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Rogers, &c. &c., they say, "aye they have rich | which the land had been under very gentle tillage, and lands, they are wealthy” –my mouth is shut, and secured entirely from being grazed. In one of these I am constrained to acknowledge the truth. If experiments, where the four-shift rotation of Arator you will take a ride through some of the middle has been strictly preserved since 1815, there has been counties of this state, and see the vast quantity of an actual and considerable lessening of the product, as poor land, and even after all the emigration how tested by the crops of four successive rotations. It thickly settled it yet is-know their names-examine our sherifts' books, and see what a vast
should be stated, that this diminution is supposed to amount of taxation is paid by these poor land
have been caused by the ploughing having been too farmers, out of their hard earnings and savings,
deep (six inches) for so shallow a soil—but it was not you will begin to think that we claim a great share so deep as was advised by Arator, nor as
ma great share so deep as was advised by Arator, nor as deep as was of your attention.
found safe and beneficial on adjoining land, after it My paper admonishes me to draw to a close; had been made calcareous. you will discover I have been more intent upon Our doctrine may perhaps be met (as it frequently bringing the outlines of our condition before you has been) by the objection, that it sentences to hope. in a crude manner, than polishing with a critic's less sterility all lands naturally poor, and which have pen.
not command of lime or other calcareous manures. T. B. A. This
This may be an important and lamentable fact, but it
is not an argument against our position, but the reverse. The foregoing statement of the writer's experience If a farmer owns poor land so unfortunately constituted and disappointment in the attempt to enrich a soil nat- and situated, that no considerable or profitable imurally poor, is an apt illustration and striking testimo-provement can be made on it, the sooner he is conny of the truth of the positions maintained in the Es- vinced of the truth the better, that he may cease to say on Calcareous Manures, viz: that soils of that kind labor for unattainable objects, and direct his energies cannot be enriched above the measure of their natural where their exercise will be amply rewarded. If half fertility, by vegetable and other putrescent manures, the expense which has been thrown away in such without making use also of calcareous manures, the fruitless efforts at fertilization, even in the last twenty want of which latter ingredient is the sole cause of years, had been given to the judicious application of the unimprovable nature of these soils. There are but calcareous manures, there would be now a vast differfew persons who have long labored to improve poor cnce in the aspect of Eastern Virginia, and of the soils, who will be as frank in confession as our cor- amount of profit gained by every individual concerned respondent and there are not many, having that san- in these different practices.] guine temperament which is essential to make zealous “improving” farmers, who can be induced to believe From the London Quarterly Review of Nov. Ist, 1834. that their past efforts have been thrown away, and HORTICULTURAL CURIOSITIES OF JAPAN. that there is no hope from persisting in similar attempts. If we assume the perfection of the arts of tilBut if these objections did not serve to keep them lace and manufacture as a test of civilization, Jasilent, there would be hundreds who would make pan may at least compete with any oriental nation. statements of general failure and long continued disap- Mr. Meylan places it higher than any. He expointments, not less marked than those given above. tols their field cultivation, but they appear to neIf T. B. A. could have applied marl or lime to his glect their great opportunities for horticulture, as land, he would have thereby cured its natural defects far as the kitchen and the dessert are concerned. -and his other materials for improvement, vegetable As florists they are conspicuous, and the beauty of matter, clover, and gypsum, would have become avail. I the productions of the soil in this department is
known to every possessor of a greenhouse and able, efficient, and profitable.
proprietor of a camelia. The singular art of proWe are aware that this doctrine is so unpalatable to be
ducing miniature samples of the larger products of many, that it has to expect but small favor, or scarcely / vegetation, unknown, we believe, in Eurore, is serious consideration-and indeed its being even utter practised by them to an extraordinary degree. ed here, may be deemed a sort of treason to the cause Mr. Meylan speaks as an eye-witness of a box of agriculture—to the progress of general fertilization, offered for sale to the Dutch governor, three inches which almost all the addresses to agricultural societies, long by one wide, in which were flourishing a firand essays on agriculture in general, concur in declar- tree, a bamboo, and a plum-trec, the latter in ing to be easy, sure, and profitable. We at one time blossom. The price demanded was twelve hunheld the same opinion and it was with painful reluc- dred florins. tance, and not until after years of mispent and lost
From the New York Farmer. labor, that we became satisfied of the error of expect
LOUBAT'S VINEYARD. ing to enrich such soils as are naturally poor, with profit or durability, by vegetable matter, or putrescent
This vineyard, on which a large amount of manures alone. If T. B. A. had (on such soil) prac
money has been expended in foreign vines, was ticed the milder four-shift rotation, and had prevented
recently sold for the purpose of being divided into all grazing, his success would have been not much
lots for cottage residences. It is six miles from
Brooklyn, lying on New York Bay. There are greater-perhaps less, if estimating the greater cost.
upwards of 40 acres, which were sold for $15,300. We know of two different experiments, carefully con
The vines were, we presume, considered of little ducted, which show by the measurement of the corn
or no account, and thus has ended the last extenproduced in each rotation, that almost no increase has sive experiment in attempting to acclimate the been found in a course of near twenty years, during foreign vine in this country.
Froin the Complete Grazier. FIGURES AND DESCRIPTIONS OF LORD SOMERVILLE'S DRAG-CART. [The marks referred to in the following description as accompanying the cuts, but which do not there appear, were also omitted in the original engraving from which this was copied. The error however is not so important as to prevent the figures being perfectly understood by every reader.]
The cut above, Fig. 1. represents a front view gravity of the load, as described at a b by the of a drag-cart, invented by Lord Somerville; se- curved iron, perforated with holes for receiving a lected from Vol. II. of “Communications to the pin, to keep it at any required height: c is a small Board of Agriculture.”-Fig. 1. is a cart calcu- chain to prevent the cart from going too far back lated for draught, by a single horse in shafts; b b is in fixing it: and the letters d d denote the upper a friction-bar, or drag, that is fixed behind by a part of the cart, which is extended to contain chain, and before by a tooth-rack, delineated at b d, bulky or heavy loads. which catches on a staple, and by means of which The following are the advantages to be derived the pressure may be regulated by the driver, ac- from the adoption of the drag here described: cording to the steepness of the descent. c is a 1. The degree of friction and pressure may be toothed rack, fised in the front of the cart, for expeditiously adjusted to the steepness of the deregulating the position or centre of gravity of the clivity; so that the cart will neither press forward, load. In this figure, the friction-drag is placed nor require much exertion in the draught. lower on the wheel than Lord Somerville original. 2. The friction is judiciously applied to the ly intended, in order to divide the pressure and wheel, in such a direction, that a given pressure friction more equally on the opposite side of the will produce twice the effect in retarding the prowheel: thus the action on each is diminished, and gress which it would do if it had been immediatethe risk of over-heating and destroying the friction-ly applied to the body of the cart, or to the axis. bar is rendered less than if the whole pressure 3. The apparatus is capable of being arranged were applied in one point at the top of the wheel. with such facility, that it may be instantaneously
Fig. 2. represents a side view of the same drag-adjusted, without stopping the cart, or exposing cart, designed to be drawn by two strong oxen, the driver to danger. with a pole yoke, and bows, the friction-bar being 4. It may also be remarked, that still greater removed. In this figure, a more simple mode is benefit may be derived from this invention, by apadopted for regulating the position or centre of plying it to both the hinder wheels of wagons;
thus, the resistance may not only be proportioned three inches after fifteen days growth. At this to the steepness of the declivity, so as to prevent stage, I am (after years of experiments made to most effectually the damage done to the high determine this point,) now fully convinced that in roads, and the unnecessary labor of cattle, when the production of milk, and butter-two of the drawing locked carriages down hills; but it will most agreeable et ceteras of a comfortable table, it also remove the danger of the frequent accidents is not excelled even by the wide pea vine, so long to which drivers are exposed; and will save that celebrated for the production of those two articles, time, which is now of necessity lost, in locking in their richest and most delicate state. and unlocking wagon-wheels.
For the purpose of making hay or dry forage for
the winter support of animals, this grass has been
From the Ohio Farmer. well tested. See a communication in that valuaBLUE COLORING MATTER FROM STRAW of ble agricultural paper, “The Baltimore Farmer," BUCK WHEAT.
of the 9th of September last. In curing this grass
for hay, it ought to be cut at thirty days growth, We intended to have mentioned this subject lih
subject when it may be taken from the scythe and stacked, earlier in the season, in order that some of our lif mire
our if mixed with equal quantities of good oats, rye, readers who had buck wheat upon their premises
uses or rice straw, each layer of grass is laid on (or might try the experiment and ascertain more satis
IS- what is better, mixed as stacked) sprinkled with factorily the facts of the case. But we will bring
og salt, when it will be found to cure-admirably, and it forward now; perhaps it may be recollected in its
impart a great portion of its highly aroniatic favor proper season. The method which has been re
e-to the straw, increasing the mass of excellent forcommended for preparing the coloring matter from this plant is the following-cut the stems before
'In cutting this grass at thirty days growth, the the grain is fully ripe, and spread them upon the sickle is certainly the most ecömomical plan, and ground exposed to the sun and thus exposed until sufficiently expeditious for soiling; but I can assure the seeds drop off with ease. When the grain is your readers that but little practice is requisite to ser ated from the stems, they are thrown into learn an individual to cut with the scythe. I have heaps, moistened with water, and left to ferment to had it
nent to had it cut both ways without any difficulty. such a degree, that decomposition takes place, and I notice the remark, that as the roots progress a blue color is developed. It is then formed intolin balls or flat cakes which are dried in the sun or by land leave the centre of the root bare.
into in age, the blades come out from around the edges, a stove, after which if the balls are boiled in water, lobjection I will candidly communicate a piece of
To this they impart an intensely blue color which is not information I lately received, and which obliges effected by vinegar or oil of vitriol. It may be
bejme to believe it is entirely owing to our mode of converted into red by adding an alkali as potash orla
or cultivation that this takes place. About two soda, with nutgalls it strikes a blacker color, and months ago, a most observing planter called on a very fine green is afforded by evaporation. It is
Sme for the purpose of having some conversation said that stuffs dyed blue by this preparation re-lon the subject of this grass. This peculiarity was tain their colors well and appear very handsome. I noticed; he inmediately remarked, that in a patch We have never prepared any coloring matter
ing matter of the gama found in his field, in its native state, from this plant, nor can we vouch for the truth of an
about one acre, there was not one root to be found the above statement, but certainly, we think it in the abovementioned situation: that a remark of worth a trial.
inine had induced a close examination; and added
that it was entirely owing to my mode of cultiva
From the Southern Planter. ltion that the roots exhibited this appearance. That REMARKS ON THE MANAGEMENT AND VA- I cultivated to produce root. by giving a distance LUE OF GAMA GRASS.
that caused the root to spread to an unnatural Mr. Bartlett—I beg you to receive my thanks breadth, and which prevented that thick coat of for your kind attention in forwarding the back num- foliage found attached to the plant in its natural bers of your valuable periodical. Since I have state; that none of the roois found in his patch. had the perusal of them, I am perfectly informed which to his knowledge is fifteen years old, and of what my loss would have been, had I not re- appeared as old and luxuriant when he settled on ceived them. On looking over those numbers 1 the land (black limestone land) could have been discover in one of them, some remarks on, and in- originally more than twelve inches apart; that quiries respecting the Gama Grass. Having been when he first noticed this plat of grass and attemptthe first individual who was so fortunate as to get /ed to break it up, with the plough, the ground was the public attention directed to this plant-which I totally occupied with the roots, and which pream compelled to view, after an assiduous cultiva- vented his effecting the destruction of the plat; tion of ten years, as of extraordinary value to the that finding his horses, mules and oxen preferred agriculturists of the south, I feel myself compe- it to all other grasses, he let it stand for hay, and tent to answer those inquiries satisfactorily, and i from it made annually several stacks. The statethink, to do away the imaginary objections sug- ment appearing to carry weight with it, I went the gested.
next day and examined for myself, and found the With me this plant is found to grow in every whole entirely correct; and am now induced to bekind of soil: but certainly to exhibit its extraordi- Ilieve his observation judicious. In consequence nary productiveness, the soil must be good, natu- ot' this circumstance, I shall plant a lot of gama at rally, or made so by art. And in addition, the twelve inches from plant 10 plant, and let trial depresence of calcareous matter is essential. As it termine the correctness of theory. During a ride regards its growth, after being cut monthly, I am last month through a part of the Choctaw country, yet to learn the name of a plant that equals it, if I found this grass in greater luxuriance than I the soil is properly prepared. I have cut it twenty-have ever been able to produce it, and uniformly I
found the roots close together, and the blades not inches square for each stalk, and then the number more than hall the width of that cultivated as I of square inches in an acre, which multiplied by have done. Giving the roots so much distance, I 82 will give the number in the ground planted in am now assured, produces a worse growth of corn. The ratio between the space occupied by blade.
the corn stalks and one acre is as 1 to 22, and a As regards the important point, viz. the nutri- large decimal. At the rate then of 22 bushels of tive quality of this grass, in addition to my own plaster to the acre, was it used on my corn. The experience, which has established its highly nu- benefit was, as manifest as if manure had been tritive character, I beg leave again to refer to the put in each hill, and was distinctly to be seen for communication before mentioned. I have fre- two years. The third year the field was put in quently stated my own opinion on this subject. I corn—the plaster scattered, and, of course, I could am happy to find it completely corroborated by not discern a continuance of advantage from it, others. Your agricultural friends have nothing to but as long as the earth was undisturbed the in fear in the cultivation of this grass, but the diffi- creased quantity of grass and the richness of its culty of getting seed to plant. I shall give the re- verdure on the spots on which the corn had grown sult shortly, of a trial to produce this grass in the was strikingly manifest. The corn was not hilled. highest perfection, made this year. To the mode ( then thought, and now think, hilling an entire of planting and preparing the soil the singular loss of the labor employed in the operation, if not production of vegetable matter must be attributed, injurious. the season has however, been remarkably fine There are some other facts which tend to prove with us for grass and weeds.
the utility of using plaster more largely than the
present stinted allowance of half a bushel to the PLANTER.
acre: but writing is a laborious employment, and
I am willing to rest my opinion on the leading ON THE ADVANTAGE OF APPLYING GYPSUM facts I have stated, and the few following obser
IN QUANTITIES UNUSUALLY LARGE. vations. In England 400 bushels of lime are used To the Editor of the Farmers' Register.
on an acre with great advantage-in PennsylvaFauquier. Feb. 4. 1835. nia 200 bushels are used, and often upwards of
300. The valuable principle of lime and plaster In a letter I addressed to you in August last, I is the same, as I have been informed, but in what told you that I entertained the opinion that poor ratio it exists in each I do not know; but I sup
hould have twenty bushels of Plaster of Pa- pose it cannot be in a greater ratio than 20 to 1 in ris put upon it, if the proprietor desired to improve favor of plaster. If this be the ratio, then my it speedily; and I promised to give the reasons on opinion that 20 bushels of plaster may be, and which my judgement approved the use of that ought to be, used on an acre of thin land. is quantity.
strengthened by the quantity of lime used in the In the winter of 1828-9, I sallowed a poor field countries I have mentioned. In Pennsylvania a ol 30 acres with the view of improving it; but for greater quantity of lime would be used, I prereasons not necessary to be stated, 8% acres were sume but for the expense of it. They coula put in corn, at 3 feet by 4. In the hills I had 2 safely employ it to the same extent as in England. bushels of plaster put. A part of the corn was I shall use plaster as largely as my means will alrolled, and on the remainder the plaster was thrown low. dry. In the fall of 1829, wheat well rolled in plas-1Lalso expre
in plas- l I also expressed the opinion to you last sumter, was sown on this land, and in: March clover
mer, that the mere growth of corn, wheat, &c. seed were sown. In April, 1830, I ordered 30
did not injure land. The reasons are obviously bushels of plaster to be sown on the field of 30
correct. If we compare the weight of an acre of acres; but searing that the sowers might oversow forest with the largest product of an acre of the on the best of the land and leave the poorest with- best river lowground, or manured upland, for 150 out any, I directed that about an acre, (a cove that
years, we shall be satisfied that the difference of
ears we shall be satisfied received the deposite from an adjoining wood) / weight, (or of substance extracted from the earth should not be sown till the balance of the field in favor of the trees is very great, while the woodhad been. My fears were realized: when they land is best. It will be said that the leaves of the finished sowing there was no plaster for the omit- trees increase the fertility of wood land--but look ted acre, and none was put on it for some time. I at the small return made to the earth by the leaves About the 20th of May clover attains its greatest of one tree, and we must be satisfied that but very growth. From the time that grass took a steady (little can be derived from them too little to be growth to the period of maturity, many persons received in computation when compared with cloobserved that my corn (i. e. of the previous crop | ver, &c. &c. Further, it is a generally received of 1829) had been manured in the hill. The clo- opinion, that wheat fallows improve land, while it ver that grew on the hills in which the corn had is as generally known that corn, oats and buckbeen planted was at full growth, three feet high, wheat injure it. But it is not owing to the plant while that on the intervening ground was not more but the mode and period of cultivation necessathan five or six inches high, and of pale sickly lry to rear it, that is injurious. Wheat does not inyellow color. The next spring the difference in jure, because when the earth is prepared and has the vegetation on and contiguous to the hills was received the crop it is no more disturbed, and the still very great.
action of the sun upon it is very slight. In the In order to ascertain the quantity of plaster cultivation of corn, and preparation of the earth which had been used, per acre, in the corn hills, for oats and buckwheat, it is made so light as to with such manifest benefit, I ascertained the num- receive the heat to the depth of several inches, ber of corn hills in each acre, doubled that num- during the spring and summer, when the sun acts ber for the number of corn stalks, allowed 11 with euch power on it. Heat is the great destroy
er of the vegetative or nutritious principles of the tained; the ground does not wash, and the fine veearth. Fall crops do not injure land as much as getable mould made by the rotted grass and roots spring and summer crops, for the reason that the is preserved from the sun for the nourishment action of the sun is feeble—the nights are long, of the corn and the following crop of wheat. dews are copious, and by the spring the earth is Having gathered my fodder in the old mode, so compact as not to receive the rays of the when ready for sowing wheat, I have the corn sun, and is soon shaded by the wheat, &c. For cut and stacked in small stacks—the same ploughs these, among other reasons, I am satisfied that the running at the same depth with the ploughs used earth is not empoverished by the growth upon it. in the spring. On the land thus prepared, my
The last observation I have made, to wit: that wheat is sown and harrowed in. The crops of Wheat is the great destroyer of the vegetative or nu- wheat are decidedly better than those put in with tritious principles of the earth," requires some re- that mischievous shovel-plough, which (next to marks. Make the richest earth into bricks-then negro labor, that ever has, and ever will carry des pulverize them, and you will find that seed will olation and ruin in its train,) is the greatest enemy not sprout in the dust, or if they sprout they live to good crops and good land, that the human intelbut a short time and perish for want of food. The lect can devise in the form of an implement of valuable principle is killed or expelled by heat. husbandry. Take a piece of plank, say 12 inches square- This mode of preparing the land for wheat, has place it on a gall; let it remain for one year, and these advantages: the decayed grass, &c. is then sow seeds on the place covered by the plank thrown to the top, nourishes the young wheat, and on the conterminous earth, and you will find preserves it against frosts and winds, and when the plants on the space covered by the plank hard freezes occur, owing to the depth of the much more vigorous than their neighbors: indeed, ploughing, the water is dissipated, and the body of that they will survive through the summer, and earth is too heavy to be affected by any but the yield fruit, while those on the earth which was not severest spells of weather. When the crop of shaded will sprout and soon die.
corn has been properly cultivated, and the ground JOHN ROBERT WALLACE. I prepared as above, the crop of wheat is not much
inferior to a fallow crop: the reasons must be ob
vious to every one. ON THE CULTIVATION OF corn.
As to the corn crop, I am not left a doubt of its To the Editor of the Farmers' Register.
advantages over every other I have heard of. I Fauquier, Feb. 4, 1835.
have never failed in a crop. If the season be
wet, the water sinks to the sod, where, owing to I have been a farmer for five years only, but as the grass and roots, it is retained by them by my mode of cultivating my land differs from that absorption, and is prevented from passing off rausually pursued, and has returned me a larger re- pidly. The earth too, being more compact than ward than the same quantity of labor bestowed when the shovel-plough is used, the water is much on even better land, I will communicate it to you. more slowly evaporated, and in hard rains, owing Impressed with these truths
to this cause, and the smoothness of the surface, That heat is a great destroyer of land
| but little of the soil is washed away. That deep ploughing is indispensable
In drought when other fields of corn are exhibThat the roots of corn ought not to be injured iting its serious effects upon them, corn cultivated or disturbed—and
in the manner above mentioned, shows but little, That the corn crop ought to be so cultivated as if any injury from it. Wherever that destroying to make the best crop of wheat
enemy, the shovel-plough, is used in dry seasons, I accordingly have my land broken up as deep its injury to the crop is shown after each ploughas two and three good horses can do it. I require (ing, in the withered blades and sickly color of the the sod to be as carefully turned as if for fallow for corn. Owing to the depth they run, the roots of wheat. The ground is then well harrowed, the the corn are wounded, broken, and huddled together harrow running as the plough. The usual mode in bunches, instead of being expanded through the is pursued in laying off with a very small shovel- ground as the radii of a circle. plough. The corn is planted, (from the 12th of Is it not surprising to see how almost universalApril to the 1st of May,) and as soon as it is thin- ly the notion prevails, that it is serviceable to break ned, I use cultivators of five teeth, (set in as in a the roots of corn? They do not seem to compretriangular harrow,) made of harrow iron—the hend the offices of roots. One set of them is to teeth flattened for two inches, sharpened and turn- support the plant; these shoot out when the ear is ed so as to enter the ground. With these imple- forming, and descend perpendicularly into the ments my corn is worked three and four times. ground; the other, shooting out horizontally are But if there has been much rain, so that the grass purveyors—they spread themselves through the cannot be kept down by them, or if the ground be earth in search of food; but if they are bruised or very hard, then I direct the double shovel-plough broken, they cannot do their duty, for they must (about as long as the hand, and one-third broader) first be healed to enable them to do it, and then to be used; but if there be time after it, I again being forced altogether they must receive less use the cultivator, in order to level the land and nourishment for themselves and food for the stalk, prevent washing. In the use of both these imple- than if they ran through a circle, doubling in ments, orders are given not to turn a sod up, and its diameter, any one of the roots. What would if it be done, to replace it. By this mode a very be thought of the reason of a man, who declared small portion of the earth is exposed to the action it to be his opinion, and practically enforced it, that of the sun; the roots of the corn are not wounded, the best mode of fattening a bullock was to wound and can readily extend themselves in their search his tongue, disable his jaws, and break his teeth for food; the moisture of the earth is longer re- 'whenever he reached his head towards food? Can