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tance, above a line drawn from one to the other mixed, the same quantity by measure as I usually of the spread ends of the planks. The space sowed of plaster alone. I have found equal benebelow the collar beam, is the size of a section of fit from the ashes and plaster as from the plaster the wall, and is used as a measure to preserve alone, which is a saving of fifty per cent. in plasthat size. Another pair of similar planks are put ter. I prefer the ashes damp: this will enable you together in precisely the same manner-and then to sow with more regularity, and in moderately these two corresponding parts, or ends, are united windy weather. by a piece of scantling 15 feet long, which runs from the middle of one collar beam to the middle of the other. When thus united, the two rafter
ox TuE EFFECTS OF GATHERING FODDER shaped ends of the frame should stand upright on their feet, and be parallel to each other. Two
ON CORN-REAPING WHEAT GREEN. side planks 12 inches wide, and as long as the To the Editor of the Farmers' Register. whole frame, are then laid outside of, and lying
Prince Edward, 24th January, 1835. against the spread legs of the frame. These planks are to direct the placing of the stones for The subject of stripping Indian corn blades the sides of the wall. They are kept close to the and topping the corn, as practised generally in this legs of the frame, by other pieces of plank which part of Virginia, having been noticed several times are attached outside of, and parallel to each of the in the Farmers' Register, it has occurred to me, legs, and separated from them 11 inches by small that it may not be improper to add my experience blocks. The long side planks may be raised or on the subject. I have for many years been satlowered, and yet are kept in place by these outer isfied that it is very unprofitabie management. pieces-and by holes and pins, are fastened at any Though I practise it, with a view of supplying a desired height.
sufficient quantity of fodder for my stock, I am The frame is used by being placed over the line constrained to acknowledge, that it is nothing but of the intended fence, the side planks being then sheer negligence in providing other means of supat bottom, and equally distant from the central | plying fodder or hay, that induces me to do so line of the foundation of the wall. I first haul ny from year to year. I will give you as nearly as rock in place in a line parallel with the foundation ny memory serves, the result of an experiment of my fence. The frame is then moved in place made by me when a lad, under the special direcwhere the fence is to commence, the two side tion of my father, who made a record of this explanks resting upon the ground. Two laborers, one periment, as well as of a great many others, on each side, place the rock, carefully touching the which would now probably be very useful, but side planks from one end to the other, whilst others which were all lost or destroyed by his servants, are employed throwing in rock in the intermediate during the latter declining years of his life. I space, without being pariicularin placing them from cannot pretend to remember accurately the quanwhich the two hands before mentioned select such tities of corn and todder produced in the experirock as is most suitable for the case of the wall: ment which was made more than thirty years for if this is put up judiciously, it matters not how ago, and is nearly as follows: the inner stones are placed. When the rock is Thirty-nine rows of corn, 60 hills long, 54 feet upon a level with your side planks, take out the each way, and two stalks in each hill, were plantpins which fasten the side planks, and slip them ed on tolerably good land, and cultivated as comone hole higher; then proceed to place the rock as mon, till it was thought the proper time for pulling before, continuing to move your side planks as the fodder. I then carefully pulled the fodder off of rock is level with the upper edge, until your wall each first and second row alternately through the touches the scantling. Then, with a man at each piece, leaving each third row to stand with all the foot of the frame lift it up a foot or two, and move fodder and tops on, till perfectly dry. When it it forward. In this way I have had from thirty to was thought the proper time, I cut the tops off of thirty-five yards of fencing made in a day by ten or each first row, so that there were 13 rows of corn twelve hands. I would here mention that the with fodder pulled and tops cut, 13 rows with fodhands employed in filling up, or throwing in rock, der pulled off to one blade above the ear and tops do it with hand barrows—which enables them to left till dry, and 13 rows from which neither fod. do it much more expeditiously than by hand. Ider nor tops wcre taken at all. Each parcel of build my fence upon the surface of the ground, fodder was cured and kept apart from the other, without digging a ditch, in consequence of having and the blades were stripped from the tops of each a stony foundation on the margin of the river. I first row, at the time of cutting the tops; and think there would be no necessity for digging a when cured, put with the fodder that had been ditch where the fence is on level ground, though pulled from the same rows. Each parcel of corn not stony: but I think it would be necessary where was gathered, and when perfectly dry, shelled and the ground slopes, as the action of the frost would weighed separately, and the fodder from the 13 be apt to undermine the lower side of the wall. first rows, and that from the 13 second rows, each I should judge that four inches would be sufficient-weighed separately. The quantity of corn raised ly deep for the foundation. It has been several from the 13 first rows, from which the fodder was years since I commenced stone fencing, not a foot | pulled and the tops cut, was considerably less than of which has fallen. At the end of the wall or that raised on the 13 second rows, from which the fence where I have a gate, I procure, if practica- fodder was pulled and the tops left standing till ble, square stone to put in; as the round stone if dry, and still much less than the corn raised on put up perpendicular is apt to give way.
the 13 third rows, on which both fodder and tops In answer to the second query, I have to say were left till perfectly dry. The quantity of corn that I have been in the habit of mixing ashes with raised on the 13 third rows, weighed a few ounces my plaster, in equal parts, and sowing after being more than the corn and fodder both together, which was raised on the 13 second rows, from peated, will serve better to remove doubts, and estabwhich the fodder only was pulled, and tops left lish valuable truths, than an hundred times as much standing—and weighed a few ounces less than the space occupied by general reasoning, and deductions corn and fodder, with the addition of the fodder from untried, and therefore doubtful premises. This stripped from the tops, raised on the 13 first rows,
experiment is only deficient in one respect—the long from which the fodder was pulled and tops cut.
time which has passed since the facts were observed I remember the conclusions to which my father
and recorded. and niyself came were, that the whole produce in
But though this lapse of time lessens in each case, was so nearly of equal value, as to
the force of the result, by permitting doubts to rise of make scarcely an object worth consideration, even something having been forgotten, such doubts are in in a large crop, and that the whole labor of gath- some measure counteracted by the internal evidence ering and curing the fodder and tops (a considera of accurate and particular observation, which the manble item in a farmer's account by the by) was en- ner of Mr. Woodson's statements carries with them. tirely lost.
But even if this experiment had been recently made, Another experiment which I made about the and was free from every objection on the score of acsame time, (of which I have not as perfect reco)
curacy, it would need confirmation (as in all other lection) was to strip the fodder from a number of
cases) by other experiments made for the same object, rows of corn, quite from bottom to top, taking off all the blades at the usual time of pulling blade
and by different persons, and under various circumfodder [from below the ears.] My recollection of stand
tion of stances. It is to be hoped, that even if none of our this experiment is, that ihis last is the most unpro- agricultural societies will promote the institution of fitable management of any that I have mentioned regular courses of experiments on doubtful points, in this communication—not being practically ac- that enough individual farmers will make experiments quainted with any other modes of managing the on the effects and cost of gathering fodder during the corn crop with a view to saving the fodder. next season, as to settle this most important question.
I will suggest to your readers, the propriety of If the absolute loss of labor in this usual and long preextending the experiments so as to test the relative vailing practice of Virginia is as great as we have profit of cutting down the corn, fodder and all, just
supposed, and even half as great as may be inferred before the fodder would die and dry up on the stalks; or rather at the time of pulling fodder.
from the result of the experiment above, the amount Those who have secured corn and fodder in this
of the whole annual loss and tax so paid, if saved, way, generally approve the practice, but I have would be enough to defray the cost of constructing all of not seen that any person has made a fair experi- the canals and railways now in progress in the state, and ment by actual weight and measure, which is the the expenses of the General Assembly to boot. only way to avoid delusion.
The experiment on reaping wheat green, (or in the It now occurs to me, that I once made an ex- dough state) though less accurately observed, and reperiment on wheat, that bears some analogy to ported in still more general terins, agrees in the main this practice. In a large field, two adjoining with our own opinions founded on the practice of squares were accurately laid off to the same size,
he same size, reaping green for about twelve years. We have never where the wheat on both squares was supposed to
made any one accurate experiment on this matterbe equally good. One square was reaped with a
and should not have supposed the difference to be near sickle, about three days before ripe, the time is not certainly remembered, when the grain had so great as is stated in general terms above: but the conjust attained the dough state, and drved and secured clusion reached and acted upon, was the same as that separately. The other square was left to get full which seems to be supported by Mr. Woodson's exripe, when it was reaped as the first, in the morn-periment, viz. that however great may be the loss ing whilst moist with dew, to avoid shattering-1 from the shrinkage of the grain when reaped green, there do not think a single head was lost in either square. I is much greater loss, on the average, from waste by When both were perfectly dry, they were each permitting wheat to stand until ripe.] very carefully thrashed, cleaned, and weighed separately. The parcel which had stood to get fully ripe, weighed so much more as perfectly to GB
GENERAL RESULTS OF THE LAW OF ENCLOastonish me. The result was stated to my father,
SURES IN VIRGINIA. who said he had tried the same experiment several In every country, and in every age, there have been times with wheat, and once with barley, and it found existing some preferences given hy government had always turned out much in the same way to the employment of particular kinds of capital, or of but on carefully picking up all the heads of wheat
industry, at the expense of others: and however unthat were left on the ground, upon an adjoining square which had been well mown and got in as
wise, or unjust, may have been these legal preferences, common. we supposed that rather more rood they have, at least, rarely failed to produce their first wheat would generally be housed by cutting when and immediate object of an increased production of fully in the dough state, than by suffering it to the commodities thus favored, or greatly increased proget fully ripe, when it would inevitably shatter fits to those persons engaged in the business-and more and scatter more than in the dough state.
generally, both these ends have been more or less obCHARLES WooDSON. tained. But if after a full trial of such legal preference
to any particular branch of production, for many years, [The foregoing experiment on corn and fodder, is it should appear that both the amount of the producprecisely of the kind that is wanting to decide this tion and its net profits had actually decreased, then (it and many other controverted points in agricultural might be supposed that) the condemnation of the legal practice—and which, when sufficiently varied and re- policy might be safely left to the persons intended by
it to be favored, or to the most thorough opposers of an account has been given in our last number. the principles of free trade and industry in general. But though in this policy, as strange as it is unjust,
The law of enclosures and its effects, exhibit a strik- the interests of tillage and even of resident stocking example of the long continued operation of the owners are sacrificed, to advance those of the owners preference given by our law to the business of cattle of the migratory flocks—and though the general inraising, at the expense of grain raising--of a pre- terests and public prosperity have been greatly imference of grazing, to tillage. If then the policy is of paired by this destruction of private rights-still the any value to even the favored class, whatever evils it
owners of the wandering merino sheep at least were may produce, there should certainly be seen this one fattened by the spoil, and their business prospered good-increased products from live stock, and in- while all others suffered. If Spain remained poor, its creased profits to the owners. Upon this issue, we are soil untilled, the country but half populated-yet there content to test the value of this part of the policy of
was some little compensation found in the facts, that Virginia, and to abide by the decision, even on this par- the policy which caused these evils also served to tial and limited view of the subject.
preserve the most numerous and valuable flocks, and Virginia is not the only country in which the in
in to produce the finest wool in Europe. terests of tillage have been sacrificed to those (real or Where, in Virginia, is the gain or advantage, private supposed) of pasturage: but generally, the elfects have or public, to compensate in the least for the interests been beneficial to the business and the persons so favor- of tillaye, and the rights of landed property, having ed, however injurious to other classes, and to the ge- been sacrificed to the interests of grazing, and the neral interests of the country. Here, we are content benefit of stock owners? The whole soil of the state to reap all the evils of this kind of policy, without is rendered by law a grazing common, for the use of deriving any of the benefits found elsewhere from every one, unless when secured by a "lawful enclosuch a departure from right and justice.
sure," of enormous and useless expense, and which In the highlands of Scotland, owing to the peculiar after all, can never be made a practical safeguard circumstances of the country, the profits of sheep against trespassers. The cost of this policy to the raising have been found to surpass all other returns of owners and tillers of the soil, has been already and agriculture. The consequence has been, that tillage frequently discussed in this work, and is not now under has been made to give place to pasturage. Thousands consideration. The present question before us is, of small farms, formerly held by tenants tilling the what do the stock owners gain from the use of their soil, have been thrown together and converted to ex- legal privileges ? Let the concral and notorious results tensive sheep pastures, in which no human population speak in answer. remains save a few shepherds, and scarcely a single In the eastern half of Virginia, where the oppression cottage, where there were formerly hamlets and vil- of this system is most severely felt by land owners, lages, filled with numerous harly laborers, with their there is not, and has not been for many years, any wives and children. The sheep have eaten out the surplus product whatever derived from the grazing of men. This state of things has served to drive from live stock of any kind. So far from exporting any their homes, and compel the einigration of a people such commodities, we buy from other states very large the most devotedly attached to their native land, and quantities of salted meat, butter, cheese, leather, canwho would have preferred any fate short of starvation dles, and soap. The supplies of hogs and fat oxen in their own beloved country, to banishment from its brought annually from the west in droves are enorshores forever But in thus exchanging a population mous, and have long been increasing—and most of our of men for flocks of sheep, (however the change may horses and mules are now obtained in like manner. It be deplored by the philanthropist and patriot) there is a fact also worth notice, that the hogs thus driven to has at least been obtained the gain expected in woolus 500 miles, are generally raised in clover fields, or and mutton.
within the farms and on the means of their respective In Ireland, where tythes are levied upon every pro- owners, and not by the benefit of the “wood, range,” duct of tillage, and of the small land occupier who is or grazing in common, held so essential in Virginia. necessarily a tiller of the soil, the products of grass We also buy barrelled pork from New England, where land and live stock, have been kept free from this op- the hog; are generally kept altogether in sties, and had pressive burden. The effect of this unjust exemption, no benefit whatever from grazing, or running at large. (unjust if the nation is to bear the burden at all) has It is unnecessary to carry these notorious facts more been, of course, to direct an undue proportion of land into detail. Every one knows the general truth, and and capital to the raising of cattle. But though the has some idea of the magnitude of our import trade in effect of this state of things, is to keep out of tillage live stock and their products, and that this trade has (the more profitable use, but for this exemption,) a commenced, and has been regularly increasing to its vast extent of rich land-to increase the sufferings present enormous amount, under the operation of our and the discontents of the oppressed and brutalized law of enclosures, and the preference it gives to stock peasantry-still the expected gain is found to the gra- raising. If then the system has brought so little beziers in large products of cattle, and large annual ex- nefit to the kind of property and its owners which it ports of beef, butter and cheese.
was specially intended to favor, and is still supposed to In Spain, the interests of the owners of pastures, favor, we ask where are the benefits to be found, which as well as arable land, have for centuries been sacri- are paid for so dearly by land holders, and by the geficed to the established policy of the mesta, of which I neral interests?
Froin the Cultivator.
no more ploughing, which was generally after the SINGULAR APPLICATION OF GRAFTING.
silking of the corn was completed. I do not re
collect whether the wheat was seeded and ploughNew-Paltz, Nov. 30, 1834. ed in with the last ploughing of the corn. 'If I do Sir I have a very valuable apple tree which not, I was informed this had been the case, before had the bark eaten off a few inches above the
the Hessian fly began to injure the wheat crop. ground, by mice, in the winter, and I took the fol- | All
All the manure that was raised, was from the lowing method to save the tree. I took four small
stables, and this I can assure you was "prime;" twigs from another tree, and engrafted them below
no more litter having been thrown into the stables the wound, in the manner of side grafting, and
than was necessary to keep some of the horses loosening the bark above, bent the twigs and slipt
from being filthy. This manure was put on the them under the bark until they came parallel with
mama parallel with tobacco ground, and in the garden. Corn sold the body, then covered them well by banking the
niline the from $1 75 to $2 per barrel, wheat at about $1 dirt above the wound and oralis. I left the earth per bushel. Orchards then were much attended around one season, then cleared it away, and to by many-apple and peach brandy were sold found two had taken. These have commenced to
to out to tavern keepers by the barrel; and retailed form new bodies, and the tree, from all appear
in the neighborhood by the gallon, or less, at $1 ances, is as thrifty as ever, and the twigs have
per gallon. If it be not best to let it be buried in
oblivion, I will here remark, that not long since, I grown in two years to the bigness of your thumb.
was riding alone and reflecting on the past scenes I am, dear sir, your humble servant, of my life, and I recollected some fifteen, or more,
men, the yeomanry of the country, since dead, ABRAHAM STEEN.
who were all much addicted to strong drink, and the J. BUEL, Esq.
greater part of whom either died from drink directly, or, as I believe, indirectly.
To proceed: under the system of agriculture ON THE CONDITION OF FARMERS ON POOR (above described, the lands which were (I may say LANDS.
compared with much) originally poor, were (most To the Editor of the Farmers' Register.
of them at least) reduced to sterility. Many of the Caroline County, Va., January 21, 1835.
hill-sides bordering on creeks or rivers, naturally
the best land, were gullied, and past cultivation. I have much more to say to you than I have As the crops were reduced, the families white and ability to dictate, or time to write. I do not know black increased, and the farmer was then compelthat I should ever have troubled you with a letter, led to purchase more land, or hire out his negroes, but finding (however I may applaud the value of or sell one occasionally to feed the rest. I recolyour work) that you have not as yet fully reached lect a profane old gentleman, who was in the habit my case, I cannot think of suffering you to go of selling a negro every year or two, to pay off on, without once throwing in my plea, and, as I his scores for corn and meat, who had a large verily believe, that of the greater part of the number of slaves, swearing that his negroes should farniers in my neighborhood. I am fully aware, never eat him, but one the other. In this state of sır, that it would be the height of folly to expect affairs, emigration to the west became very comefficient aid from you or any other person, without mon. The man who had a small farm and a fully stating our case, however deplorable, how- large family, whether with or without slaves, who ever hurniliating. I must confess, when I read had not been industrious and economical, was the the communications of Mr. - Mr. — l first to feel the pressure, and off he went. His Mr. - , &c., who tell us of their systems, of more frugal neighbor, or neighbors, purchased his their farms, of their thousands of bushels of corn land, which though poor, afforded a larger field and of wheat, and their tens of hogsheads of to- for cultivation, and at least for a time, helped to bacco-of their horses and oxen, of their wagons sustain him who purchased it. In this way things and carts—I am almost ready to conceal our po- progressed from bad to worse. Our state having verty and wretchedness. But, sir, in our case, reared a large and healthy population no longer poverty has overcome pride; and I hope those able to subsist within her borders, was now losing gentlemen, as well as yourself, will rather pity them with great rapidity. This melancholy specthan laugh at our condition.
tacle no doubt bore heavily upon the mind of our When I was a small boy, more than thirty years countryman Col. John Taylor, the sagacious paago, the three-shift system, so called, was generally triot, the unyielding republican, and industrious pursued-small “half-shares" were the ploughs Firmer. Until he, Arator, wrote, all here was chaos large stocks of cattle, sheep and hogs-corn and as to agriculture. He first opened the eyes of many wheat were the crops, and a manured lot for tobacco, in this part of the country, to see that agriculture and another forcotton. The land being clean grazed, ought to, and did embrace more than simply cutthe half-share answered the purpose of listing, ting down trees, grubbing and ploughing land. and ploughing through the season. The land was He informed them that there should be systein in laid off both ways from four feet to five and a half the management of slaves, of overseers, of eneach way—the land was generally laid off with a closing, manuring, labor; in cultivating Indian view to facility of ploughing, rather than a regard corn, in ploughing, in the management of all kinds to prevent its washing away by rains. It was ne- of stock, in fencing, in draining, and many other cessary to run the plough from five to seven times things too tedious to mention. He, too, recomto complete the row. So soon as the ploughs mended, as originating with a gentleman of Algot over, they were turned about and the whole bemarle, horizontal ploughing, which though not field cross-ploughed—and so again, and again, carried to the perfection recommended in the first until the crop was so far advanced as to require volume of your Register by Mr, Bruce, (may bio memory be dear to us, yet it gave the reflecting | pay taxes, &c., even with the addition of what farmer great aid in preventing his best lands from little money may be raised by the sale of a hogshead washing away.
or two of iobacco. A man with a large family, · By this time, sir, you no doubt begin to think, especially of children, must have milk and butter, that I shall never finish my preamble, nor state as well as bacon--and for this purpose, he must our case-but I will. I was always fond of farm- have pretty good grazing. When I ask one of ing. After reading Arator, I built many castles in my poor land farmers, why do you not divide your the air-I thought if I had a farm, how soon land into four-shifts, and try to improve it? His would I make it rich, by deep ploughing, non- answer is, "bless you, sir, I can hardly make out grazing, clovering and plastering. It was not to live with three; I must make out the best I can long before I bought one, and poor enough it was to raise my children, and give them what educa-originally poor, and much worn. I ploughed it tion I can, and then they must scuffle as I have deep and beautifully-horizontally too when ne- done.” Can you not plainly see, sir, what is to be the cessary. I cultivated my corn according to Arator's result? The children must begin under the most plan. I cut off my corn-stalks; had even a farm- discouraging circumstances: poverty must be their pen, all my stalks and coarse litter were thrown in Joom, or they must emigrate to the rich lands of the it and trampled. It was hauled out in the spring; west. ploughed in, &c. &c. I seeded my wheat nicely, You may say I have stated extreme casesthough not always in single beds, (as he directed) surely this cannot be the case generally! Truly -1 clovered the wheat land, or rather I sowed I have stated extreme cases, and many such there the land in February with clover seed-1 plaster- are: would to God there were not so many. Vired some of it: I also plastered some of my corn, ginia, sir, is descending to a crisis; there is a point and some vegetables in my garden—and what below which she will not, she cannot fall. It rewas the result of my plastering? I have never quires not only your Farmers' Register, with the · been able, on that land, to discover any beneficial aid of all your intelligent correspondents-it re
effect from gypsum. I discontinued the gypsum. quires also legislatures of wise, of thoughtful, of I found my clover grew pretty well without it on practical, of' feeling men, who have her interest the richest spots, and it either died or was too deeply at heart, to stay her downward course, scattering and small to be of any service on the How many are ignorant of the existence of your poorest. I have been going on for something valuable periodical? How many are there who like eighteen years, ploughing well, clovering the could not read it if they would? So ineffectual, as hest spots, making what manure I could, spread- yet, has been her system of education for the poor. ing and ploughing it in, making wheat on the What has she been doing this twenty years past best land, oats on the more indifferent, not grazing to lighten or abolish direct taxation? Shall the except a little on spots in the fall. All this has treasury be forever supplied by draughts upon poor been done at great expense: the plantation has land farmers, when their means are more scanty never any thing like supported me; I have pur- now than they were ten or fifteen years ago, chased corn and meat every year, and sold but when they seem, as yet, to be yearly becoming little wheat. I have made no tobacco-and the more so? What a vast amount of taxable promost I can now say of the farm is, that it looks as perty has in the last five years been removed to if it were in an improving state—and I think it ihe west! How much more will be removed in has improved a little, but very little, except where the five to come, who can tell ? I have actually manured it. I pursued the three-/ Perhaps, sir, my ignorance may make me bolder. shift system under the above regulations. You I will ask further, why does she grant charters to may be ready to ask, why did I not pursue the individuals for banking institutions, for a pitiful four-shift system? I will answer: at first I had bonus? Why not have a state bank, if any? not land enough—and again, even under the three- Why grant charters to rail road and canal comshift, I found in the bottoms, the running brier, panies? Why not project them, construct and let and almost every where the sassafras, formidable them be the property of the state? How long obstructions to the plough. You may say, from shall our ears be accosted in election speeches, m the statement I have given of my situation, and county court yards, “hold fast your purse strings; - I believe there are a great many others in take care of the treasury,” &c. &c., as if judimny district of country, whose land is as poor as cious investments must lead to poverty, or that my own-how is it possible that they can live; how misers only became rich. To say that the locacan they buy corn and meat, &c., every year? Ition of this state is not suitable for profitable immust be candid and say, my dependence was not provements, is to deny what the first glance of a upon the cultivation of the soil altogether: my map will show us. profession required more horses than the farm ab- But I have run from my subject, and that was solutely demanded, and perhaps I kept more than to call your attention to the difficulties which you were needful. Horses you know are the heaviest have to encounter, in promoting the improvement charge on a plantation. Possibly, had I reduced of all classes in this great state of Virginia; to beg my horses, my living, &c. &c., to a certain stand you at least to give us a start-here lies the great ard, I might have made out to live upon my plan- difficulty-many, very many, of these poor land tation. How then could I have made these ex- farmers are industrious men, (when I say poor pensive experiments? I hope now, sir, you will land, I mean land naturally poor) they would begin to see the difficulties a poor land farmer has (could they be fully convinced that any system to contend with, in improving his farm, and living would succeed in improving their lands) go to tolerably well. In the first place, it will take about some expense and inconvenience, at first, to acone-third of a large poor tract of land, to produce complish an end so desirable. They tell us too, enough corn for his support, and for the production if I had money I could do so and so.” If I tell of wheat enough to purchase all necessaries, and them of Mr. Aill Carter, of Mr. Selden, of Mr.