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EDMUND RUFFIN, EDITOR AND PROPRIETOR.
CUICKAHIOMONY SWAMP LANDS-BLUE GRASS/ removal of these, along with the dense stilling
AND HERDS GRASS MEADOWS-GRASS HUS- growth, through which a ray of summer's sun BANDRY.
scarcely ever penetrates?
The particular part of the valley of this river to To the Editor of the Farmers' Register.
which I allude, is about fifteen miles long, averIlenrico, February, 1835. aging, say, one and a half miles in width, exclu
ding the bottoms of several tributary streams. All the streams in this whole region of the Although the general character of the soil, is as state, large enough to turn a grist mill, are border
mill, are border- stated; yet it varies exceedingly. The lands ed by low grounds or alluvial flats; varying in ne
Hals; varying innearest the main run, and in depressed places width, nearly in proportion to their length. There farther off, are denominated mud lands. They is much difference also, in their soil, for that par-lare different in color, but all rich: being composed takes much of the color and character of the of the washings from the highlands above, the lands through which the upper parts of the red, the yellow, the blue, and the white clays streams and their tributarios pass. The Chicka found on the hill-sides, and in the bottoms of the homony, for instance, rises in the “livery,” slashy tributary branches and ravines. Independent of lands of Hanover and Henrico; and its low the supply of top soil and vegetable matter lurgrounds are generally still, with a considerable nished his freshe
ut, with a considerable nished by freshets, the accumulation of the last portion of white and party colored clay. Above ingredient, from the growth of the land for centuthe New Kent line they are comparatively nar-fries, must have been sufficient to fertilize it. The row, and more diversified in appearance--subject brown and chocolate colored mud land is better to inundation, and producing a remarkably thick than the gray and ash colored; being more friable, and tall growth of gum, ash, maple, elm, white-or containinė sand in a coarser form. The latter oak, willow oak, and many other trees of the cli-is apt to bake and to crack open when dry-neimate. The growth depends, however, very much ther freely absorbing nor giving out moisture. on the liability of the spot to water. A large pro- Virgin cakes of it when broken, show thin strata portion, (and that much the most valuable,) of of different appearances, which would seem to these bottoms are yet to clear; and will probably indicate the in
probably indicate the tardy process of its formation. They remain a long time unreclaimed, as they are sub- are very productive in corn when the season is not ject to be often under water; and when the water too wet; but that is too generally the case, in the is off, remain too wet for almost any agricultural present condition of the swamp. Nor is it safe to purpose, until the heat of the sunimer has evapo- seed them in wheat; for it will be winter killed; rated the moisture. The river is narrow, very de-land if it were not, would be sure to grow too rank vious in its course; with low banks. Indeed it is and fall, or take the rust. I know of but few evident, that it has frequently changed its bed. instances of the success of this grain on these Some years ago a law was passed, granting a lands. It has succeeded pretty well with several lottery to raise the means of straightening and farmers on lands somewhat of this character; but clearing out this river; but owing to some defects only after they had been well reclaimed, and tendin its details, or some other cause, the act remains, led sometime' in corn. Oats do rather better; like many others, a dead letter on the statute book. though unless sown quite late, they are liable to Individuals have deepened and widened the old fall. The most congenial crop seems to be herds bed, for some miles, with evident benefit. The grass. When the ground is well prepared and water does not overflow to the same extent, nor properly seeded, the crop will range from six to remain so long as formerly; and the bed is wash-leight thousand pounds of cured bay. Timothy ing deeper annually, and injuriously, for the pre-succeeds well. The objection to it is, that it fires sent, to the lands below, where this operation has or burns up, in this hot climate, and will not, like not been performed.
herds grass, wait for the farmer. There seems to be fall enough, quite to the A grass has spontaneously sprung up in these head of tide-water, to take off the freshets, if a lands, and been propagated by several persons, vent sufficient in width and depth, were made. who 'esteem it highly. They call it the blue If the land owners were to unite with proper har-grass, from its rich glossy blue appearance, both mony and determination, this object might be while growing, and after cured into hay. It rises easily effected, and its benefits would compensate from three to five feet; stem nearly flat, and about the expense, more than an hundred-fold. Sixty the size of a goose quill; leaves numerous from top thousand acres of land at the least calculation, to bottom of the stem, and from six to twelve would be rapidly thrown into the most profitable inches long, half an inch wide near the boot, tillage. This could not fail to be the result, as the smooth and tapering. It puts forth a thread-like soil is exceedingly fertile, producing enormous power stem out of the boot of every leaf, which crops of hay, and within a few miles of Rich-rises and branches off like the head of the oat, mond. Almost an incredible number of the trunks bearing numerous small seed. This flower is of and branches of huge trees, the growth of past a richer purple than the leaf or stem. I do not ages, lie to and fro, either entirely rotten, or fast know its botanical name, and if I did, it is probadecaying in the water and mud; giving out with ble that this plain description would suit my purthe annual contributions of vegetable matter, pose in describing it, even better. I am highly noxious malaria! What could be more conducive pleased with it, because it is said to delight in wet to the health of the surrounding country, than the land, conquers every thing else, even the bullrush
and the broom sedge. All the Chickahomony | demands of its markets, aided by some of its enlands, rich and poor, dry and wet, put up the sedge terprise and money, will convert this fancy into revery soon after the most careful preparation. ality. I have at hand, no means to ascertain how Meadows as thickly set in herds grass, as the many thousand bundles of northern hay, are anteeth in a card, become entirely overrun with it in nually sold in Richmond. The quantity is very a few years (say sis) and require a hoe crop and great, considering the population. That article re-seeding. We all know what a pest the bullrush alone, will justify the reclaiming of the lands on the is! The blue grass makes coarse looking hay, Chickahomony! One acre adapted to meadow, though stock are very fond of it, and seem to eat and cultivated in the best manner, will not fail to the stem, as though they relished it as well as the make six thousand weight; which at seventy five blades. Never having cultivated it, I know no-cents, (the lowest regular market price, for the thing of a supposed difficulty in curing it, owing to best hay,) amounts to $45. Deduct $10 for cutthe size of the stem. Yet I can conceive, that ting, curing and hauling to market, and you have laying more open in the swath, as well as in the a clear income of $35. Now what is that acre of shock, the air would find a more free circulation land worth, which pays interest on $583? through it, and enable you to stack it as soon as Not more than one-fourth of this bottom is, fine grass. Every body knows, I presume, that however, capable of this production, and then air-cured hay is better than that cured by the heat only, after much pains and expense in preparation of the sun.
and seeding--more indeed than its present cultiAnother portion of these bottoms, rather more vators have bestowed.. It must be confessed that elevated than the mud lands, is ash colored, stiff, the original clearing and preparing of the soil is liable to bake, and retentive of water. The crops laborious and expensive. This is about compenare apt to be very light either in wet or dry sea- sated though, by the value of the wood and timsons. Should the elements be favorable, and the ber, except where the wood is too distant to bear owner very industrious in keeping it clean and carriage to market. It is my opinion that about finely pulverized, it pays pretty well in corn. one-half of the whole body of low grounds (withBut it might do better in grass or pasture. It is in the limits alluded to) is capable of producing generally speaking less valuable than highland - three thousand weight of hay per acre; perhaps it and there is much of it in this valley. Putres- would average four; while the richest would yield cent manure will act favorably, but for a short time. about 8500. Only one crop of artificial grass is The pewtery mass soon runs together after being cut annually—the second crop has no chance to lightened, pulverized and manured. Nothing but grow until the fall rains and mild temperature very coarse sand or coal ashes will change its commence; for the first is mowed just at the comstubborn nature. The latter makes it rich. mencement of hot weather.
Nearer the hills, and wherever the land is free Considerable quantities of hay are made from from inundation, and not so retentive of water, the wild grass which springs up abundantly in land eoil is light and friable; and frequently has an ex- that is wet. It is quite coarse, but yields two cess of sand. All of this on both sides of the cross generally; and especially, when the first is swamp, has been cleared, by former generations, cut early. It finds a market at fifty cents, and If we judge by its present crops, it must have sixty two and a half cents. Some of it is pretty been originally rich. Below the New Kent line good. It seems to suit particular tavern keepers the low grounds grow gradually wider, the soil and keepers of livery stables; whether on account lighter and more sandy. Of that part of the val of the price, or of ihe certainty that horses are ley I know nothing.
not so fond of it, or from both these considerations Perhaps the flats on no stream in the state, pre- together, I do not undertake to say. sent such diversities of soil as those of the Chick-! The blue grass yields also two crops--both of ahomony-nor are they, any where, so irregularly which put together, perhaps are greater than the dispersed. And the fields in many places, have best single crop of artificial grass. It, like the been cleared in a corresponding manner. When herds grass, will wait a week or two for the mowthe sluggish run (for it is not a river,) shall be well er-and I am disposed to think, it will take the opened and straightened, and the superabundant place of all other grasses on lands adapted to it. water conducted off, these inequalities in the pro- In fact it is rapidly springing up in meadows ductiveness and the value of these lands will be where it never was sown, and quite remote from lessened—a stimulus will be offered to the owners those in which it is cultivated or encouraged to to clean up and drain all the low wet spots, now grow. Orchard grass does not succeed, but the grown up and disfiguring their farms—the rich feather grass grows luxuriantly, though I think virgin land, now useless, except for timber and the hay light and chaffy, (to use that expression.) fuel, will be cleared and cultivated, yielding great A mixture of timothy and herds grass, seems to profit, and furnishing the means of enriching the me, to be well calculated for all the artificial meaexhausted highlands. When the whole of this dows in the lower country. The latter, when extensive valley shall be brought into neat cultiva- ready to be cut, is apt to fall, and would be greatly tion; interspersed with verdant meadows, green sustained by the stouter and stiffer stalk of the fields of corn and ripening harvests, what a beau- former, which in its turn would be less liable to tiful spectacle will it be from the lofty heights, to burn or dry up, when shaded and protected, as it the eye of the metropolitan! From the centre of would be. In three or four years the timothy will the city he may reach and enjoy it in half' an be rooted out by the herds grass, and in this clihour's ride.
mate, the best meadow will not last more than six This, for the present, is indeed a fancy picture. or seven years and be profitable. But when Richmond shall contain a population of It may be well to say something about the mode sixty or seventy thousand, and its commercial of preparing and seeding an artificial meadow; capital be trebled and profitably employed, the land what I shall say on these subjects will be
equally applicable to the whole of the country be not mathematically straight, they will suffibelow the mountains. There is scarcely a stream ciently guide the seedsman, who ought to follow in this whole region that does not afford some ex- just behind the operator, and while his mark is cellent meadow land; and there are numerous wet fresh. This will insure regularity. The sower's slashy spots, in the levels of the highlands that hand ought to be held low, and particularly if would produce fine crops of hay. Lower Virgi- there be any wind. It is better to sow the seed nia, though almost exclusively a grain growing dry, because then they separate easily, and fall country, is often, and particularly in some parts of more regularly. Being white, they ought to give it, very deficient in rough or long food for stock. the ground an evenly powdered appearance, Fodder (or corn blades) is the main dependence which is the only sure proof of good sowing, exfor sheep and horses; and shucks and straw for cepting always the appearance of the grass itselfcattle. I have long thought that blade fodder was and slighted spots should be resown by both of not vorth half the cost of gathering and saving these indices. Herds grass seed are so small and it; unless the corn be remarkably fine. And even light, that they are very apt to be taken up and from such corn, the weather must be very favora- thrown about and deposited in sunken places, if ble to secure it with its nutritive juices. If I had not carried off by the winds. To prevent this, no meadow, nor knowledge of hay, I might think the roller should follow the seedsman as soon as otherwise. (This is a plain matter that ought to possible. In addition to this benefit, it beautifully be tally discussed and experimented upon.) levels and smooths such finely prepared ground,
Land for a meadow ought to be rich and moist; and leaves it, so that the grass knife passes over it or at any rate, retentive of moisture until the mid- without obstruction or jar. dle of June. The soil must be ploughed and har- How interesting to the eye of the husbandman, rowed until finely divided. The aid of a roller is such a plot of land, thickly and evenly covered will in many cases, greatly facilitate this opera- with a rich coat of grass, in full bloom! Then is tion. But it ought to be complete, and the land the time to apply the knife, and handle the fork. made as level as possible, in order to lighten the An experienced and dexterous cutter will be enalabor of the mower, and enable him to get the bled to shear it smoothly and evenly, and with as whole crop of grass. The depth of the first much apparent ease as the city barber wields the ploughing should be regulated by the depth of the instrument of his vocation. fertile soil. Deep stirring of the earth is necessa- The second crop, as already suggested, does ry; for the deeper it be broken, che more moisture not rise high enough in this climate to be cut. it will absorb, and the more it will give to the But it affords the best of grazing. In its growth roots of the grass. All the roots, trash and tus- it steals along, alternately freshened up by showsocks must be carried off-they are the nurseries ers, dews, and cool nights; and parched and withof weeds, and will be in other respects inju- ered by the burning sun of summer, until released rious.
from this doubtful state of existence, by the more The seed ought to be sown after the last har-regular and genial temperature of September. rowing and before any rain has fallen. A bushel Not till then, does it assume its gay verdure, and of herds, and one gallon of timothy seed, or rather give promise of future vigor and value. A cerless will be sufficient per acre, if sown in Septem- | tain union of heat and moisture is necessary to ber, or before the middle of October. If sown in every sort of vegetation, and every clime is chathe spring or summer, half a bushel more of herds racterized by its peculiar productions. In the ought to be added.But there is no danger of temperate zone, we regard spring as the flood, and sowing too many seed; and I should never stop winter as the ebb-tide of vegetable life. Summer under two bushels, provided the seed were not too and autumn are the seasons of their vigor and costly. Though what is a little expense, com- maturity. But it is both interesting and instrucpared to a thick luxuriant crop, which shall en- tive to note the effect produced by the removal of tirely possess the ground, to the exclusion of every plants from one latitude to another, within our other growth? Grass when sown too thick, will zone. Some of the artificial grasses so called, (and only on rich land) thin itself exactly to that which preserve their verdure, in the northern point which insures fineness and the greatest pro- states, and even beyond our mountains, during the duction of which the soil and climate are capable. whole summer, die and are withered to the very Many grass growers have labored under a strange ground, by the heat of the sun in the lower and delusion on this subject. It was the practice with southern country. To them autumn is a second some (of my acquaintance,) to sow only one peck day of resurrection. Hence they yield us but one on an acre. The consequence was, that they had crop of hay, and seem to be incapable of that deto lose one year, waiting for the grass to spread, gree of acclimation that would enable them to and supply the stinted seeding-cutting the first produce two, notwithstanding all our care. We year a rank crop of weeds, mixed so sparingly have vainly endeavored to nurse into usefulness, with hay, that the produce was but of little value, the guinea grass, which has been pronounced to except as horse bedding. The cutting of such a be to the West Indies the next great blessing to erop is heavier work than of good hay. And ex- the sugar cane." These considerations make it perience proves, that thinly sown meadows will desirable that some native grass should take the always remain foul, and give inferior crops. lplace of exotics. The blue grass promises to do
The seeds having been thoroughly mixed to this on very rich and wet lands; but a little more gether with the hand, are then sown in a dry experience with it ought to be had before we give state, by the hand also after the manner of small up the herds grass, which we know to be valuable grain; the ground having been first marked off into either on the wettest or the dryest land. six feet lands by using a hoe or rake handle. Unless the second crop, or aftermath, be grazed Horses ought not to go on the ground thus pre-down, it dies in the winter, and forms a ti. “' pared; and if the lines laid off, as recommended, covering of dead material that retards the exil;
growth of the spring crop, impedes the mower, on the Hanover side, and abound more in gravel and injuriously mixes with the hay of the next and clay. Some of them are quite steep and crop, as it must be cut with it. Ona new mea- gashed by very deep ravines, in the bottoms of dow, this covering in favorable seasons, will rot some of which, opposite to Richmond, deposites after the grass rises over it in the spring—but this of fossil shells have been found, consisting of clam, is not ofien the case. It has been the practice, scallop, oyster, and a great variety of smaller with many fariners, to burn it off early in the shells; so far decomposed that they may be respring. The objection to that, is the probability duced by the pressure of the hand, and when exof empoverishing the soil. But on the other posed to the atmosphere, fall into powder in a few hand, such heavy grazing as will be necessary to days. Expecting that these deposites will be consume and trample it completely down, is at- examined by the ardent and skilful Professor tended with the pernicious effect of poaching, or Rogers, I shall say nothing more about them, making the ground too hard; and when that is the except that they have not been found in many case, the crop becomes short and meager. When places; and but few experiments have been made the ground is dry, grazing may be permitted, with them, as manure. though never in wet weather, or when the hoof! The soil of these hills is diversified. In some breaks, or much indents the sod. At the time, places sandy, in others gravelly, with an admixhowever, when the grazing of meadows, in this ture either of yellow clay or yellow sand; and then climate, would be most profitable, grass is abun-again, for a mile, on those the soil is a rich, chocdant enough in the fields. The plan of a stand- olate colored fertile mould. There is but little red ing pasture, with an occasional use of the mea- clay, but frequent hills of yellow or light brown dow in the fall, would seem most advisable. Still clay. The writer has found all these varieties to I am inclined to think, that burning once in three be powerfully acted upon by plaster, and especialyears, would be more beneficial than injurious. ly when applied to clover.
Although the months of September and Octo- 'Between the Chickahomony and the James ber are the best for sowing grass seeds, it may be River hills, the country is generally fiat, but often done, in my opinion, any month in the year, pro- broken by deep ravines and valleys, along which vided there be no danger of the waters' covering the branches pass to either stream. Several the land and removing the seed. When sown in streaks or patches of red land, not unlike the soil the spring or summer, or too late in the fall for of the South West Mountains occur. They are them to vegetate, the first crop will be more or less however, far from being as rich; yet are susceptimixed with weeds. I sowed a few acres some ble of high irnprovement. They suffer greatly years ago, with oats. The grass came up re- from drought. There are similar portions, with markably well. After the oats were cut, we had a gray or ash colored soil, of nine or ten inches very dry and warm weather. I examined the thickness, resting on a red clay foundation. The fate of the grass, and found that before the heavy soil of these portions suffers less from drought, crop of weeds, which succeeded the oats, had retains manure longer, and seenis to have been protected it, the young grass had been completely originally surer in production, if not actually so killed. It had risen two or three inches; and rich. The top soil abounds in silex in a fine form, though sown very thick, appeared to be entirely and I presume, had in its virgin state, a due propordestroyed. The ground was as dry as it could be, tion of vegetable matter. But shallow ploughing, and I could see no sign of life in the roots. This a hot sun, and close grazing, have brought these soil when moist, is as black as lamp-black; light, portions to poverty, and made them the favorite and contains much sand. Notwithstanding these spots for the poverty, or hen's grass. The clay appearances, the grass put up slowly in the fall, from below, after being exposed to the frost and and in the spring, occupied the ground, to the ex-scattered and mixed with the silicious soil above, clusion of every thing else. The crop of hay was seems to be in some places almost as good, and I a good one, though much injured by the stalks of think has a more permanent effect than barn-yard the weeds that ought to have been cut off in the manure. To dig up, prepare, and scatter this red fall.
clay, would be very expensive, though less so, Excuse the digressions and diversities of this than the raising and use of putrescent manure. long letter. They are characteristic of my mode This operation might be effected by the plough, of thinking. The subject is but only broached. but then without a good coat of vegetation to turn For the present, let this suffice. I had intended under in its green state, sterility would be the congiving you a topographical and agricultural delin-sequence for a year or two. Indeed the plough eation of the country from the James to the Poto- cannot be easily made to reach the red substramac River. May I not call upon the strong rens tum and throw it up uniformly, without running a and intelligent minds in the several intervening two-horse, directly in the furrow after a threecounties to aid in this work?
horse plough and few persons are disposed to incur
this expense. There is a great deal of this sort C. W. GOOCH.
of land in Virginia. If a sufficient crop of clover
cannot be made to grow on it by Mr. Sampeon's
For the Farmers' Register. mode of lightly top-dressing small grain, at, or just DESULTORY OBSERVATIONS ON THE Souls before the time of sowing clover seed, a crop of AND AGRICULTURE OF HENRICO COUNTY. I peas, buckwheat or rye, might be turned under in a
green state, hy a double ploughing, as suggested. The lands in the county of Henrico vary proba- But from the experiments I have made, winter grain bly, more than in any other county. Those of neatly put in and top-dressed with farm-yard mathe Chickahomony bottoms have been described nure succeeds well. The manure seems to be ringe 649.1 The hills that overlook these, are more beneficial in this, than in any other mode of to ier and more precipitous on the Henrico, than I applying it, and secures to a certainty a good crop
of clover. The improvers of exhausted land in Plot No. 1. 1834. Rye-cropcomparatively good every part of the state consider their work nearly
--sown too thick-though the accomplished as soon as they can get it well
field, more than ten for one of covered with red clover. Good ploughing, a pro
seed. per rotation of crops, and non-grazing, with the Plot No. 2. 1823. Oats, clovered and plastered use of plaster, have seldom in such cases, failed to
--crop inferior, just worth cutrestore the soil to its original fertility. To go be
ting. yond that, requires, calcareous matter or heavy " " 1830. Clover-crop inferiordressings of putrescent vegetable or animal ma
a few hundred weight, and that nures. I have an old field of this sort of land that
in spots. put up, when I took possession of it, nothing but
66 66 1831. Clover-plastered like plot No. hen's grass. The soil was originally very good;
1-clover almost entirely disapbut it had been worn down to the lowest point of
peared. sterility. From the very promising appearance
" " 1832. 'Wheat-crop very inferiorof the substratum, I thought that it could be
hardly worth cutting. renovated by good ploughing, and the use of plas 66 66 1833. Corn-lightly manured in the ter, so as to produce clover. It was accordingly
hill with corn-stalk and farmploughed from four to six inches deep, sown in
pen manure-crop not measured oats, clover and orchard grass, plastered at the
-supposed about three barrels rate of a bushel to the acre. The oats were very
to the acre-and as irregular as inferior to what I expected, but better than antici
the different parcels of manure. pated by those who knew the land. They were, 66 66 1334. Wheat,lightly top-dressed with however, not sown until April; for I did not take
farm-pen manure, when frozen, possession until late in March. The clover came
or there was snow on the ground up very badly, and except upon some portions of
-crop about ten for one. the field that had been partially manured by the former owner, was an entire failure. The grass. You will observe that the plot No. l. has been seeds sown on this field cost me $152. Having in small grain the three last years, and has been as much rich land as I had force to cultivate, and tended four years in six. The whole manuring reclaim, I determined to let this field as well as would be about equal to one good dressing of maothers on the same farm, rest and take the chance nure: yet the crops have been quite respectableof gradual improvement by time, and one or two and the clover is at this moment (23rd February) ploughings, until I could take hold of it. In 1829 so promising, (without ever having been seeded, the whole field was first treated as above stated. except in 1829,) that I intend plastering it, and It rested two years, and in 1832 was in wheat- exempting it from the corn crop intended for the crop very inferior, except where my small stock of whole field. Plot No. 2. was the poorest-has manure was putra third of the field was not been four years in crop, and one a corn crop. worth cutting, and was left to rot on the ground. Still the light top-dressing given to the last wheat It rested in 1833 and 1834. The visible improve- crop, has caused the clover to appear (though ment that has taken place in the appearance of sown in 1829,) so thick and vigorous, that, by a the land-the thicker cover of vegetable matter single plastering, I expect to make a fair crop, including strong and bold weeds-induced me to which will bear one cutting and keep the land imcommence ploughing in the winter, to put it in proving until the whole field can be brought to the corn this year, to be manured in the hill, with larm- same point of improvement. pen manure, ashes, plaster, &c. It has been un These plots have been thus managed, because avoidably pastured, but not heavily during the they are very convenient for the employment of years of rest. If, in 1829, the plaster had been the idle servants about my yard, &c.; and it was sown before fallowing, or just before the harrow easy to use the manure on them, while more imthat put in the oats, the improvement would, in portant and distant operations called for the use my opinion, have been greater.
of all the two, and four-tooted force, I could comAbout twenty acres of this field have been kept mand. Another reason influenced this course: under a different system, both for convenience and these plots had become excessively foul with highexperiment--divided into two plots. No. 1. was land blue grass, wire grass, running briers, &c.; the richest part of the field, as it had been ma- and they are not half exterminated now. The nured slightly by my predecessor-No. 2. was plastering given the whole field in 1829 seemed quite as poor as the average of the whole. to give a sort of magic existence to these pests.
The running brier, or dewberry, is a great annoyPlot No. 1. 1829. In oats clovered and plaster-ance on this whole field. It is worse than the sas
ed-crop a fair one, equal to safras; for that can be destroyed by cutting it down
average in the neighborhood. some inches above the ground with a brier knife 46 " 1830. Clover-cut most of it-very twice in one summer, or by putting hungry animals
irregular in growth from un- to eat off the leaves and prevent the atmospheric
even inanuring formerly. elaboration of sap through the leaves, without " " 1831. Clover-pastured by calves, which, plants and vegetables soon die. This brier,
&c.-greatly depreciated. Jis not so, the plough does not go to the bottom of 1 66 1832. Manured before the plough its root, and when cut off nine inches below the
and put in wheat with rest of surface, it puts up three or four shoots instead of the field-crop excellent-though one, that will run ten feet in a season, and, with still very irregular.
the least encouragement, take root, and propagate 65 " 1833. Wheat again-crop more pro- new nurseries. This is one of the evils of resting
ductive and not so irregular. land, without grazing. But I believe that this