« AnteriorContinuar »
which has been given to the pursuits of agricul- , tates; and by which they might avoid those vexature. We have succeeded in attracting io our tions and losses to which our inexperienced young standard, a portion of that mind heretofore so un- farmers are so frequently exposed, eventuating not profitably employed. This will add much to our unfrequently in their ruin, and entire disgust of the materiel for improvement. For alter all, there is pursuit itself. That such an establishment under nothing, no matter what may be the pursuit in a proper bead, would, were the question to be tried which man is engaged worthy of himself, so fa- exclusively by dollars and cents, be still entitled to vorable to success as intelligence.
favor, as by proper regulations it might in time, While, however, much has been done by this by its own resources, meet every expense. And society, and others distributed through ditterent finally, that if patriotism were worth cherishing, parts of the state, I continue of the opinion, that there was nothing more favorable to its growth it is indispensable to that entire success, so essen- than to make our country worthy of the attections tial to the best interests of agriculture, that a pro- of its citizens—and that beneficent institutions imfessorship of that science should be added to the parting great good to all conditions, presented an University, with which should be connected a object that could not fail to excite the regards of pattern farm, and a press dedicated exclusively to all. To my mortification, these suggestions fell this noble science and its handmaids. You are still-born. They appeared as scandal to the Jews, aware, that these have long been favorite objects and folly to the Greeks. There was a headlong with me, and that I have frequently inculcated the member condescended to notice merely to denecessity of a united effort amongst our brethren, nounce them, as smelling strongly of the tariff. In to effect their establishment by legislative aid. a few days after, an election of a door keeper came Some few years past, I availed myself of a tran-on, and I found ten times as much interest as to sient opportunity to invoke, in person, the legisla- the result, as had been exhibited touching my proture in their behalf. It was in vain 1 urged that position, which I thought, and still think, was one in a society boasting of its exclusive agricult ral of national importance. Indeed, I may here recharacter, the legislature had never dispensed the mark, that I have been brought (after long obserslightest aid to its encouragement; that while the vation, with some opportunity of making just tillers of the earth had paid ninety-nine-hundredths ones,) to the conclusion that our free institutions of the cost of the University, their particular in- have been grossly perverted from their original terests had been entirely overlooked. That noth-purpose. They were intended as means to proing could produce a more beneficial influence, mote the happiness of society. It is now no longthan by placing agriculture among the learned er the first question, what shall be done—but the professions. That such an institution would fur- one of all prevailing interest is, who is to do itnish a focus, to which communications would be who shall be our servants, or rather who shall be made; and after passing the ordeal of experiment our masters-to whom are the spoils of victory to and intelligence, might be re-communicated to be given? The welfare of society, in the violence society with the approbation or disapprobation of of the contest, is made quite a secondary question. such unquestionable authority. That there too, Hence nearly all are politicians, and I fear a frightevery new discovery and invention might be tested, tul proportion candidates for office. The interests so as to save us from useless expenditures, by of agriculture, so far as the government is conavoiding pretended improvements, or at once pro- cerned, have been too insignificant in the general fiting by such as were really beneficial—that here strife to receive the slightest consideration. It is seeds and plants from every clime might be cultiva- therefore with unfeigned pleasure I see in this soted, which our patriotic countrymen of the navy are ciety, some few at least who have escaped the gecontinually bringing amongst us—that here might neral contagion, and who devote their time and tabe solved the interesting problem, whether the lents to agriculture. To these I offer the expresgrape could be successfully cultivated in our cli- sion of my profoundest gratitude. Ten righteous mate, and if favorably, that millions might be men would have saved Sodom and Gomorrah. I saved annually in the article of wine. That the am quite sure that numbers may be fouud in this state of society made it fit that these improve- society to whom all that concerns agriculture, ments should be made at the cost of the state, as may be most safely confided within our contracted it was obvious from our coparcenary principle sphere. But, if ever the time should come when of distributing property, and the consequent dimi- the stormy elements of party and political strife nution of the estates of individuals, there would shall be composed to rest, and our legislators shall be but few or none able to encounter the risks, direct their attention to the just objects of our poand not unfrequently losses, attending all new ex- litical institutions, it may then be worth while for periments. That by such an establishment a fine the tillers of the earth by a united movement, to opportunity would be offered for redeeming the endeavor to make themselves heard in the legislapledge suggested at the establishment of the Lit- tive hall, so as to obtain a portion of that justice erary Fund, that a youth from each senatorial dis- of which, as a class, they have been so long detrict, of promise, and without the means of educa- prived. To the end that concert may be obtained, tion, should be adopted by the commonwealth, and it is devoutly to be wished that agricultural socieeducated at her cost. These youths dividing their ties may be everywhere established, embodying time between study and labor on the farm, and all the zeal and intelligence among us, which eventually sent out as shining lights, would im- speaking the same sentiments, and expressing the part their knowledge throughout the entire state. same wishes, could not fail to succeed in achievIn addition, that the rising youth, the future men ing any reasonable project favorable to their interof Virginia, attending the University might profit ests. 'Beyond that the tillers of the earth do not alike of the results of study and experiment, and wish to pass. be able at once to direct judiciously, their farming I proveed now to discharge the particular duty operations, when taking possession of their es- assigned me at this session.
I yielded cheerful obedience to the order of the enumerated, are the advantages belonging to this society, which enjoined on me the duty of present- favored region. ing at this time, an essay on some subject connect- Its disadvantages, however, are not a few. The ed with the purpose of our institution. My only land is steep and stony. For although rolling land regret was that the task had not been assigned to is preferred for most crops, particularly wheat, it is abler hands.
frequently so steep that the soil, and even part of In looking about for a subject, a dissertation on the crop is swept off' by heavy rains. Its greatest which might not be unacceptable, I bave selected difficulty is, the growth of which it is so fruitful, the South West Mountains; the rather as they are the brier, the locust, the sassafras, and above all, the abodes of many of us, and to such portion of the persimmon, which add excessively to our lathe society, therefore, they are full of interest. bor in cultivating our crops, as well as diminish This unique region stretches from the Rappahan- the products. To war against these difficulties nock to James River. I have heard indeed of successfully, and to reclaim our wasted lands, the claims to a continuance of this peculiar soil, as result of a barbarous system of cultivation, is an reaching further both to the north and south. I object of the first importance, and to which I wish can only say, as far as my observation has extend- to call the attention of the society. ed, these claims are not sustained. Its length may | The original system of tobacco and then corn, therefore be given at 110 miles; its average without rest till the land was exhausted, has been breadth at 5, and containing 320,000 acres—its la- generally given up. It was abandoned from netitude in 37° and 38o. of this tract of land one- cessity. The first, and among the most important half at least, in its virgin state, was very fertile—a improvements was horizontal ploughing, introfourth sufficiently so as to yield a fair return to ia- duced by the late Gov. Randolph-then a judibor. The other fourth steril and rocky, but cover- cious routine of crops, the cultivation of clover, ed with fine timber-particularly the chestnut, the free use of plaster, and the application of whose duration in rails may be fixed at 60 or 70 straw to the galls. The routine is generally corn, years.
wheat, and clover for two years, fallowing some The advantages of this region are many, and portion annually for wheat on a clover lay of two some of them peculiar. It presents the singular years' standing. The exemption of the clover as fact that the mountain is fertile to the summit, tar as practicable, from the hoof; and to this end (1000 feet the highest mountain, Peter's,) and the establishment of standing pastures would be much more so than the country at its base. It is highly desirable. The cultivation of our corn more abundantly watered than any other I have crops exposes our steep lands to great danger from ever seen. Springs of cool living water are to be the heavy rains to which we are subject, and to found in every dell; and on my own estate, I have resist which the horizontal ploughing has been a copious and lasting spring near the top of the found not sufficient. In the August of 1813, acmountain, at an elevation of 600 feet at least. Its cording to the observation of Mr. Jefferson, there vegetation is 14 or 20 days in advance of the level tell ten inches of water in 12 hours. The effects conterminous country; and still it is usually exempt were disastrous. So much so that it suggested to from the late frosts, while the fruit in the level me the necessity of adopting some additional country is destroyed by them. Mr. Jefferson told means of security, and I think I found them. I us the frost of May 4, 1774 while destroying even began immediately the process of hill-side ditchthe forest trees at the summit and at the foot of the ing, which I have pursued ever since, and with mountain, left a zone of considerable breadth mid- great success. This process is particularly benefiway the mountain, where even the fruit escaped. cial in saving our valleys. The term describes the The elevations on its western side present the most position between two hills or mountains. Combeautiful sites for building, furnishing, as they do mence the ditch as high up the ravine as you wish, to a great extent, a prospect of the Blue Ridge, let it reach entirely across the valley, and in such distant twenty-five miles, and the intermediate form (that is a crescent) as that the water may be country between; and above all we may fairly conveyed with such a descent as to keep the ditchclaim that no spot on the earth is more healths. es open-which are carried on the sides of both The soil of this region seems equally adapted to hills, descending of course till you reach the bottom, tobacco, corn and wheat. All these great staples where in the mountains we always find a stream. grow finely here, and come to great perfection. But I use them with great success in all steep The texture of the soil, in its virgin state, is a dark lands, by running them about midway the descent loam on the surface, varying from two to six inch- so as to save the lower part, which without the es, reposing on a clay so red as to resemble Span- ditch, by the accumulation and violence of the ish brown, and of unlimited depth, in which, as food, would be destroyed. All the land within or well as on the surface, ferruginous rock (inconve- I below these ditches, becomes almost as valuable as niently in many cases) prevails. It is entirely free the valleys, and when cured of their galls is worth from sand. It gives swift proof of the justness of $100 the acre-because they will yield on an the theory, that all soils have a continued inclina- average six per cent. annually, net profit, on an intion to return to their original condition if left to vestment at that price. Still, however, much is to themselves, For we all know, no matter how be done in saving our lands by judicious cultivanaked and full of gulleys it may be, if uncultiva- tion apart from hill-side ditching. The plan, once ted, it will in thirty years be in condition to bring followed, of leaving the balk in clover between the even fine tobacco-an infallible test of the best land.* These, with many others that might be
tains on the cast, there is a bed of limestone, say fifty * It abides drought, and an excess of rain, better than yards in width, and attending this region through its any other lands we have. At the base of the moun-whole extent,
rows of corn, would have been effectual, but the illustrated by modern history. The agent of the imloss of the corn crop by that plan was too serious; provements which are described in the following ex60 that it has been abandoned. At least 1, after tracts was a mere man of business; but one who has Josing two crops on my experimeut of that kind, well proved this truth that the saine enlightened and have given it up. And I have in lieu adopted the
judicious system is best to promote the several interfollowing. I flush round the hüls as deep as possible, then harrow. I then lay off my rows for
ests of the owners, and the laborers of the soil, and planting, horizontally with a two horne McCor also of their country at large. The whole article mick plough. I follow immediately the same fur- from which these extracts are taken, is an extended row with a coulter, inserted as deep as possible, review of two essays by Mr. Blacker, one of which cover either with a plough or hoe, and then bar- had been honored by a prize awarded by the Royal Dub. row the whole land with a four-ox harrow. This
Slin Society. The parts omitted here relate more exclumakes the soil smooth. Immediately on the corn's
astances of Ireland and of coming up, I run four or five times with the coulter Sively to between the corn rows-two ploughings with the the poor Irish cultivators. ] shovel or bull-tongue, and a weeding with hoes, The principal causes of the inferiority of the complete the crop. It from excessive rains, gulleys agriculture of Ireland, are the want of minute suare produced, fill them immediately with straw or perintendence on the part of the land proprietary leaves, and they speedily recover. Our grand of that country, and carelessness or want of judgerestorative, however, is the clover. Every farmer ment in the selection of agents. should save his own seed. It takes much better! Few country gentlemen, comparatively speakin the chaff, than clean, and the clover haulm ing, are either disposed or competent to undertake from which the seed has been extracted, when the trouble of introducing an improved system of spread on the poor spots, works a miracle in their farming, in defiance of old customs and long inspeedy restoration. But as yet I have found no dulged prejudices, and fewer still are judicious in satisfactory plan, by which successfully to root out the choice of proper substitutes. the annoying growth to which I have referred. The agent, however honorable he may be in Severe grazing will, in time, pretty effectually de- principle, and clever in the art of collecting rents stroy all but the persimmon. Nothing will eat for his employer, is too generally ignorant of rural that. And for one I am ready to pronounce him a economy; or if not so, he is too frequently without benefactor, who will discover an effectual method authority to act on his own judgement, and under of destroying it. To such an one I would vote a the necessity of acting on a prescribed system of premium of the whole funds of the society. Upon illiberal and defective management. While under the whole, as it seems to be agreed that in the eco-the strictest obligation to remit to the absentee nomy of Providence, something like equality was proprietor, under penalty of dismissal, a given designed in his distribution-applicable not only to sum on prescribed days, his representations of the various parts of the globe, but to our moral any circumstances connected with the actual state condition, let us, the inhabitants of the South of the rent-roll, are unheeded and unfelt. West Mountains, rejoice and be grateful, that our The absentee landlords in particular, with a few benefits greatly preponderate over our ills. And honorable exceptions, look only to the amount of as far as my testimony goes, resulting from actual remittances, and select for their agents, attorneys observation of near one-third of the entire circum-resident in ihe metropolis, merely on account of ference of the earth, I feel no hesitation in declar their knowledge of legal technicalities, and their ing, that I deem them the most desirable abode I ingenuity in collecting rents at a moderate per have ever seen.
centage, without due regard to those more imporJAMES BARBOUR. tant talents which a land-agent should possess.
It is with reason that we complain on the part Barboursville, Orange, Nov. 1st, 1834.
of Ireland, of the general indifference which prevails among the agents of Irish property, on the
essential points of minute management and unreFrom the (British) Quarterly Journal of Agriculture.
mitting vigilance, regarding the condition of cotON THE MANAGEMENT OF LANDED PROPER- tages, garden husbandry, culture of green crops, TY AND SMALL FARMS IN IRELAND.
planting of orchards, &c.; all which important
objects could easily be effected through the instru[The following details of the improvements pro- mentality of active overseers, subordinate to the duced by the exertions of a single judicious individu- principal agents, if their time be otherwise occual, among a population so miserable, degraded, and pied. almost hopeless, as the poor tenantry of Ireland, must It is with no ordinary degree of satisfaction,
therefore, that we have read the publications of be interesting to the philanthropist and the political
Mr. Blacker on the management of estates. economist, as well as to the agriculturist possessing These coming from an Irish agent, we estimate expanded views. Of all the reformers and benefactors most highly, not so much for the details afforded of mankind, the working reformers are the most use- of remarkable improvements effected on one or ful. It was because he was a working reformer, fur- two estates, as for the results which we confidentnishing examples as well as precepts, that Oberlin Ily anticipate these will produce. The zeal and was, within his humble and limited sphere of action. energy of Mr. Blacker are beyond all praise, and
must have a prodigious influence in stimulating to one of the greatest as well as one of the best of men-1
similar efforts the important and hitherto inefficient the one who seems to have more completely fulfilled class to which he belongs. bis duty to God and man, than any of the heroes, the In the preface to the second of these Essays, sages, or the saints, whose fame and virtues have been | Mr. Blacker observes:
"For several years I had been turning my at- or in part, to the culture of turnips, rape, or cabtention to the improvement of the tenantry on the bages. estates alluded to (those of the Earl of Gosford One of the great obstacles in Ireland to the and Colonel Close,) and had made several unsuc- raising of turnips among the small farmers, is the cessful attempts to introduce a better system of want, in the first instance, of a surplus of dung agriculture, by circulating the different works pub- (after the necessary portion of potatoes has been lished on that subject, and offering premiums for planted) for the desired purpose; the difficulty lies [to] those who would adopt the improvements re- in the first step; the substitution of lime meets commended; but I had the martification to find this difficulty, and ever afterwards the green crop there were no claimants for the prizes proposed, system works easily. and that every attempt I made was a complete Fully satisfied, however, of the great value of failure. At length it occurred to me, that by dung (for the growth of potatoes) applied even in writing a short address to the tenants, their atten- small quantities to land limed immediately before, tion might be drawn to the effects of the present we should prefer the application of some portion system, and by following it up with the appoint of the dunghills in all cases to the potato field. ment of an agriculturist for the special purpose of But other considerations must regulate this matinstrucsing them; and, moreover, allow him to ter, and we are perfectly satisfied with Mr. Blackgrant a loan* of lime to such as followed his in-er's plan; the result of which has been so prestructions, for the purpose of replacing the ma- eminently successlul. nure which he might require for the cultivation of Our excellent agent thus urges the use of lime green crops, and adding my own personal influ- at the introduction of the green crop system: ence, I might perhaps have better success."
“It is therefore of the utmost importance, that This judicious agent, it appears, has acted per- when you first begin to lime, you should raise your severingly on his own principles, and after circula- potatoes upon it, and make use of the house mating manuals of agriculture suited to the circum- nure which this leaves at your disposal, to raise stances of the tenantry over whom he so happily turnips or mangel-wurzel for house-feeding, and presides, to prepare the way for practical opera- | increase your stock of cattle to the utmost which tions, he proceeded with great earnestness to pro- this plan will enable you to keep; setting it down mote the green crop system, among the small for certain, that you ought to have at least one farmers especially, by granting premiums for cow for every three acres of arable land, as being house-feeding cattle, and by supplying lime, and the smallest stock which will enable you to keep turnip and rape seed.
your land in heart, when the resource of lime ean In proof that an agent possessing energy of no longer be looked to. If this is not kept in view character, and a real desire for improving land pro- from the very outset, you will find that you cannot perty committed to his superintendence, and back-manure the one fourth of your farm every year, ed, as in the present instance, by benevolent and and you will therefore be thrown out of the rotajudicious landlords, may effect very important re- tion-the land will be exhausted and left to rest as sults within a few years, we are informed, that, at formerly, and as it gets poor you will get poor the commencement of Mr. Blacker's labors— yourselves; and having no longer the relief of
"There were but two tenants on the estate of lime to fall back upon, your case will become the former (Lord Gosford) and none on sthat of worse than what it is at present; for now by lendthe latter, who were able to enter into the compe-ling you lime, I have no doubt of making you comtition. The second year there were about fifty fortable and independent, if you are only induscompetitors; in the third there were not less than trious and willing to follow the instructions given 300 or 400, who fed their cattle entirely, or for the you; but then this resource is lost to you, and I do most part, in the house; and this year [1834,7 not see what other can be made available to from the great quantity of clover seed sown last you." spring, I think there will be scarcely a tenant on Simple addresses to the agricultural classes, such either estate who will not feed his stock upon that as Mr. Blacker distributed, have their use. Prizes plan.”
for green crops, which are the great want among Here is encouragement to the landlords of Ire- the very class to which they would be most beneland. After four years the old mode of taking ficial, have also their good effect; yet for one persuccessive and exhausting corn crops disappears, son who is able or willing to read a treatise on and a proper rotation succeeds; where weeds had husbandry, there are ten disinclined to receive previously occupied the soil clover and vetches are any information that does not come to them pracnow seen, and turnips (and partially mangel-tically, and prizes are too often found to answer wurzel) have been successfully introduced. but a temporary purpose. When the stimulus
To effect his objects, Mr. Blacker used (as al- of reward is withdrawn, the object for which it ready stated) a mode of inducement, which we was proposed and granted becomes neglectedl; but conceive to be precisely suited to the circumstances the substantial aid of manure and seed liberally of the small holders of Ireland -an advance of supplied to a pauper tenantry, and of cows to conlime-thus enabling the poor farmer to raise his sume the newly created produce, would if afforded potato crop without the otherwise unavoidable on an extended scale, effect much positive and pernecessity of applying to this purpose, the contents manent improvement in the condition of the humof his dunghill, which he now can devote wholly, I bler classes of the Irish cottagers.
And to those who may exclaim at the insup
portable expense of affording such encouragement, • By a loan of lime, is meant an advance of a cer- it may be useful to present Mr. Blacker's estimate tain quantity of lime, to be paid in money, not return-of cost: ed in kind, as the expression would naturally indi. “But what, it will be asked, may be the expense cate.
of attempting to follow a plan which, it must be ad
mitted, seems at least to have much to recommend My lending of clover-seed was an afterthought, it? To this it may be answered, the expense is but is a matter of pecuniary importance, and the trifling indeed, compared with the objects likely to cost of so large a supply came to such a sum, be obtained. Those agriculturists I have hitherto that I was obliged to limit the credit upon it to six brought, and who have all turned out to be very months, which brought the repaymeni to the time deserving men, have been engaged at a salary ol' of harvest, and as I obtained the same credit from 25 £ a-year, with a cabin and two acres of land, the London seedsman that I gave to the tenantry, rent free; or in lieu thereof, a lodging, with the there was no advance of money in that particular, Scotch allowance of six and a halt bolls of meal, and the advantage has been the greatest that could and what milk they might require, all which does be imagined, in doing away immediately with the not amount to more than 10 € a-year in addition practice of sowing successive grain-crops as alto their fixed salary. Nothing can be accomplish-ready alluded to. ed on a large scale, without having a respectable “To sum up the whole then, it would appear, man in this situation; for the ignorance of the gener- that to make the conviction produced by the peruality of small farmers is such, that they will put out sal of the pamphlet operative, all that would be their lime on land not drained, whereby the advan- necessary on the part of the landlord, would be, tage of it will be lost almost entirely; and they an annual outlay of about 35 £ to the agriculwill sOw the clover-seed on exhausted land, turist which would afford the necessary instrucwhere it will not grow, and will therefore be- tion and an advance of about 50 £ a-year per come a total loss; also they have, generally speak- / 1000 acres, for three years at most, in lime, to reing, little idea of what clean land is, nor how to place the manure taken from the potato crop. get about making it so, and their manure therefore This is the entire expense, except the trifling cost goes to nourish weeds as much, or more perhaps, of the pamphlets; and when to this the tenant has than the crop sown; for all which reasons, I look added his industry, and the agent his influence, upon this appointment as indispensable, where any the system is complete. I do not in the above extensive success is aimed at.
calculation, include the trifling sum which the land"The next expense to be considered is the ad- lord may feel disposed to give the premiums for vance of lime. In this respect my practice has the encouragement of those who most distinbeen to lend it to almost every one who applied, guished themselves by their exertions, nor any let their circumstances be what they might, making occasional assistance he may feel disposed to give only the stipulation that the instructions given in lending a pound or two for a few months to asshould be strictly followed. I adopted this line in sist a tenant in buying an additional cow, when order to show the people that my wish was to his clover was superabundant; these being optional benefit every one, and that I was not actuated by matters, and not absolutely necessary." the selfish motive of merely aiding the very poor The usurious prices paid in many places by poor class, in order to lessen my own trouble in getting farmers for seed-oats and potatoes, are often most in the rents. The liberality of my employers ena- oppressive. Twenty-five per cent, has been frebled me to act on this extended plan, which of quently paid for the accommodation of seed-oats course occasioned the greater outlay. But when in spring (of inferior quality too,) to be paid for in the landlord is restricted in means, of course the the ensuing autumn. By supplying seed, thereloan will be confined to those who stand most in fore, on fair terms, an agent may frequently save need of assistance. The advance required de- a poor tenant from considerable loss, and as to clopends so much upon the size of the farms, the ver and grass-seeds (the latter usually of the density of the population, and other circumstances, worst and most dirty description on the small farmthat it is hard to fix upon any sum per thousand er's field,) these may be supplied by obtaining acres, as sufficient for this branch of the expendi- credit from the seedsman, as Mr. Blacker did, ture. The more people there are, the more indus- without the actual loss of a single shilling. try is capable of being brought into activity, and It appears from the pamphlets before us, that the more capital is of course required; likewise the the tenants thus aided, from having strong motives greater the poverty the greater assistance will be to exertion, are extremely industrious; theirs is not necessary; so that the advance required must evi- the hopeless condition of men deep in arrear and dently vary in different estates, though they may without a ray of hope, in apprehension of ejection consist of the same number of acres.
from their homes, and destitution in consequence, (But I would hazard the opinon, that in most but the happy state of a peasantry full of hope parts of the north of Ireland, 50 £ per thousand and energy, and enjoying independence, or at least acres would be found sufficient to supply the requi- every rational anticipation of it. site loan of lime, and provide turnip and rape seed, . On the Cavan estate of Lord Gosford, consistwhich I have as yet given gratis. Every poor ing of 8000 acres, and moderately set, the arrears tenantry will be found so much in debt for their had been increasing; yet in the second year of seed-oats, seed-potatoes, and perhaps even for Mr. Blacker's operations, the rents of the then subsistence, and subjected thereby to such usurious current year were discharged, with a part of the charges, that I have found it necessary to give in arrears, and many of the tenants have subsequentthe first instance three years' credit, in order to get ly paid up all which they owed, Mr. Blacker havthem out of the power of their creditors. The ing made a rule “never to forgive any arrears repayment of the sum so lent now forms a fund whatever," (unless a retrospective reduction in the for carrying on the system, and I do not anticipate amount of rent, calculated with reference to agribeing obliged to make further demands upon my cultural prices and proportionally granted to all the employers; but when this credit, from the pecu- tenants, be so considered,) which would be a disniary wants of the landlords, cannot be given, I couragement to those who had regularly paid their think the repayment might be insisted upon from rents. the produce of the first grain crop after the loan.