Columbia Rail Road, has been be- This subject comprehends not only the best coming so rapidly, a handsome avenue, presenting manner of saving and preserving the manure, on either side ranges of warehouses and retail which is naturally made by a stock of cattle on a stores, handsome hotels and boarding houses; and farm, but likewise the best method of increasing the industry of our city and Fredericksburg will that quantity by the aid of other materials. The experience a new impulse from the foundries and manure made in stables during the winter season work-shops to which the rail road will give rise. should be cleanly thrown from the same every Fredericksburg, in addition, on account of the day, and the stable floor well littered with straw abundance and cheapness with which all the sup- or refuse hay. The litter, besides increasing the plies of life are procured there, may be expected, quantity of manure, conduces to the ease and when an easy communication is procured to and health of the cattle, and increases both the quanfrom it, to become the residence of many families tity and quality of the milk of cows. The cattle of that class in society who are not tied down by in the winter should usually be confined in the the engagements of their members to any particu- farm yard, and the cows at least should be yarded lar spot. but left free to select the abode which pre- during the night in the summer season. It is said sents most attractions. But it would be difficult by practical farmers that three loads of manure, to point out the many results which may be ex- kept under a cover through the spring and sumpected to ensue from the execution of the work in mer, are worth four exposed to the air during that question, to the towns which it will connect. Un- time. less the commissioners are greatly mistaken, the The manure made by fatting hogs should be productiveness of the improvement as a stock, frequently cleaned from the hog house and placed clear as it seems to them, is its least recommenda- in the yard adjoining-(no farmer should be tion.

without a hog yard ) and the sty should be freIn conclusion, the commissioners would remark, quently replenished with plenty of straw or other that the whole amount of private subscriptions re- litter. quisite to the completion of the work is $420,000! But the thriving, economical and scientific faror three-fifths of the capital stock of the company, mer will not depend solely on the preceding meas there can be no doubt that the state will next thods for his stock of manure; but, for the purpose of increasing the quantity of the same, will fre- the back part of your house, or near the barn yard, quently make calculations resembling some or all of and cart or place thereon, not in layers, but judithose which follow; and not only make, but ac- ciously mixed or shovelled together, such subtually put them in practice; for, give me leave to stances as the following, viz. rich earth, such as observe, that calculations alor:e will make very little may be obtained from ditches or the sides of the manure.

road ; mud or the dirt from hollows, which have The farm yard.* As soon as the haying and received the wash from rich lands; marl, ashes, harvesting season is over, the farmer should com- oily substances, soot, putrified flesh, dead animals mence collecting a large quantity of brakes, may be buried in the compost hear, if placed at swamp grass, or coarse refuse grass of any de- such a depth as to prevent any noxious effluvia; scription, and, after having removed the manure woollen rags cut in small pieces, scrapings of the from his barn yard, spread the brakes, grass, &c. cellar and kitchen yard, of lanes and back yards over the whole surface of the yard. There is no after rains, rubbish of old chimneys, earth that danger of getting this covering of too great a has been long under cover, salt, old brine, blood depth. It should be suffered to remain in this sit- and soap suds. These should be frequently mixuation till the next fall, when, together with the ed together, and at each stirring much common dung and urine of cattle with which it is mixed, it earth, or that which lies adjoining the heap, may makes an excellent manure, and should be carted be added. If this manure be designed for a cold, out and laid in large heaps, for the purpose of stiff, clayey soil, sand or dry sandy loam should being placed in the hills of Indian corn, or potatoes, be a principal ingredient; but if for open, light, the ensuing spring. It is believed that this is sandy ground, clay should be added. It would be the most profitable method of making and ap- well to add to the heap some warm manure to plying such manure. If used the spring after it promote its fermentation; sheep dung would be is made, it is not sufficiently rotten or decomposed the best. Straw, refuse fodder, brakes, or any to become the proper food of plants. It may be such vegetables, would be better disposed of in worth observing that the practice of covering the the barn yard than in this heap. The making of barn yard with brakes is very beneficial to the such a heap causes an appearance of neatness to cows kept in the yard during the fall season, exist about the house and other buildings; and beand is equally as necessary as the stable litter in sides being a rich manure, the removing of so the winter. These weeds are very injurious to much rubbish to its proper place is conducive to our pastures, and every cutting tends to destroy the health of the occupants or inmates of the them.

house. The hog yard. With a little labor much valua- This is a good manure to spread on tillage land, ble manure may be made in this enclosure. It is just before sowing it with wheat or any kind of strong, rich and oily, and the fermentation of it pro- grain and hay seed. It should be covered in the ceeds slowly, consequently it affords more steady soil with the harrow. It will cause the grain to and durable nourishment to the plants to which it is grow luxuriantly, and the land seldom fails of applied, than most other manures, and answers a being well stocked with grass. It may be profitagood purpose when mixed with a large quantity of bly applied to gardens, and as a top dressing to earthy or vegetable substances.

wet, cold mowing lands. For the purpose of increasing the quantity of Peat moss, or swamp mud. This is a substance this manure, the farmer should deposite in his hog which yields little or no nourishment to plants unyard at every convenient opportunity, chip-dung, less it be mixed with barn yard or stable dung, or rich earth, weeds, leached ashes, leaves, moss, some kind of hot manure to bring it into a state of turf, and such other substances as his ingenuity fermentation ; in this case the mixture may be may suggest; for no person should allow himself used in the same manner and nearly to the same to be an entire book farmer, or servile imitator. effect " weight for weight as barn yard dung." That the mixture of the several ingredients may The cheapest and best manner of making this the more readily and efficiently be performed by kind of compost manure is, when the barn yard the swine, a little corn or other grain should be dung is carried into the field early in the fall, a sprinkled over the yard.

certain quantity, say one-half, or even two-thirds This is a good manure to enrich the exhausted of the heap may be composed of swamp mud, soil of a garden, or to spread on land to be planted which should be well mixed with the other mawith Indian corn; but perhaps the best manner of nure. The whole mass at this time will undergo applying it is to cart it out every spring, and place a strong fermentation, and become a good mait in the hills of Indian corn, or potatoes. If the nure. Some practise carting swamp mud into the crop be not a good one where this manure is used, barn yard; but in this case the two kinds of mawe must look for the failure from some other cause nure will not so well assimilate by fermentation, than the want of an excellent manure.

as when they are both moved at the same time The compost heap. Manures combined of dif- and mixed together. The mud should be referent materials, and of such substances as are moved from the swamp, and left to dry some weeks calculated to act upon each other by fermentation, before it is carried to the compost heap. I tried or otherwise, are eminently useful in increasing some of this compost in the hill for corn and potathe fertility of soils, and promoting the growth of toes, on a dry warm soil; it consisted of nearly yegetables.

two-thirds mud; it did well with the potatoes, but Select some convenient spot not far distant from with the corn, barn yard dung had the advantage,

-- though in this case the mixture was probably be* This enclosure is usually denominated by the far- neficial. mers a barn yard, and this appears to be the most proper designation, but most writers on agriculture call

APPLICATION OF MANURE. it a farm yard.

In addition to what has been before remarked

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