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The proprietor who wishes to occupy a planta-The laborer who works up the remains tion of mulberry trees, supposing he had already does the labor for 30 fr. and gains at his disposal a quantity equal to those which I besides, - -
- 85 00 stripped last spring and in the same condition, (that is) producing 160 quintals of leaves at 4 fi: Sum equal to the total profit which I the quintal. Well! this proprietor could have ob- have made by the union of all these tained from half a hectare of ground with no operations, - - - - 1,548 95 other expense than that of cultivating the trees, a revenue of 640 fr. or 320 fr. for each sétérée, The calculations which I have just presented, composed of 640 square fathoms.
speak loudly enough without my adding the least The person who would have bought this quan- observation to make the evidence more sure; I tity or leaves to devote himself only to the raising will only say that one of the great benefits of this of silkworms, would have had (as I did) 928 direction of industry is to make a considerable pounds of cocoons, and would have sold them at mass of work for all classes of society, and for all 1 fr. 50 c. a pound, according to the course of that ages. Here is good St. Simonism, which it is time: this sale would have produ
necessary to encourage, and in favor of which I ced, - - - - - 1,392fr. 00c. should like to see apostles and preachers rise. Deduction of expenses, purchase )
I arrive at the object of the letter which you of about 8 ounces of eggs at 3
did me the honor to address to me on the 31st of fr. - 24fr. 00c.
last month, and which informs me that the Royal Expense of all kind for the man- ? 895 75 and Central Society of Agriculture, of Paris, agement, . - 171 75 i
wishing to profit by your presence in this capital, Price of 160 quintals of leaves at
has charged you to present to it a report on the 4 fr. - . - 640 00
condition of the industry of silks in the parts of Rent of the room, - 60 00 )
France, where it has been recently introduced.
You desire, sir, that I should show you our proHis part of the profits for 40 days at
gress, for the purpose of classing in your work the tendance,
- 496 25 department of Aveyron in the rank which beThe filateur who buys the cocoons
longs to it. To satisfy this request, I hasten to obtains a quantity of silk equal to
profit by the documents which are at my disposal, mine and sells it in the same man
and in uniting them, I dare hope that you will find ner, -
- 1,868fr. 55c. there all the desired elements. fle draws from the remains, - '115 00 I will at first acquaint you with a speculation
made at Milan in 1833, on a part remarkable Total, - - 1,983 55 enough for cocoons, in the end to try to introduce It is necessary to deduct from this sum
the filature of silk on a large scale in this city. as the cost of 923 pounds of cocoons at
This operation has been made on the account I fr. 50 c. .. 1,392fr. 00c.),
of M. M. Brouillet, & Co., and directed by a skilExpenses of the filature, 263 85 Šobe
sul lady originally from the Cevennes.
The atelier of this filature has had, for nearly Clear gain of the winder, - - 327 70 | three months from 7 to 8 tours en roulement, giv
ing different qualities of silk, according to the The laborer, with a family, takes for his share 8
goodness and the color of the cocoons. the remains of this filature, employs his wife and
Here is the account, truly certified, which has children to prepare and wind the low and different "
na been communicated to me by this house. qualities of silk, which are in much request and could
The general produce of the filature has been as
the readily sold. These products can be valued, after having received all the suitable work, 165fr. 00c.
ter 235,34 kil. of silk of various qualiDeduction for the purchase of the )
ties, sold at diflerent prices, accordfirst materials, - 50fr. 00c. 80 00
ing to the times, for the sum of 13,300fr. 00c.
Advances to deduct, 3,091, Hand work, although gained by S
kil. cocoons bought at the the family, - - 30 00.”
mean price of 3 fr. 30 c. the
} 11,964 75 Profit, without including his work
kil., - 10,239fr. 75c.
Expense of the already paid, - - - - 85 00 flatu
A simple recapitulation will make the result Clear gain for the undertaking, 1,335 25 better understood than this division of the labor, which division certainly agrees, in many cases, An experiment crowned with such success will with the taste or situation of persons who neither be a powerful encouragement for the future. wish, nor are able, to undertake all parts of the bu-! The following account will determine you on siness.
the progress of the culture of the mulberry in The land owner who sells 160 quin
Aveyron. This estimate cannot be of the most tals of leaves at 4 fr. receives, 640fr. 00c. rigorous accuracy, but it approaches truth as nearThe person who buys them and man
ly as possible, because it is the result of conscienages the raising, gains, - - 496 25 tious instructions which have come to me from all The winder who takes charge of the
parts of the department, cocoons, winds them, and receives
of the 5 arrondissemens of which it (Aveyron) for his labor, - - - - 337 70 is composed, 4 have taken a part inore or less in
the progress of the mulberry plantations. That of Villefranche ought to be noted as entirely for- miry that he could not make a good fence; on this eign to this new industrious and agricultural con- swamp he planted a double row of yellow willow quest. This neglect is much more to be regret- cuttinys nine inches apart, making the rows break ted, as this locality offers (as do all the others) the joints--these, in about three years, had grown most favorable positions for the growth. If M. from twelve to sixteen feet high-they were then Dupin made the statistics of the plantations of lopped about six feet from the ground and the toss mulberry trees, he would mark, and correctly, the brought down. After this a row of blue grape entire perfecture of Villefranche with his blackest vine cuttings was planted one every three feet, ink.
| along the willows-these in a few years climbed
the trees, and have yielded a plentiful crop of General table of the plantation of mulberry trees grape juice, which has been sold to the distilleries,
and of the management of silk-worms, in the and furnished a good income; so that the propriedepartment of Aveyron, in 1833.
tor has not only a good fence but a fruitful one. Mulberry trees of
This land was divided by small narrow ditches, large size, (a haute Total. Dwarf! In No. of the nine inches wide ar tige) planted.
mul- nurse-cocoons of then between these ditches, when the ground was
berry l ries. he raising frozen, he carted on a quantity of pit sand, by from
of 1833. which means the water was thrown each way to before 1819 to
these narrow ditches, and the land sown with red 1819. 1833.
top grass, and has for more than twenty years
1 yielded a plentiful crop of hay annually. This
land, since my remembrance, was considered 26,260 35,000 6,000 (67,000 10,000
worthless, but now yields an income of more than I hope that these statements may be agreeable two hundred dollars per annum. to you, and show the high estimation which I at
R. M. WILLIAMS. tach to the extending of an industry upon which Potter, Nov. 29, 1834. you have spread so much light. i would also desire much that my countrymen, so often admon
From the Library of Useful Knowledge-Farmer's Series, ished, may be willing to decide on profiting by your advice and instruction. They know that GENERAL HISTORY OF THE HORSE. the mulberry tree grows very well in our depart The native country of the horse cannot with ment; that they have resisted two trials the most certainty be traced. He has been found, varving severe that a tree could bear; I speak of the 17 or materially in size, in form, and in utility, in all 18 degrees of cold during the winters of 1829 and the temperate, in most of the sultry, and in many 1830, and the extreme heat and long drought of of the northern regions of the Old World. the summer of 1831. At both of these periods, so In the sacred volume, which, beside its higher different, and so extreme, the chestnut trees, the claims to stand at the head of the Farmer's Liwalnuts, the oaks, and many other indigenous brary, contains the oldest authentic record of past trees sustained with us very great damages. They transactions, we are told that, so early as 1650 know, by the accounts which have been given, years before the birth of Christ, the horse had and many by their own experience, that the rear- been domesticated by the Egyptians. When ing of worms have succeeded beyond their hopes, Joseph carried his father's remains from Egypt to when they have been well conducted. They Canaan, "there went up with him both chariots know (and I give new proofs of it now) tiiat our and horsemen.” * One hundred and fifty years country has produced for a long time silks of the alterwards, the horse constituted the principal best quality. They also know that the sale of this strength of the Egyptian army. Pharoh pursued merchandize is certain, prompt, and advanta- the Israelites with six hundred chosen chariots, geous. In short, they know all that is necessary and with all the chariots of Egypt." + to be known for this new industry, with the best If we could believe the accounts of the uninestablished confidence. Well ! if there are some spired historians, Sesostris (the monarch probaundecided or timid minds among the Aveyro- bly whom Joseph served) had twenty-seven nese who wish to wait for better or more positive thousand chariots of war; and Semiramis, the results, I have faith enough in the good judgement, founder of Babylon, had one hundred thousand and I know too much of the intelligence of the chariots, and a million of horsemen; but this was greater part among them, to fear that the number | probably a great exaggeration. is large: and although I am tolerably far advanced Fifty years after the expulsion of the Israelites in the career of my life, I dare hope that I may be from Egypt, and 1450 years before the birth of permitted to see one day, that my efforts have not Christ, the horse was so far naturalized in Greece that been completely foreign to the prosperity of my the Olympic games were instituted, including chacountry.
riot and horse races. We have, therefore, sufficient AMANS CARRIER evidence that the horse was at a very early period,
subjected to the dominion of man, and, unfortu
From the Genesee Farmer. nately, for the worst of purposes—the business of Willows and GRAPE VINES FOR HEDGES. war.
From the records of the Old Testament, we are Mr. L. Tucker- Although I have not been a likewise enabled to ascertain the precise period of strenuous advocate for hedges as fence, believing time, when in Egypt and Canaan, and the neighthey were generally harbors for weeds, and took 1
boring countries, this animal began to be domestitoo much ground, yet there are circumstances which render them very proper. Many years ago a friend of mine had about ten acres of swamp land, so! *Gen. i. 9. Exod. xvi. 7.
cated. 1920 years before the birth of Christ, when! From Egypt the use of the horse was propagated Abraham, having left Harar, in obedience, to the to other and distant lands; and, probably, the horse divine command, was driven into Egypt by the himself was first transmitied from Egypt to several famine which raged in Canaan,* Pharoh offered countries. The Greeks affirm, that Neptune struck him sheep and oxen, and asses and camels. Horses the earth with his trident, and a horse appeared. The would doubtless have been added, had they then truth is, that the Thessalians, the first and most existed, or had they been subdued in Egypt. expert of the Grecian horsemen, and likewise the
When, fifty years afterwards, Abraham jour- inhabitants of Argos and of Athens, were colonists neyed to Mount Moriah, to offer up his only son, from Egypt. he rode upon an ass, which, with all his wealth / The Bible likewise decides another point, that and power, he would scarcely have done, had the Arabia, by whose breed of horses those of other horse been known.
countries have been so much improved, was not Thirty years later, when Jacob returned to Isaac the native place of the horse. Six hundred years with Rachel and Leah, an account is givent of after the time just referred to, Arabia had no horses. the number of oxen, sheep, camels, goats, and Solomon imported spices, gold, and silver, from asses, which he sent to appease the anger of Esau, Arabia;* but all the horses for his own cavalry and but not one horse is mentioned.
chariots, and those with which he supplied the It is not until twenty-four years after this, when Phænician monarchs, he procured froni Egypt.t the fàmine devastated Canaan,ll and Jacob sent In the seventh century after Christ, when Mainto Egypt to buy corn, that horses are first heard homet attacked the Koreish near Mecca, he had but of. “Waggons, probably carriages drawn by two horses in his whole army; and at the close of horses, were sent by Joseph into Canaan to bring his murderous campaign, although he drove off his father to Egypt. It would seem, however, twenty-four thousand camels, and forty thousand that horses had been but lately introduced, and sheep, and carried away twenty-four thousand were not numerous, or not used as beasts of bur- ounces of silver, not one horse appears in the list den; for the whole of the corn, which was to be of plunder. conveyed some hundred miles, and was to afford There is a curious record of the commerce of subsistence for Jacob's large household, was car- different countries at the close of the second centuriell on asses.
ry. Among the articles exported from Egypt to It appears, then, that about 1740 years before Arabia, and particularly as presents to reigning Christ, horses were first used in Egypt; but they monarchs, were horses. soon afterwards became so numerous as to form a In the fourth century two hundred Cappadocian considerable proportion of the Egyptian army: horses were sent by the Roman emperor, as the and when the Israelites returned into 'Canaan, the most acceptable present he could offer a powerful horse had been introduced and naturalized there; for the Canaanites went out to fight against Isra
So late as the seventh century, the Arabs had el with horses and chariots very many."'S
few horses, and those of little value. These cirThe sacred volume, therefore, clears up a point cumstances sufficiently prove that, however supeupon which no other record throws any light- rior may be the present breed, it is comparatively namely, the period when the horse first became lately that the horse was naturalized in Arabia. the servant of man, at least in one part of the The horses of Arabia itself, and of the southworld, and that the most advanced in civilization, eastern parts of Europe, are clearly derived from and before Greece was peopled. A long time musí Egypt; but whether they were there bred, or imhave elapsed before man was able to ascertain the ported from the south-western regions of Asia, or, value and peculiar use of the animals that sur as is more probable, brought from the interior, or rounded him. He would begin with the more northern coast of Africa, cannot with certainty be subordinate--those which were most easily determined. caught, and most readily subdued; and the benefits which he derived from their labors would in
sculptures. One would think that the simple act of duce him to attempt the conqest of superior quad
mounting on a horse's back would naturally have prerupeds. In accordance with this, the writings of harness; yet no horsemen are found at Persepolis; and
ceded the use of wheel-carriages and their complicated Moses shew us that, after the ox, the sheep, and we know Homer's horses are represented in chariots the goat, man subdued the ass, and then the cam- from which the warriors sometimes descended to comel, and, last of all, the horse became his servant: bat on foot, but the poet has not described them as and no sooner was he subdued, and his strength fighting on horseback. The absence of mounted fig. and docility and sagacity appreciated, than the ures might authorize an opinion that those sculptures others were comparatively disregarded, except in had been executed before the time of Cyrus, whose Palestine, where the use of the horse was forbid-precepts and example first inspired the Persians with den by divine authority, and on extensive and bar
and har a love of equestrian exercises, of which, before his ren deserts, where he could not live. I
time, they were wholly ignorant.”-vol. ii. p. 276.
* 2 Chron. ix. 14 *Gen. xii. 16. Gen. xxii. 8. Gen. xxxii. 14.
The historian gives us the price of the horse and
the chariot at that time. A horse brought from Egypt 1Gen. xlv. 19. $Joshua xi. 4,
including, probably, the expense of the journey, cost TWhen Sir Gore Ouseley travelled through Persia, one hundred and fifty shekels of silver, which, at two and the different countries of the east, he examined, shillings, three pence, and one half farthing, eath, among other relics of antiquity, the sculptures on the amounts to about seventeen pounds two shillings. A ruins of Persepolis, and he draws from them a curious chariot cost six hundred shekels, or sixty-eight pounds, and interesting conclusion as to the manner in which eight shillings; a most enormous sum at that early pethe horse was gradually subdued. “There are no fig. riod, but little to him who expended more than thirtyures," says he, “mounted on horseback, although five millions of pounds, in gold alone, to ornament the some travellers have mentioned horsemen among those | Temple which he had built. 2 Chron. i. 17.
THE DIFFERENT FOREIGN BREEDS OF HORSES. distance, then, breaking into a trot as they seek
their safety, snort and look behind them, first with The Wild Horse.
one eye and then with the other, turning their nose Troops of wild horses are found in the plains of from right to lett, and carrying their long tail high Great Tartary, and also in several parts of South in the air."* America. In neither, however, can we recognise The same pleasing writer describes the system an original race. The horses of the Ukraine, and of horse-management among the rude inhabithose of South America, are equally the descen- tants of the plains of South America. They have dants of those who had escaped from the slavery no stables, no fenced pastures. One horse is usuof man. The Tartar horses are fleet and strong, ally kept tied at the door of the hut, fed scantily at hut comparatively of an ordinary breed. Those night on maize; or at other times several may of South America retain, almost unimpaired, the be enclosed in the corral, which is a circular size and form of their Euronean ancestors. apaee surrounded by rough posts, driven firmly
in no part of America, or of the more newly- | into the ground. The mares are never ridden, or discovered islands of the Pacific, was the horse attempted to be tamed, but wander with their known until he was introduced by Europeans; and foals wherever they please. the origin of the horses of Tartary has been clear- / When the Gaucho, the native inhabitant of the ly traced to those who were employed in the siege plains, wants horses for himself or for the supply of Azoph, in 1657, but which were turned loose of the traveller, he either goes with his lasso to for want of forage.
the corral, and selects those, possibly, who on the All travellers, who have crossed the plains ex-preceding day had for the first time been backed, tending from the shores of La Plata to Patagonia, or he scampers across the plain, and presently rehave spoken of numerous droves of wild horses. turns with an unwilling, struggling, or subdued Some affirm that they have seen ten thousand in captive. When the services of the animals have one troop. They appear to be under the com- been exacted, he either takes them to the corral, mand of a leader, the strongest and boldest of the and feeds them with a small quantity of maize, if herd, and whom they implicitly obey. A secret he thinks he shall presently need them again, or instinct teaches them that their safeiy consists in he once more turns them loose on the plains. their union, and in a principle of subordination. Travellers give some amusing accounts of the The lion, the tiger, and the leopard, * are their manner in which all this is effected-Miers † thus principal enemies. At some signal, intelligible to describes the lasso, simple in its construction, but them all, they either close into a dense mass, and all-powerful in the hands of the Gaucho. trample their enemy to death; or, placing the "The Lasso is a missile weapon used by every mares and foals in the centre, they form them- native of the United Provinces and Chile. It is selves into a circle ard welcome him with their a very strong plaited thong of equal thickness, heels. In the attack, their leader is the first to half an inch in diameter, and forty feet long; made face the danger, and, when prudence demands a of many strips of green hide, plaited like a whipretreat, they follow his rapid Alight.
thong, and rendered supple by grease. It has, at In the thinly inhabited parts of South America one end, an iron ring above an inch and a half in it is dangerous to fall in with any of these troops. diameter, through which the thong is passed, and The wild horses approach as near as they dare: this forms a running noose. The Gaucho, or native they call to the loaded horse with the greatest ea- Peon, is generally mounted on horseback when he gerness, and, if the rider be not on the alert, and uses the lasso. One end of the thong is affixed have not considerable strength of arm, and sharp- to his saddle girth: the remainder he coils carefully ness of spur, his beast will divest himself of his' in his left hand, leaving about twelve feet belongburden, take to his heels, and be gone forever. ling to the noose-end, in a coil, and a half of which
Captain Head gives the following account of a he holds in his right hand. He then swings this meeting with a troop of wild horses, where the coun- | long noose horizontally round his head, the weight try is more thickly inhabited. Some poor captured of the iron ring at the end of the noose assisting animals are supposed to be forced along by their in giving to it, by a continued circular motion, a riders at their very utmost speed:"As they are sufficient force to project it the whole length of thus galloping along, urged by the spur, it is in the line.” teresting to see the groups of wild horses one passes. When the Gauchos wish to have a grand breakThe mares, which are never ridden in South ing-in, they arme a whole herd of wild horses into America, seem not to understand what makes the the corral. "The corral was quite full of horses, poor horse carry his head so low, and look so most of which were young ones about two or weary.t The little innocent colts come running three years old. The capitar (chief Gaucho,) to meet him, and then start away frightened: mounted on a strong steady horse, rode into the while the old horses, whose white marks on the corral and threw his lasso over the neck of a young flanks and backs betray their acquaintance with horse, and dragged him to the gate. For some the spur and saddle, walk slowly away for some time he was very unwilling to leave his comrades;
but the moment he was forced out of the corral, *These animals are of a different race from
his first idea was to gallop away: however, a time
those which go under the same names in the Old World, and 1
ly jerk of the lassoʻcheeked him in the most effecare very inferior in strength.
tual way. The Peops now ran after him on foot +An Englishman once attempted to ride a mare but I and threw a lasso over his fore-legs just above the he was hooted and pelted by the natives, and thought
ght | fetlock, and twitching it, they pulled his legs from himself fortunate to escape without serious injury."
Sir John Carr, in his Northern Summer, p. 44, states that it is only a short time since mares began to be "Head's Journey across the Pampas, p. 258. ridden in Russia.
Miers' Travels in Chile, vol. i. p. 88
fall he got had killed him. In an instant a Gaucho a little on one side, the jerk pulls the entangled was seated on his head, and with his long knile, horse's feet laterally, so as to throw him on his and in a few seconds, cut off the whole of the side, without endangering his knees or his face. horse's mane, while another cut the hair from the Before the horse can recover the shock, the rider end of his tail. This they told me was a mark dismounts, and snatching his poncho or cloak from that the horse had been once mounted. They his shoulders, wraps it round the prostrate animal's then put a piece of hide into his mouth to serve head. He then forces into his mouth one of the for a bit, and a strong hide halter on his head. powerful bridles of the country, straps a saddle on The Gaucho who was to mount, arranged his his back, and bestriding him, removes the poncho; spurs, which were unusually long and sharp, * upon which the astonished horse springs on his and while two men held the horse by his ears, he legs, and endeavers by a thousand vain efforts to put on the saddle, which he girthed extremely disencumber himself of his new master, who sits tight. He then caught hold of the horse's ear, quite composedly on his back, and, by a discipline and in an instant vaulted into the saddle; upon which never fails, reduces the horse to such comwhich, the man who held the horse by the halter plete obedience, that he is soon trained to lend his threw the end to the rider, and from that moment whole speed and strength to the capture of his no one seemed to take any further notice of him. companions."*
"The horse instantly began to jump in a man- These animals possess much of the form of the ner which made it very difficult for the rider to keep Spanish horse, from which they sprung; they are his seat, and quite difierent from the kick or plunge tamed, as has been seen, with far less difficulty of an English horse: however, the Gaucho's spurs than could be thought possible; and, although soon set him going, and off he gallopped, doing theirs is the obedience of fear, and enforced at first every thing in his power to throw his rider. by the whip and spur, there are no horses who so
"Another horse was immediately brought from soon and so perfectly exert their sagacity and their the corral, and so quick was the operation, power in the service of man. They are possessed that twelve Gauchos were mounted in a space of no extraordinary speed, but they are capable of which I think hardly exceeded an hour. It was enduring immense fatigue. They are frequently wonderful to see the different manner in which ridden sixty or seventy miles without drawing bit, different horses behaved. Some would actually and have been urged on by the cruel spur of the scream while the Gauchos were girding the sad- Gaucho, more than a hundred miles, and at the dle upon their backs; some would instantly lie rate of twelve miles in the hour. down and roll upon it; while some would stand Like the Arab horses, they know no intermewithout being held-their legs stiff, and in unnatu- diate pace between the walk and the gallop. Alral positions, their necks half bent towards their though at the end of a day so hard, their sides tails, and looking vicious and obstinate; and I are horribly mangled, and they completely excould not help thinking that I would not have hausted, there is this consolation for them—they mounted one of those for any reward that could are immediately turned loose on the plains, and it be offered me, for they were invariably the most will be their own fault if they are speedily caught difficult to subdue.
again. The mare is occasionally killed for food, "It was now curious to look around and see the and especially on occasions of unusual festivity. Gauchos on the horizon in different directions, try-General San Martin, during the war for indepening to bring their horses back to the corral, which dence, gave a feast to the Indian allies attached is the most difficult part of their work; for the poor to his army; and mares'floh, and the blood mixed creatures had been so scared there that they were with gin, formed the whole of the entertainment. unwilling to return to the place. It was amusing On such dry and sultry plains the supply of wato see the antics of the horsesthey were jumping ter is often scanty, and then a species of madness and dancing in different ways, while the right arm seizes on the horses, and their generous and docile of the Gauchos was seen flogging them. At last qualities are no longer recognized. They rush they brought the horses back, apparently subdued, violently into every pond and lake, savagely mangand broken in. The saddles and bridles were ta- ling and trampling upon one another; and the carken off, and the young horses trotted off towards cases of many thousands of them, destroyed by the corral, neighing to one another."'+
their fellows, have occasionally been seen in and When the Gaucho wishes to take a wild horse, around a considerable pool. This is one of the he mounts one that has been used to the sport, means by which the too rapid increase of this and gallops over the plain. As soon as he comes quadruped is, by the ordinance of Nature, there fufficiently near his prey, “the lasso is thrown prevented. round the two hind legs, and as the Gaucho rides The wild horses of Tartary, although easily
domesticated, materially differ in character from *The manufacture of the Gaucho's boots is some
those on the plains of South America. They will what singular, “The boots of the Gauchos are form- not suffer a stranger to join them. If a domestied of the ham and part of the leg-skin of a colt taken cated horse comes in their way, unprotected by his reeking from the mother, which is said to be sacrificed master, they attack him with their teeth and their for the sole purpose, just at the time of bearing when | the hair has not begun to grow. At this stage, the *Basil Hall's Journey to Peru and Mexico, vol. i. skin strips off easily, and is very white and beautiful p. 151. The Jesuit Dobrizhoffer, in bis History of the in texture and appearance. The ham forms the calf | Abipones, a nation of Paraguay, and speaking of the of the boot; the bock easily adapts itself to the heel, tamed horse, (vol. ij. p. 113,) says, that “stirrups are and the leg above the fetlock constitutes the foot: the not in general use. The men leap on their horse on whole making a neat and elegant half-boot, with an the right side. In the right hand they grasp the bridle, aperture sufficient for the great toe to project through.” and in the left a very long spear, leaning on which, -Andrews's Journey in South America, vol. i. p. 26. they jump with the impulse of both feet, and then fall tHead's Journey across the Pampas, p. 258. right upon the horse's back.”