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round the pot. You will easily understand from the stem, every two or three years; thus causing this how important it is to supply vines so treated them to emit fibres, for which he prepares a circular with liquid pianure, either by watering from above, trench of rich soil round each tree. Mr. Mearns's or by a supply from a saucer or feeder from be- mode of treating the peach, and other fruit trees, low.

and the mode of cultivating cabbages, and other

plants of that kind, by picking out from the seedWelbeck Gardens, Jan. 16, 1834.

bed, and transplanting and re-transplanting into

rich soil, instead of sowing where the plants are Since we received the above account from Mr. finally to remain, all proceed on the principle of Mearns, we have heard the article on the same multiplying the mouths, and increasing the supply subject, to which he alludes, read before a meeting of rich food, within a limited space. The result of the horticultural society. In this paper, the of this is, both in ligneous and herbaceous plants, names of a number of varieties are mentioned, that maturity is obtained with less magnitude than which had been thus fruited; including the musca- in a natural state, and in a much shorter time. dines, black clusters, black Hamburgh, black Da- The essential principle is the abundant supply of mascus, black Tripoli, muscat of Alexandria, &c. rich nutriment; and the same principle produces Mr. Mearns also mentions that, hearing of a new exactly the same results in the animal kingdom. and fine variety of muscat, called the Candia, Hence the small-sized, early-fatting varieties of which had been a few years ago introduced into cattle, sheep, swine, &c. the Duke of Buccleugh's gardens, at Dalkeith, he Where a plant or animal is grown or reared wrote last autumn to Mr. Macdonald, the garden chiefly to be consumed as food, the application of er there, for some of the prunings of this vine, and this principle seems desirable and advantageous; that he had, at the time the paper was written, but when the natural character and beauty of the (Feb. 1834,) plants of the Candia at Welbeck, plant or animal are desiderata, a more natural from coils of the prunings received, with numerous mode of treatment, or one more resembling that bunches of fruit on them, which would ripen in which is generally followed, is requisite for attainApril and May next.

ing the end in view. We regard this discovery of Mr. Mearns as one All intricate operations of culture, such as those of considerable importance, not only as showing of the coiling system, the chambering of the roots what may be done in the particular case of the of trees, taking up and replanting, particular modes vine, but as tending to familiarise practical gard- of training, ringing, &c. it should never be forgoteners with some points in vegetable physiology. ten either by gardeners or their employers, are It is clear that the coiled shoot is a reservoir of nu- only calculated for places where abundance of 'men triment to the young growth, in the same manner are kept, and where also there is considerable skill as the tuber of the potato is an accumulation of in at least one or two of these men. When these nutriment for the young shoots, which proceed from and similar operations are attempted in places its buds or eyes when planted. To a certain ex- where there are scarcely hands enough to keep the tent, long shoots of any tree whatever if buried in garden in order by the common practices, failure is the soil, either coiled or extended, and two or three certain to attend either the new practice or the old inches or feet of their upper extremities kept out ones, and probably both.—CONDUCTOR. of the ground, would produce leaves, blossoms, and even fruit, the first year: but those shoots,

From Loudon's Magazine. which, from their nature, do not freely emit fibres, A DESCRIPTION OF A MODE OF CULTIVATING or do not emit them at all, would perhaps not sei

ONIONS. their fruit; or might even cease to produce leaves in the course of a few months. The reason, in

By Mr. WiLLIAM WHIDDEN. that case, would be, that the reservoir of nourish- Sir-Your correspondent, John Mitchel, jun., ment soon becomes exhausted, if it is not supplied treats on the culture of the onion. I write not to from the soil; and that the only mode by which dissuade him from following the plans which his the shoot can obtain nourishment from the soil is own observation has suggested to him, but to by means of fibres, which it has either no power state my own experience on this subject, as it difof producing at all, or cannot produce in sufficient fers widely from his. In March, 1830, I lived as abundance. The advantages of the coiling sys- gardener to J. B. Praed, Esq. of Tyringham, tem are, that an almost unlimited number of fibres Bucks; and, having occasion to make an asparagus or mouths are produced by it, in a very limited bed, I resolved upon sowing onions, of the Deptportion of soil; that this soil can be rendered of ford sort, in drills between the rows. The ground the most suitable descriptions for the given plant, was not prepared in the way usual for asparagus, supplied abundantly with liquid manure, and re- but turned over to the depth of one spade only. newed almost at pleasure. The use of cutting off The soil being of a tenacious and cohesive quality, all these fibres or mouths, when they get too long, I used a quantity of coal-ashes and rotten dung: is merely to keep them within a limited space; for and all being in readiness for the asparagus, I prowhen a fibre elongates, unless it has at the same ceeded to plant it in rows eighteen inches asunder, time, room to branch out, so as to produce other and the onions in drills between these rows. Í fibrils, it can take in no more nourishment than finished each row as I proceeded, which caused a when it is short, say an inch long; because the great deal of trampling, and the ground was renourishment is only taken in by the spongiole, or markably hard after ihe whole was con pleted. point of the fibre. The whole art of rapid cultiva- When the crops began to grow, I thought of hoetion, both in ligneous and herbaceous vegetables, ing, thinning, &c.; but, being a native of Northproceeds on this principle. The Lancashire goose ampton, where some of the best onions in the berry grower has recourse to it, when he shortens kingdom are grown, I recollected seeing, at differthe roots of his plants at a certain distance from ent times, onions growing in the hard walk, and

these the best sample of a whole acre. I accord- Tobacco should not be taken down in very high ingly resolved to let my crop take its chance. order to strip, as it will be impossible to strip as Weeding and thinning were performed by the much, owing to the difficulty in pulling the leaves hand, which greatly increased the solidity of the off of the stalks: and it will be impossible also to soil. My crop was pulled up without attention get the dirt off of it, which should always be being paid to any particular time or form; the done before it is bulked down; or else it can never onions composing it were sound and good, while be as effectually done afterwards. This is a matthe crops of my neighbors were suffering from ter of considerable importance, particularly in the what are termed mouldy-nosed onions. I had management of a dirty crop. several bushels from a small piece of ground, and In stripping, the tobacco should be carefully aswas obliged to exchange with my neighbors for sorted into at least three classes, to wit: long, short, nicklers. I presented Mr. Atkins, nurseryman, of and lugs. I have usually divided it into four classNorthampton, with twelve which weighed eleven es, the fourth being simply a separation of the pounds. I planted twenty-four of them the suc- bright from the dark. The first and second qualiceeding spring, for seed, which weighed nearly ties should be tied up into neat bundles of about twenty-two pounds, and were shown to several six or eight leaves, all being nearly of the same friends before they were planted, who can testity length. The lugs can be tied into much larger the fact. I cannot say what quantity of seeds bundles. they produced, as I left my situation at that time. As the tobacco is stripped, it should be bulked

A great deal has been said about growing large down, until a sufficiency is procured to commence onions; but, according to my humble opinion, large pressing, when it should be re-hung in uniform onions are not the most desirable. From my ex- and open order, and suffered to remain until it gets perience (which, I confess, is not a lengthened thoroughly dry, leaf and stern, and then the first one, as I am but a young gardener,) an onion time it comes in order to be handled without much from one to two inches diameter is the most profi- breaking, it should be taken down and neatly table, of the readiest sale, and the best for garden- bulked, and heavily weighted. ers and gentlemen. When a large onion goes Too much caution cannot be used about the orinto a gentleman's kitchen, it is cut, and a part der in which tobacco is taken down for pressing, only is used; the remainder loses its quality, and Experience has taught me that no season is to be ultimately bears company with the peelings to the relied on between the months of November and dung hear. I advise John Mitchel, it he wishes April, unless the wind is from the south or southfor large onions, to try as I have suggested above. west. No matter how fine the order may appear His soil will suit every purpose. He will find an to be, if the wind is from the north-east or northadvantage in time; run no risk in displacing the west, let it alone, for it will certainly prove too roots, which is apt to check vegetation; and he will high when it is opened in market. If anyone not be so likely to get disease in the crops, as the thing is more essential than another in the mantrampling forms gutters in which he can, il dry agement of tobacco, it is dry order. I have alweather occur, put water, and supply the roots most invariably pressed my tobacco so dry as to more gradually with moisture; or, if a continuance make it necessary to steam it a little over a fire of rain should happen, these gutters will carry off immediately before handing it into the hogshead, the superfluous water.

in order that it may be packed without breaking, Chicheley Hall, Bucks.

and I never had a hogshead that was said to be

too dry when opened in market. For the Farmers: Register.

The casks should be made of well seasoned TOBACCO CULTURE—NO. 4.

staves, about three-fourths of an inch in thickness, [Continued froin p. 223, Vol. II.]

and should be thirty-eight inches in diameter Stripping and pressing.

across the heads, and fifty-four inches in length,

made nearly straight. The mode of packing the Stripping and pressing being the subject of my tobacco in the casks is so well understood, and so fourth number, (already too long delayed) the re- universally the same, that it is deemed unneces marks thereon will conclude the practical part of sary to give a minute description of it. The simthe subject. As soon as tobacco is thoroughly plest and most convenient machines for pressing, cured by fire, it should be taken down, and re- are those that are worked with a lever. The beam moved to the pressing house, (which should be kept should not be more than twenty-two feet long, and as a store house, and crowded away on the tier the lever is worked in a permanent sword that poles as close as possible, to prevent its getting in passes through the end of it. Three hands can

high order," as tobacco loses in weight, and press two hogsheads in four or five days, which changes color, every time it gets very high. As should each weigh about sixteen hundred pounds soon as the pressing house is filled, other houses net. should be set apart for the same purpose, until the These views on the subject of tobacco culture, whole crop is stowed away. Tobacco thus crowd- are submitted with great diffidence to the intellied away, is in much better condition than when gent planters of Virginia; and should they fail to hanging open, or bulked down: for it retains the suggest any thing new or valuable, may be the color and substance which it had when cured, and means of eliciting information from others, much is not liable to acquire a sour smell, which is very more capable than myself, to give instruction in often the consequence of early bulking.

this, the most intricate and laborious of all our agWhen there comes a season for stripping, the ricultural pursuits. The effects of tobacco culture tobacco on the lowest tiers will be in order, which on the agricultural interest of Virginia, will form should be taken dosyn and bulked; and then there the subject of my next number, and will complete will be room to open that above, which, when it the series promised in the commencement. comes in order, should in like manner be taken, and so on, until the whole crop is gone through. Wardsfork.

For the Farmers' Register. en fortunes. Hence it is, that we see now for the TOBACCO CULTURE—No. 5.

first time, the people of that favored section of

country, awaking from their lethargy, and availOn the effects of the Tobacco crop on the agricul- ing themselves of all the advantages so abundant. tural interests of Virginia.

ly furnished by nature, for the melioration of their

agricultural condition. These having been the From the earliest history of this country to the effects of the extensive cultivation of the tobacco present moment, the tobacco crop has been one of crop in eastern Virginia, let us see what are its considerable interest, not only to individuals, but effects upon the agriculture of middle Virginia to the community at large: and although it has the section in which we live. To the evils albeen a great source of wealth to this community, ready enumerated, all of which are applicable to and to the United States in general, in a commer- our region, we shall add many others, to the truth cial point of view, it has done more to blight and of which, our experience bears ample testimony. empoverish Virginia than all the other crops that From the excessive drudgery of the crop, it has have been the product of her once generous, but the effect to discourage white labor, and consenow abused and exhausted soil. The time was, quently, encourage the substitution of slave labor. when there was no difference of opinion prevail- This has decidedly a bad effect upon the habits ing about the propriety of making this crop. But and morals of the white inhabitants of our counnow, it has become a question of very serious im

try, as well as on their agricultural profits; for, port whether the crop should not be entirely aban- whatever has a tendency to encouragc idleness, doned, or at least very much diminished. Indeed, increases extravagance and vice. I verily believe, interest and sound policy at home and abroad, that were it not for the extensive cultivation of tounite in demanding a reduction of the crop; and (bacco, parents in this country would bring up their however slow we may be in believing it necessary, children to work on their farms, and instead of the or obstinate in continuing its extensive cultivation, swarms of "professional” drones and idlers that it does not require the spirit of prophecy to divine, we daily see hanging upon the skirts of society, that the time is not far distant when we must be and living upon the labor of the industrious pordriven to the dire necessity of quitting the crop, tion of the community, we would see an indusor forsaking the country. When dread alterna-trious and intelligent population, content to enjoy tives like these stare us in the face, and threaten the profits of their own virtuous labors. It has us with consequences so much to be deplored by the effect also, to increase the value and scarcity of every friend to his country, it becomes the duty of the actual necessaries of life-to wit, corn and every intelligent agriculturist to forego his pre- pork, and consequently, those articles of prime nesent gain, and do all in his power to diminish cessity have always been comparatively scarce, the cultivation of the crop, and to renovate our and high, in this part or the country. Indeed, I already mach abused and empoverished soil. In know many, very many intelligent and wealthy the early settlement of Virginia, when the whole planters, who make this exhausting, troubleface of ihe country was thickly covered with al- some, and expensive crop to buy corn and pork most unbroken forest, there was every inducement -thereby restricting the comforts of living, and at home and abroad, to encourage the cultivation rendering themselves dependent upon others for of tobacco; but now, the whole scene is changed the very things that sound policy and good -sadly changed. Two generations have not economy would require them to furnish from their passed away since the settlement of this part of own farms. For, so fully does this destructive poVirginia, and what do we now see! Our country licy enter into our domestic economy, that there mourning, and presenting the appearance of de- is not a pig upon our plantations, that does not crepitude and premature old age. Our majestic feel its blighting effects. It is a remarkable fact forests have fallen at the feet of the rapacious also, that when the largest crops of tobacco are planter-our fields are lacerated with the plough inade, the least profit is realized by the planters: of the ruthless cultivator, and our whole country for the abundance of the crop keeps down the presents a scene melancholy to behold. It there- price, and consequently does not repay the planter fore becomes us, one and all, to seek out the cause for the increased wear and tear of his land, and of this decay, and staunch the wounds of our be- expense of cultivation. I am clearly of the opinloved, and bleeding country.

ion, that if the tobacco crop of middle Virginia In the early settlement of eastern Virginia, the was diminished one-half, the planters would retobacco crop was extensively cultivated, and con- alize more clear profit, live in far greater plentinued so to be, until the country was so much cut ly and comfort, and at the same time, have an down and exha'isted, that it was no longer a sub- opportunity to improve their lands with rapidity, ject of interest to the planter, but of manifest in and make many articles with their own labor, jury to his present and future agricultural pros- that they now have to pay money for—and that pects. Not until the alternatives of abandoning the money, made in the hardest possible way-to wit, crop or the country, stared the people of eastern by the tobacco crop. It is obvious to every one Virginia in the face, did they determine to forsake who looks abroad upon the face of our country, the crop, and seek out other subjects of profit from the tide water to the mountains, that the toin their agricultural pursuits. So paralizing and bacco crop has been the great agent in its deblighting are the effects of this crop (where ex-struction-and, judging the future by the past, I tensively cultivated,) upon the resources of any venture to assert, that in twenty years to come, country, that it requires a long time for its inhabi- three-fourths of the tobacco made in the United tants to accommodate their feelings, habits, and States, will be raised in the great Valley of the prejudices to a change so radical, and enter with Mississippi. Its tendency has been west-ward spirit and energy into a system calculated to re- ever since its earliest introduction into Virginia; store their exhausted lands, and retrieve their call it must therefore, froin the nature of the case, ul

Vol. II-44

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timately centre (and that at no distant day) in that we are upon the subject. If plaster acts merely great Valley. And I for one, will hail that era as as an absorbent, of what consequence is the naone of the brightest for the agricultural prospects ture of the soil, provided it is loose enough to allow of middle Virginia. Already, nearly all our best the powder to descend to the roots, and not so lands have been cut down, in cultivating this ruin- loose as to allow it to pass below them? If as a ous crop, and hence, it becomes manifest, that we stimulant in any other way, why should not a cannot be, to any extent, a tobacco making peo- moist soil be as sensible of its effects as a dry one, ple. Let us then, curtail our crops, improve our provided it is not so wet as to carry off the rowlands, husband our resources, and with the smiles der? Would you advise lime or plaster in a wet of providence, and the approbation of our own piece of ground-it being presupposed that all consciences, we shall be a prosperous and happy practicable means have been used to drain it?-for people, enjoying a climate, exempt from the ex- I believe it may be considered an axiom in tremes of heat and cold, and the fruits of a soil, agriculture, that for whatever purpose land is insusceptible of as a great a variety of products tended, it must be laid as dry as possible. as any on the habitable globe. Then, and then If Mr. Editor, interrogatories generally betray only, will we deserve well of posterity, and im- ignorance, much more do they in this particular prove the talents so bountifully committed to our case-and taking to myself the compliment once care,

paid to Pope, I might with propriety subscribe Wardsfork, Charlotte County.

myself a ? But not having pride enough to hide

my ignorance, I give you my proper appellative, INQUIRIES AND REMARKS ON THE EFFECT / which you will recognize to be that of an old OF EXPOSING GYPSUM TO THE WEATHER. Yellow-collegian. Valmont, Jan. 23, 1835.

C. H. HARRISON. To the Editor of the Farmers' Register.

I have a parcel of Plaster of Paris which has [The foregoing inquiries proceed from one who has been several months exposed in hogsheads to all had far more practical experience of the use and efthe vicissitudes of weather, wet and dry, hot and feets of gypsum than we have gained-and if that cold, even to freezing. It is the leavings of a mode of observation and of proof alone were to be the plaster yard, and this not completely ground, is proper test, we ought to take refuge in our want of exmostly in a sandy state with some lumps; these

mps; these perience, and remain silent. But as most of the anlumps will crumble more easily than the lumps as we first receive it. I want to know whether it has

swers sought, must depend altogether upon the estabtotally lost its virtue, or to what extent, by expo- lished chemical properties of the substances in question, sure; and whether in preparing it for use, it would we can scarcely err in deciding according to those probe proper to dry it over the fire-for it is quite wet, perties: and the remarks which follow will be confined and seems very unwilling to surrender its mois- within such limits as will prevent our losing sight of ture. As lime is one of its components, I presume this sure guide-without which, none will fail to wander it has been partially slaked, and is therefore more linto uncertainty and error. or less weakened. I have subjected it to one test | which seems to indicate that it is not entirely de

'I The slaking of quicklime, alone, is no cause of instroyed. By heating, and then pouring water upon jury, or weakening of its power—but as this proit, it runs together and forms quite a hard cement. cess always precedes or accompanies the injury which For want of pot or pearl-ash I cannot try it by is really caused by exposure to air, the slaking of lime boiling with that, nor have I the means of deter- is generally considered as evidence of some progress at mining whether the residuum would be carbonate least having been made in the lime's becoming carbonaof lime. When plaster is scattered over the earth to it is immediately liable to this slaking process,

rh ted, effete, or mild, or losing its peculiar qualities as caus(if it may be so called) and all the effects of sun,

tic lime. The newly burnt material for lime, (as shells air, and rain: and universal experience I believe or limestone,) greedily attracts moisture, and by uniattests, that it is slow and continuing in its ac- ting chemically with water alone, it slakes, but still retion, not producing its effect by any sudden and tains all its caustic power, which depends not on the powerful impulse. Its action is so slow, that we absence of water, but upon the deprivation of carhave a right to suppose it is going on a long bonic acid, which the lime had lost by burning. This time-for months or years—long after the weaken- lacid next commences re-combining with the lime, to ing effects of weather upon it have taken place. I The result of an experiment at Dover, communi

· which it is strongly attracted, and is furnished by the cated some years ago to the Agricultural Society atmosphe

to the Agricultural Societe atmosphere, and as well as by the earth, and by plants of Richmond, proved that the effects of plaster and other matters

and other matters in a state of decomposition and were visible fourteen years, I think, after the plas this process of re-combination is greatly hastened by ter was applied: and that I witnessed myself. The the lime having been slaked, and thereby exposing a slow operation of plaster, results from its modus

far greater attracting surface. Of course, the more it operandi, whether as an absorbent, by drawing lis spread to the air. or to whatever will furnish carand retaining moisture around the plant, or as a he solvent, by preparing vegetable matter for its food.

bonic acid, the more rapidly the lime loses its caustic The only difference then, between the application quality, until none remains. The lime now, as carof plaster in its fresh state and in that which I bonated or mild, may be in most cases, as valuable a have supposed, is in the point of time whilst (in manure as when quick, (as we have elsewhere endeavthe first state) the dissolving or slaking processored to show)—but as a material for cement, and for occurs. Now, what is the value of that differ-levery purpose for which its caustic state was essential, ence? I will trouble you with another question, whilst changed to a different chemical substance.

the lime is weakened and indeed destroyed, by being

uy any more want it can be dolor hot-hed

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The general understanding of this result of the ex- nothing, except the generally received opinion that on posure of line, extends improperly to other substances all wet land the application is unprofitable.] of which lime forms the base, ás gypsum, which is generally considered both by dealers in the article, and

From the Horticultural Register. by many farmers, to be altered and injured by long exposure to air, if ground, and by rain, even in the un

ON THE CULTIVATION or CELERY. broken stone. To determine whether there can be any

It appears to me that a few practical hints oni such effect we must attend to the chemical combina

the cultivation of this useful and delicious vegetation of gypsum, and its state before and after such kinds

ble might prove interesting and serviceable to many

of your readers. I beg to premise that it is a mere of exposure.

detail of the methods I have practised this sumGypsum in its natural state is composed of lime, sul- mer, by which I have raised celery in heads of phuric acid, and water, the latter being as much a part two and two and a half feet high, of which twelve of the chemical combination as 'either of the other in- to eighteen inches are blanched and tender; they gredients. The mutual attraction of the lime and sul-are single heads, without offsets, and many sour phuric acid is so strong, that no separation can be pro

and five inches in circumference. This method duced by any thing that air or rain can present. Neith

has one convenience, which is, that the young er can gypsum be wasted, any inore than it can be de

| plants are raised in the open ground, without glass composed, by air alone, or by remaining dry in pow. In the beginning of May, later or earlier, as the der. Water dissolves a very small proportion of gyp- season may indicate, dig and pulverise well about sum-about one-six hundredth part—and therefore it six square feet of well manured and open groundwill be slowly wasted by solution, if exposed to wet, water it very lightly, but thoroughly, with a nose and the fluid be allowed to pass of. The mere wet- on the watering-pot, early in the day, then sow ting, without the fluid sinking or flowing from the

your seed and water again thoroughly in the same way. Cover up this bed lightly with a double

| layer of Russia mat, which should be dry, and some in using, cannot change its nature, nor affect its kept down at the corners with stones; the sun, value as manure. Froin these premises it may be in- striking on the mats, penetrates them, and causes ferred that the gypsum saved by our correspondent, is a gentle moist heat to rise from the earth; this is not altered in its chernical character---por injured, ex- the most favorable state of an atmosphere for the cept by being rendered more inconvenient to use--and vegetation of seeds, and the celery, particularly if also in this respect, that the portion previously wasted

à not fresh, is very difficult on this point; the covers

should be maintained in as dry a state as possible, by the rains, was the part most finely pulverized, soft

(after heavy rains, the upper mat might be est, and therefore the most fit for immediate action as changed.) because, if wet, considerable evaroramanure.

tion takes place in the night, which is always proExposing gypsum to moderate heat has no effect ex- ductive of cold, and would be apt to rot the tender cept to drive off the water chemically combined, as shoot just piercing the seed; on the other hand, if well as any accidental supply of uncombined mois. dry, it prevents the escape of heat when the sun's ture. It would seem that merely the removal of its rays have left the earth, and retains underneath

sufficicnt warmth to prevent any check in the vewater could scarcely affect the action of the substance

getation; in a fortnight or three weeks, according as manure. We incline to this opinion—but would not

to the season, little yellow and white sprouts will confidently assert that no injury can take place in this appear; when these are one-quarter of an inch manner. There is in this case a partial decomposition high, the upper cover should be removed, that of the substance-and slight as it is, it may materially there may not be too much weight on the young affect that fertilizing power which is in every aspect so plants, and if the weather continues mild, in a few

If well wamysterious and inexplicable. It is highly important days afterwards, remove the other.

tered in the beginning, it will scarcely need any that it should be proved by suficient experiments

further moisture during the first process; but those whether a moderate degree of heat is injurious to the

who practise this method will hardly be restrained value of gypsum-for if it is not, by using heat to from peeping under the mats once or twice during drive off the water chemically combined, the stone is the fortnight, when, if sultry weather has prevailmade much more soft, and easier to pulverize for use. ed, there own judgement will guide them on this These explanations may be considered by many, head.

ed them by his! The second part of the method is to have anand even by our friend who has suggested them by his inquiries, as too simple and trite to deserve being thus other piece of ground, double the size of the for

mer, prepared in the same way, and when the formally presented; and if so, our apology is, that ma

young plants are in their fourth leaf, or about two ny who are most conversant practically with the sub- inches

nith the sub- inches high, take them up and transplant them ject, show by their course that even these feeble lights carefully into this fresh bed, about one inch asunmight aid their deductions.

der, first trimming the roots a little. There is no known reason, derived from the theory If well watered and weeded, by the first of July of its operation, why lime (whether caustic or mild) they will have attained sufficient growth to be re

moved into trenches, which should be prepared in should not act profitably on land not sufficiently drain.

an open, well exposed spot, by digging them two ed, except in this respect, that improvements of every

spades deep and two and a half feet wide, leaving kind must avail but little on soils suffering from redun- three or four fcet distance between the trenches; dant moisture. As to gypsum on such soils, we know on this space is to be piled up, like a bank, the

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