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the vine, it rolls and eats the leaves, the stems of when the stem has become brown, and the berries the leaves, and of the grapes. This caterpillar, fall at the least touch; the juice is then sweet, says Bosc, is green, with a yellow spot on each sticky, and sugary: the fruit is gathered in fine side of the first ring, and a black head; it causes sunshiny weather, and the bad berries should be much damage in the environs of Paris and else- taken away. where. Robergeot directs for its destruction, in | About twelve days before they are ripe, a greatthe butterfly stale, to make fires as the night er or less number of bunches are enclosed in bags comes on; the butterfy is attracted to them imme- of hair-cloth; in this way they are kept till hard diately and burned. The fires are repeated fre- frosts, and are protected from the birds. quently, and destroy at the same time the bombyces, Preservation. Grapes gathered a little while the noctuelles, the phalenæ, and other insects which before they are ripe, are kept in square oaken fly in great numbers into the flames.
chests lined with lead, and of any required size; The erineum de la vigne. Every body knows they are listed by iron rings. In the bottom of this (parasitic) plant, which appears on the in- these is first placed a layer of moss, and afterferior surface of the leaves in the form of spots, at /wards a layer of grapes, without wiping them, at first white and afterwards red and irregular; it des four millinietres (two lines) apart; this is continued troys the leaves; the remedy is to pull off those till the chest is full. The chests are closed herthat are attacked and burn them.
metically, to prevent the air and light from peneThe teigne de la vigne. The larva, called vine- trating: when this is finished they are let down worm, lives in the berry, and proceeds, says Bosc, into a well, each attached to a chain, and they are from one to the other by spinning itself a gallery suspended near the water. When grapes are of silk. The damaged berries and galleries must wanted, the chain is drawn up, they are taken out, be taken off and the whole burned.
the chest closed again, and again let down near The eumolpe de la vigne, gribouri, or coupe- the water. These grapes keep till February if no bourgeon. This eats the shoots, rolls the leaves, water enters the chest. and deposites its eggs which are hatched into Grapes are kept also by putting the bunches on worms. The parts attacked must be taken off | hurdles spread with wheat straw: they are laid and burned.
side by side without touching or having been The Sphinx de la vigne. The larva eats the wiped. The kurdles are afierwards set in the sun, leaves; but it is rare. The remedy is to remove if it shiaes; the bunches are turned, and when the the leaves and burn them.
moisture has evaporated, the hurdles are placed in The attelabes vert et cramoisi. These two in- the fruit loft. sects in the state of larvæ eat the leaves, the leaf
II. TOLLARD. stalks, and the stems of the fruit. The injured parts must be gathered and burned. These insects are called also urbère, diableau, bêche, liselte,
[Since receiving the foregoing translation, we have velours vert, and destraux.
• noticed the following passage in the Horticultural ReThe hanneton. The larva, under the name of gister of Boston, which refers to some of the practices white worm, gnaws the roots of the vine and kills described at large in this article.] it. The earth should be dug to find the worm. "The mode of training the vine at Thomery, It is said that if lettuce is sowed near, the worm
worm | appears to have originated from the well-known will quit the vine to seek the lettuce.
and singular fact, that an extended vine produces The wasps and drones are also very troublesome; I not fruit except at its ertremities. Thata vine carthey should be killed by smoking them with a leadin bundle of straw. Bottles of water sweetened with
becomes barren at its base. The system of trainhoney are also hung up in which they drown
ing and pruning, which is there practised, and themselves.
with such signal success, may therefore be conSnails and slugs eat the leaves; they should be
sidered as the perfection of every mode which has collected in the morning and after rains, and re
lever been devised. moved from the vineyard.
Thomery is a village near Fontainebleau, and Many birds feed on grapes, the thrush, the star
but a few leagues from ling, the loriot, the linnet, &c.; these must be which the markets of the capital are supplied, are
Paris. Its grapes, with frightened by scare-crows or killed.
proverbial for their superior excellence. It will Forward grapes, (primeurs.) To obtain these
appear evident, that this justly merited celebrity, at Paris, from the grapes on trellises, fifteen days
is not due either to the superior quality of the soil, before the period of ripening, an annular wound is
or to its favorable exposure; but the management of made on the vine when it is on the point of matur
their grapes alone. For Thomery has not a haping its bunches.
py exposition; the quality of the soil is inferior, in Grapes are also obtained twenty days earlier
many parts steril. It is on the side of a hill, than those on trellises, by placing the vine in a
facing north and east, and sloping to the river
mi green-house, or other place where it never freezes: 9
Seine, which washes its base; the soil is clayey, the vine stock is brought out through the wall. When the vine is in bloom, the young bunches
: cold, and almost incredibly hard to cultivate," are inserted into transparent glass bottles; the
From the Genesee Farmer. grapes, heated by the sun, ripen early, and when they are ripe the bottles are broken. But the
CURING CORN FODDER. most expeditious method is to place a portable It has been a generally received opinion among green-house before the trellis, that the sun may farmers that corn fodder should be perfectly cured shine upon the glasses and warm the vine; a fire before it is placed in the stack, or mow, to prevent also is kindled.
the accumulation of mould on the stalks. In this, The vintage. The grapes are known to be ripe I had always acquiesced, but an experiment invol
untarily made, has gone far to convince me that benefits need not be pointed out. I am not supmy former views were erroneous. Being com- posing the plan above named, is itself to make pelled to put up my corn fodder in a damp state, I the land rich. But what farmer does not see at had but small hope of its proving of any utility in once, what a vast deal of labor he would thereby wintering my stock, but was happily disappointed be enabled to direct to other purposes than making by the trial.
corn. Every observing man knows that from the When I commenced feeding it out, much of it first of May to the fifteenth of July, the farmer is was entirely covered with white mould, and some perpetually on the stretch to keep in good order quite rotten, yet to my surprise it seemed to have his field of corn. He has no time to save hay-is acquired additional attractions thereby, as my cat- hurried in his harvest-collects no materials for tle devoured it with greater avidity ihan they did manures—and indeed neither does, nor can do any that which acquired no mould. Í have often re- thing but work his corn. marked, that cattle would show a marked prefer- There can be no reasonable doubt, if we are to ence for hay near the bottom of a mow, which believe the experience of others elsewhere, that had undergone a greater degree of fermentation any farmer now making 300 barrels of corn on 100 than that nearer the top, and generally denomi- or 130 acres, has the means of making the like nated "mow burnt.” Without philosophyzing on quantity on 30 acres. Nay more, every observant this point, I would barely suggest the inquiry, man knows, that he has acres every year (not whether by thus carrying on the fermentation of many to be sure that actually do produce at that food previous to its being fed to cattle, an advan- rate, or nearly at that rate-and yet so universally tage is not gained in the increased facility it im are old habits, that we find it impossible to resist parts to the process of digestion?
the absurd one of planting our usual crop, although I. D. we know that one-third, is not one-half of the
field, will not repay the expense of our ploughing.
I would now suggest, through your Register, ASHES AND GYPSUM AS MANURE FOR CORN.
to my brother farmers in middle Virginia, (espeTo the Editor of the Farmers' Register.
cially) to make this year a small experiment-to Amelia, February 27, 1835.
take one-tenth of their usual field, and manure
and cultivate it after the manner so successfully A gentleman living in Maryland, on the Pa- pursued in Maryland, and observe the result. If tuxent River, made last year twenty-five barrels land which usually produces three barrels of corn, and some pecks of Indian corn to the acre, on shall by this method be made to produce ten, (of many acres. This remarkable crop seems almost which I have no doubt) I am sure a new impetus, wholly attributable to his manner of manuring, as under favorable auspices, will be given to our his planting, culture, &c., do not seem to be dif- agricultural improvement. Even if so favorable ferent from many others. He prepared his land a result should not follow, the labor will not be well; (it was a clover lay,) laid it off both ways, lost. I am now collecting ashes, for at least 30 five feet by two and a hail"; dropped three grains acres—if we should live until the autumn, I will of corn in each check, and with the corn, put a give you the results. handful of leeched ashes mixed with plaster of Paris, (in the proportion of one of plaster to two of ashes) in each hill or check; cultivated it both
From the Louisiana Journal. ways well with the plough, and hoed well. The amazing product seems to me to be principally
DIFFERENCE OF PRODUCTIONS ON THE HIGH attributable to his peculiar application of manure,
AND ALLUVIAL LANDS OF LOUISIANA. and why cannot we farmers of Virginia pursue It must be apparent to every reflecting mind, the same plan? No plantation on which ten regu- who is acquainted with the localities of the state, lar fires are kept, could fail (with care) to produce and is the least conversant with agriculture, that 300 bushels of ashes after the lie is taken from it: the culture which will suit the alluvial parishes, this, with 90 bushels of plaster added to it, would will not answer in the eighth judicial district. We manure after the above manner, at least 30 acres. speak on this subject knowingly, for we have obSuppose these 30 acres should produce ten barrels served the staples grown in the alluvial parishes, to the acre, (of which I see no reasonable doubt,) and in the highlands. It is even now questionacan we desire a better application of labor and ble whether cotton can be grown on the Mississipmoney? But if 25 barrels be made in Maryland, pi lower than the parish of St. James. In that why not in Virginia? I feel entirely convinced, parish we have seen cotton growing that looked that no effectual scheme of general improvement well. In Washington, St. Tammany and St. can be suggested, which does not contain some fea- Helena, the rye is raised to an advantage; yet in sible plan for lessening the culture of Indian corn | West Feliciana and East Baton Rouge, we ap-I do not mean to lessen its consumption, but to prehend it would make but a sorry crop, while in reduce the surface necessary to produce the quan- the alluvial parishes it would be utterly profitless. tity required for consumption. He who owns a If we are correctly informed, many efforts have farm of 300 arable acres, and ten effective hands, been made to introduce the improved breed of catwith six work horses, will find 300 barrels of corn tle on the coast, below Baton Rouge, all of which necessary for his annual consumption. To make have proved abortive, because the stock imported this quantity he will, on the average of farms, had died the first summer after their introduction. (between tide-water and the mountains,) put in | Yet we are warranted in saying that the same corn, from 100 to 130 acres of land and with this breed of cattle have lived and prospered on the large field, would as often fail to make the requi- | highlands, not exceeding twelve niles from the site quantity, as succeed. Suppose, by any plan, Mississippi. Swine, it is well known, will answer 30 acres would produce as much as the 130, the no valuable purpose on the alluvial lands of the
Mississippi, below the Manchac. An effort is now the nature of the case, to casualty and loss, which making 10 introduce the thin rind hog into the timely shelter nuight prevent. The sheep well ted, parish of St. Helena, and we do not entertain a from its fleecy covering and gregarious habits, doubt of its entire success. Many are the abor- whence results an atmosphere of considerable tive attempts made in the culture of the grape, on warmth, remains very little affected by intense the banks of the Mississippi. Yet a grape, deli- cold, it' unaccompanied by moisture; he is perhaps cious to the palate, and capable of producing ex- more unfavorably atlected by great heat, but contincellent wine, is indigenous to the parishes of ues sale under either extreme, with the advantage Natchitoches, Claiborne and Ouachitia. So it is of' sufficient shelter, obviously one of the most imfound that the rich lands around New Orleans is portant points in sheep husbandry. The various not favorable to the culture of the sweet potato, diseases incident to sheep have their origin almost whereas the pine woods is the soil in which that exclusively in neglect, improper situations and vegetable most delights.
treatments, or errors in feeding. Reverse these, As with the vegetable, so with the animal king- and diseases among sleep would be as few and dom. No domestic animal, calculated for service, rare, as they are now numerous and rite throughor the table, is reared with the same facility on out our sheep districts; another grand point in their the low, as on the highlands. The feathered tribe husbandry.-15. we believe is an exception to the rule.
From the Cultivator.
HINTS ON SHEEP HUSBANDRY.
INDIAN CORN. Selected and collated for the Cultivator. There is no crop which habit has rendered In an agricultural view, simply, the importance
more indispensable to the wants of our families
and our larms than this. The late John Taylor, of sheep is extreme; since, by their assistance
of Virginia, termed it our "meat, meal and maalone, thin, barren, upland soil, so often the farm
'nure." Holding this high rank in our farm ecogreater part of a country, can be cultivated to advantage, which otherwise could not generally be
nomy, it is a subject of moment to adopt the best cultivated at all. The sheep will subsist and mul
mode of culture. As many districts are shy in
producing wheat, and as this crop is seriously tiply on those barren soils, where no other animal would be maintained with equal profit: he is
ihreatened by the new (to us) wheat insect, it beequally calculated for the most deep and fertile,
comes more a matter of solicitude to render our challenging competition, and dividing the palm of more labor in its culture than other grain crops,
corn crops productive. But as this grain demands profit with an ox, and is excluded from such unly as abound in stagnant water, the most exhalations that it should be well managed: for if thirty bush
so it is more important, on the score of profit, of which are naturally destructive to his constitu
ve to his constitu- els an acre, be considered only a remuneration for tion.- Lawrence on cattle.
the labor bestowed on the crop-all that the proThe bodily constitution of the sheep, as of the duct talls short of this must be a loss and all goat, the deer, the camel, the hare and ihe rabbit, that it exceeds, a net gain to the cultivator. The is usually called hot and drv; we however know, first consideration in regard to the corn crop, is to from unquestionable experience, that dry soils, give it a dry mellow soil; the second, that this a dry air, dry provender, and green food, which soil be rich, fat or fertile; and the third, that the does not abound in cold and watery juices, are seed be timely put in and the crop well taken care most appropriate and salutary to them. Indeed of. Neither wet grounds, nor stiff clays, nor poor the contraries are replete with danger to the grounds, will repay, by their product, the labor resheep, most particularly, which is naturally and quired on a crop of corn. He who has no other constitutionally subject to serious effusion, pro- | lands but these, should not attempt to raise it as a ducing a dropsy of peculiar kind, either universal field crop. He had better bestow his labor upon or circumscribed, but more usually the latter, ex- other objects, and buy his corn. We think the tending indifferently to all parts of the body. best preparation for corn is a cloverlay, well cover
This efflux of water, or rather watery tendency, ed with long manure from the barn-yard, well in all the fluids of the body, gradually produces ploughed-and well harrowed. It is better to in the solids disorganization, mortification or rot. give sixty loads of dung to three acres than to Catarrhal affections are the most usual primary ten, upon the ordinary lands of our neighborhood. causes of rot. These ideas very plainly indicate The difference in product will not make up for the the proper situations, food and treatment of difference in labor. Corn can hardly be dunged sheep.
too high. What we have to recommend, that is Sheep have often been described as, of a weak- not common in the culture of this crop, is—that ly constitution, liable to be exhausted by fatigue, double the usual quantity of seed be applied—the and ill able to bear the extremes of heat and cold, number of plants to be reduced at the weedingsubject to many diseases, most of which are con- in order to ensure three or four stalks in each hill; tagious.” Such notions are to be received with that the roots be not broken, nor the manure much allowance, for in truth, this useful race seenis thrown to the surface, by the plough, but that the ennobled by nature to accommodate itself to all harrow and cultivator be substituted for it, which the vicissitudes of climate, and to nearly the ex- will sufficiently mellow the surface and destroy tremes of heat and cold, of which the husbandry, weeds; and that the hills be but slightly earthed. ancient and modern, of both northern and southern By ploughing and hilling we conceive the manure countries, forms the best proof. We see them ac- is wasted, the roots broken and bruised, and limitcustomed to brave the most rigorous of these ex-ed in their range for food, the crop more exposed tremes unhurt, liable, as might be expected from to injury from drought, and the labor increased,
If the fodder which the stalks and shucks afforddiciously have been willing to relinquish it; while is an object to the farmer, as they certainly will be others are annually commencing it. The great when their advantages are appreciated, the se- obstacles to the more rapid extension of the culcuring these in good condition is a matter of im- ture among us, is the want of experience, the want portance. To effect this, as well as to secure the of proper implements, as drill barrows, cultivators, crop from the effects of early autumnal frosts, we &c., and the labor of securing the crop in winter. recommend the practice we have long and satis- The apparent magnitude of these obstacles is daifactorily followed, of cutting the crop at the ly diminishing, and we shall ere long discover, ground as soon as the corn is glazed, or the sur-that the root crop may be cultivated, and secured face of the kernels has become hard, and of im- for winter use, as easily as other farm crops. We mediately setting it up in shocks to ripen and cure. have had very little experience in cultivating carThis we have always been enabled to do early in rots, parsnips or mangel wurtzel as field crops; September, and once in the last week in August. but the Swedish turnip has been a favorite crop for The quality of the grain is not impaired, nor the some years; and we can truly say, it has been one quantity, in our opinion, diminished, by this mode of the most sure and profitable that we have taken of management, while the fodder is greatly in- from our grounds. creased, and its quality much improved.
From the Cultivator. NEW MOVING POWER. At a meeting of the French Academy of
PRUNING FRUIT TREES. Sciences, on the 16th of June, a very interesting We deprecate the old practice of trimming fruit communication was read from M. Thilorier, a trees in autumn, winter or spring. Vegetation beskilful chemist, who exhibited to the Academy | ing dormant, the tree can make no speedy effort the apparatus by which he procured a litre (a to cover the wounds inflicted by the knife and quart) of liquid carbonic acid in a few seconds. saw. These wounds, exposed to searching The properties of this substance, he observed, winds, and a scorching sun, become diseases, and have been but little examined, chiefly because it ofien bring on premature decay. Besides, an atrequires to be confined in close vessels, hermeti- tentive observer must have noticed, that whenever cally sealed, and capable of resisting a great pres-pruning is performed in the spring, three shoots sure. It surpasses all known bodies in the expan- are often thrown out where one has been cut away, sion and contraction which it undergoes from given so that the very evil which it is intended to remevariations of temperature; from 32 to 86° fahren-dy, a redundancy of useless spray, is increased heit, a column of the liquified gas is elongated one- rather than diminished. If pruning is performed half. With the same change of temperature, al in summer, after the first growth, say in the first similar column of air is only elongated one-eighth. fifteen days in July, or the last seven in June, the This enormous dilation, M. Thilorier thinks, will, tree then abounds in elaborated sap, the wounds in future, afford the elements of a moving pow- are speedily healed, and amply protected, by the er infinitely more effective, as well as economical, foliage, from the malign influence of the sun and than that which is derived from the expansion of winds. We have remarked in successive years, vapor.
and the fact is noticed by others, that when a tree
is pruned in summer, there are very seldom any From the Cultivator. sprouts seen to shoot from the parts where the ROOT CULTURE,
knife and saw have been employed. If the reader Presents many advantages to the stock farmer.
will try the experiment of summer pruning upon Roots are less exhausting to the soil than grain;
a few trees, we have little doubt he will agree with they are admirably fitted to form a part of a course
? us, that it has a decided preference over that perof crops; are very beneficial in pulverizing the
formed in any other season. The grand error of soil; afford abundance of food for fárm stock; may
our farmers consists in not pruning at all, or only at be substituted for grain; and serve to augment and
long intervals, when it becomes necessary to take improve the valuable product of the cattle yard.
out large limbs, and in doing this, the axe is too An acre of ground, under good culture, will pro
often employed, which mangles the trees so badly duce, on a fair average, twenty tons of Swedish
that they seldom fully recover from it. Pruning turnips, mangel wurtzel, carrots, parsnips or pota
should be performed annually, while the limbs to toes. Supposing a lean animal to consume one
be taken off, and the spray, are small. The opbushel a day, and a fattening animal two bushels, eration is then trifling and safe, and the wounds the produce of an acre will then subsist three lean speedily heal. We want no better evidence of a bullocks 110 days, nearly the period of our winter,
slovenly farmer, than to see his fruit trees so enand three fattening ones 55 days.-We merels veloped with suckers as to renderit doubtful which assume thése as reasonable data, and ask, if the is the parent-a case which, bating a little fiction, result does not prove the profitableness of their cul
of their cul) is often witnessed by the traveller. ture. But we are not permitted to doubt upon this subject, if we credit the testimony of those
From the New York Star. who have tried them, and whose continuance in the culture is the best proof of their value. Roots
A NEWLY DISCOVERED CEMENT. enter largely into the system of Flemish husban- Mr. Ohadiah Parker, a native of New Hampdry, which has been extolled as interior to none shire, and for many years past a respectable resiother, and in many parts of Great Britain, turnips dent in Onondaga county, in our state, and now in are considered the basis of profitable farming. In this city, has, after numerous experiments, disour country, root culture is winning its way to no- covered a composition stucco or cementwhich, tice and to favor. Few who have managed it ju- from a state of liquid mortar, hardens in a few
days-say eight or ten-into a solid substance or ON THE IMPROVEMENT OF AGRICULTURE, stone, as impenetrable almost as granite, and sus- AND THE IMPORTANCE OF LEGISLATIVE ceptible of a beautiful polish. It is, apparently, AID TO THAT OBJECT DESCRIPTION OF chiefly of a calcareous nature, or like the hardest THE SOUTH WEST MOUNTAIN LANDS. kind of marble. Any color may be given to it;
To the Editor of the Farmers' Register. and it not only defies, but actually acquires greater density and solidity, and less brittleness, under
Charlottesville, March 7, 1835. the changes of the atmosphere. He has obtain-1 Sir_The Agricultural Society of Albemarle, ed a series of patents—and at Catskill, recently was has adopted a resolution requiring one or more of built, as a specimen, the wall of a small edifice its members, at each annual fair, to present an eight teet high, which in eight days-recalling to essay on some agricultural subject. I now send mind the fable of Medusa-was perfectly petrified you a copy of the first essay, in pursuance thereof, with its door, windows, &c., all of which is testifi- read to the society on the 31st October last; toed to by the owner to us personally, and by the gether with Gov. Barbour's introductory remarks. certificate of the judges of the county and the I am directed by the society, to request their pubprincipal citizens of the place. It is impossible to lication in the Farmers' Register. foresee the consequences of such a discovery. It
I am, with great respect, surpasses, without doubt, all other cements; and the material is so cheap, that entire houses, of
A. BROADHEAD, any shape or dimensions, fortifications, canals,
Secretary A. S. A. aqueducts, &c, may be thus built up in a few days, which would utterly supersede brick and stone, Gentlemen.-I avail myself of the occasion, to and effect a complete revolution in architecture. offer you my very sincere congratulation on the What will not art yet imitate and accomplish?
past usefulness, and the present prosperity of our society. While we have to regret the failure in
Virginia, of so many attempts kindred to our own,
For the Farmers' Register. it is a subject of just pride to us, and particularly HINTS IN RELATION TO THE DWELLINGS AND
to those who have persevered from the beginning
of our institution, that ours has lived so long; and CLOTHING OF SLAVES.
instead of declining, furnishes at this time, in its In the construction of negro houses it is desira- increase, a sure guarantee of its successful durable to combine thorough ventilation with the re- tion. quisite warmth. The following suggestion may Of its past nsefulness, we of the society (whose contribute somewhat to that object. Let the un- misfortune it is to be advanced in years) are swift der plank of the boxing at the ends of the joists be witnesses. Such of us can well remember the furnished with hinges, so as to hang loosely off barbarous system of cultivation that prevailed in from the house in summer, and occasionally, in our youth, and the consequent desolation of our mild weather in winter; and at other times to be lands which met us wherever we turned our eyes. hoisted and fastened by bolts placed at suitable Behold now the vivid contrast-striking as bedistances aloug the inner edge. This pendent lid tween the living and the dead. When I say this, will not admit rain, and yet afford a circulation of it is not idle vaunting, but founded in sober truih. air between the joists, the spaces between which I am quite sure you will all respond to it affirmashould be left open-thus relieving the room from tively. The proof of its justness is furnished, not foul air, which being specifically lighter than that only in the increase of our products, the gratifying of the atmosphere, ascends. Candor, however, spectacle of verdant fields in lieu of frightful wastes, requires it to be stated that in too many of our ne- but in the testimony of our brother farmers, who gro-quarters it is wholly unnecessary to resort to come from afar to profit of your agricultural knowthis extraordinary method of admitting fresh air. ledge, whose boundaries you have so much en
On southern estates of much magnitude it is larged. And although I am aware that other impossible to employ, advantageously, all the fe- causes may have contributed their influence in males within doors; and besides, with care, wo-producing the improvement which has ensued in men are well adapted to much of the labor of the the country round about, and therefore it is imposfarm. It behooves us, however, to make them as sible to assign with precision the exact quantum comfortable as possible; and a large cape of knapped to this society, yet none will hesitate to yield it a cotton, or some stouter material, descending half large share. In exploring the causes whose result way between the elbow and the wrist, will be has been so propitious, we are forcibly struck with found extremely conducive to that end. It should a fact worthy of particular consideration—and that be buttoned closely under the chin, but be loose in is, the elevation of our calling in public opinion, front. It protects the neck and shoulders, other and the consequent influence upon the direction of wise exposed; is easily put on and off, and but lit- the intelligence of our people. Heretofore, the tle encumbers the arms when at work. . learned professions, as they have been by courtesy
termed, absorbed almost the whole of that intelligence; drawing after them the flower of the land, as being the only road to distinction, and the least
laborious method of acquiring wealth. The effect WASTE LANDS.
was to crowd to overflowing these vocations. HunIt seems there are upwards of eight millions of dreds, in consequence, who might, by a proper acres of waste lands in the Scotch and English direction of their time and talents, have contributed counties; or more probably, according to the wri- to the advancement of their country, became a ter, ten millions of acres, and four millions in Ire. useless incumbrance. This evil begins to diminland.
lish, and in a good degree, from the elevation