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The general maxims (each of them enforced soon wears off, and the eating of raw turnips or by argument and illustration which Mr. Blacker beans brings with it the sure penalty of indigeslavs down for observance, are in otrict accordance tion and all its painful concomitants, which effecwith the most generally received principles of hus- tually prevents a recurrence of the practice. bandry. We shall insert the heads of them, for This matter reminds us of a story somewhere although they teach nothing particularly new, they told of a farmer in the northern part of Scotland, are succinctly and judiciously arranged, and ought some forty years ago, when turnip culture was beto be pressed upon the attention of every farm-ginning to creep into the country:-He sowed a er.

| head ridge for the use of the public; and put up a 1. The ground must be thoroughly drained. label with this inscription, “You are requested to 2. Weeds must be destroyed.

steal out of this spot." This hint may be service3. All cattle must be fed in the house or straw. able. yard upon good food.

4. Two successive crops of the same kind not to be taken.

For the farmers' Register. Under this head are the following observa MONTHLY COMMERCIAL REPORT. tions:“I am fully sensible, however, that a system of,

Money has recently, become very abundant in over-cropping with grain will extract every kind

the large cities, and the consequence is that stocks of nourishment from the soil, and leave it so that it

of almost every description have advanced in will not even yield grass. This is the case with

price. Exchange on England has risen to 81 to 9 land which is left to rest, as it is called, by those

per cent. premiun. The cause of this influx of who take three or four grain crops in succession,

money is not very apparent here, but could no and the phrase is well applied, for the land is real- |

doubt be explained by the capitalists in the large ly not fit to do any thing. The error of this class

cities, where investments to an unprecedented exof persons is, that they turn the land to grass at

tent are made in real estate, and in rail road and the end in place of the beginning of their course.

other stocks of a similar character. Had grass-seed been sown with the first crop of

Speculation will, as usual, probably be carried grain, there would have been a good crop of hay,

too far, and when a reaction takes place, it will be and good after-grass, and the second crop of grain

ruinous to many. would have been as good as the first; and this is

Agricultural products generally bear high

prices, with the exception of grain and flour, what ought to have been done by those whose land is not suited to clover, or who from poverty

which requires a greater foreign demand than has

existed for two years past to take off the surplus, are not able to buy clover seed; and even where two grain crops have been taken, it would be bet

created chiefly in the northern and western states. ter to sow it with rye-grass, which will yield a

Flour cominands $4 to 4except that of the city

mills, large shipments of which are seeking a crop on very poor land, rather than to leave the ground to be possessed by weeds and such herbage

market in South America. as may naturally rise. The fact is, the last ex-l.

de The price of tobacco is fully supported—the

* most inferior at $4.25 and ranging as in quality up hausting crop should only be put in upon that por

por 1 to $9. The finer sorts do not yet begin to appear, tion of the farm which is intended for potatoes, and other green crops, the succeeding year, which

| and will not to any extent until June and July. crops then give the manure to restore it to a pro- l than at any period during the last twelve months.

Cotton has again advanced, and is now higher ductive state; and by this means there is no land at

Crops embracing good and common qualities sell all lost by what is called resting it." 5. The place for manure should be so contrived

at 16 cents, and selections at 161 to 169 cents.

The quantity brought to market in Virginia will as not to be exposed to any accumulation of rain

be one-third less than in the last season, and may water; but should receive the contributions from

be estimated at about 28,000 bales, allowing 4000 the sewers of the house, stable, cow-house,

bales yet to arrive. The estimate of the crop of &c.

the United States which at one time was as high 6. Advantage of straight fences.

as 1,300,000 bales, is now reduced to 1,200,000, 7. Levelling of unnecessary ones.

and it is believed that this quantity will not be more 8. The absurdity of keeping horses on small farms, and the superiority of spade husbandry.

than sufficient to meet the demand. 9. Formation of ridges.

March 25th, 1835. 10. Impropriety of selling straw off the farm. I

N THE PAMUNKY MODE OF MAKI

DE OF MAKING CORN.

We are sometimes gravely told that there is no

For the Farmers' Register. use in sowing turnips in many parts of Ireland, where they would be assuredly stolen. As Mr. Blacker does not touch upon this objection, we are However "strange it may appear” to W. B. H. bound to suppose (giving him due credit for strict [No. 8 Farmers' Register, p. 466.] "that any one honor and impartially in the advocacy of the above should think the Pamunky mode of making corn case,) that the people around him are not disposed the cheapest, or most labor saving,” there are to pilfer turnips to any sensible degree; and indeed, some people who still adhere to that opinion. The we happen to know perfectly well that a crop of two or three weedings with the hoe in the Paturnips is as safe from spoliation as a crop of beans; munky way, are not more than equal to one in the but that is either of these be a solitary and unu- common way of working corn, and the plough is sual crop in a neighborhood teeming with children, the chief implement in its cultivation. a desire to taste it may lead to the abstraction of But if W. B. H. has been able to dispense enan inconsiderable portion of them, but the novelty tirely with the hoe, and substitute the plough al

together in making corn, then indeed I must give same is the case probably with the apricot, and up that nothing but the agency of steam” can others of the least hardy kind. We understand, compete with him.

also, that considerable injury was done to the PAMUNKY. wheat by the intense frosts of February, when it

was unprotected by any covering of snow. Our THE SEASON AND WEATHER.

climate surely is not ameliorating, as has been ge

nerally supposed.-Frederisksburg Herald, Since the commencement of the year, there has been an unusually large proportion of rain and snow, and

"FLORIDA COFFEE"-OKRA. still more of severe cold weather: and the season, to

To the Editor of the Farmers' Register. the 24th of March, has been not more remarkable for our latitude, than it has been unfavorable to the farm

Your February number contains another examer's operations and prospects. Besides that the almost ple of the uncertainty of the common names of

plants. A gentleman in East Florida speaks of continued wetness of the earth caused it generally to

his cultivating a plant which he calls Florida cofbe unfit for ploughing, even when not frozen, there

e fee. He says it is an annual plant, &c. Now, it have been four spells of cold, each of which, if alone,

must be evident, this is not a species of coffee, but might have been considered remarkably severe. The some other plant, of a very different nature. The first and longest of these was early in January. Of coffee plant is a shrub which bears its fruit in the this we have as yet no accurate report of observations form of a berry, and the grains used in commerce by the thermometer-but believe that the cold was are obtained firom the berries. The plant spoken not as severe in Lower Virginia, for its latitude and of above, appears to bear its fruit in the form of a elevation, as elsewhere. At Washington City, the pod or legume. It would be desirable, therefore, lowest temperature was 16 degrees below 0, and at to know something more of this plant than we can

* * * several places in the state of New York and New know by the name thus given it. * England, it was 40 degrees below 0. The weather

February 23. here on February the 8th, was supposed by many to be To resume a subject which I mentioned in my the coldest ever felt-and it certainly appeared so, last, I now suspect that the plant which the genowing to the sudden change from a mild preceding tleman in East Florida calls “Florida coffee" is day, and the violence of the cold wind. But in fact the okra-plant (Hibiscus esculentus,) frequently the thermometer (at Shellbanks) was but a little below cultivated in the gardens of the southern states, 0, and was still lower the next morning, when it stood

and which (as Mr. Nutall says) will ripen is at 2 degrees below 0. On March the 1st, the mercury

seeds as far north as Pennsylvania. The unripe

capsules (or seed vessels) of this plant, when was as low as 5 degrees below ()—and after some warm

boiled, afford a delicious article of diet. weather, another change to cold took place on the 23rd,

It is also Brd, a good ingredient in most of our soups, and conand on the 24th the thermometer was at 28 degrees. stitutes (I believe) a principal one in the famous On that day, the weather again became more suitable

gumbo of the creole French and Spanish of Louto the time of year.

isiana and Florida. I have heard that the ripe In consequence of this state of the weather, the seeds make one of the best substitutes for coffee, ploughing for corn has been unusually late--and it may but the plant itself is much more nearly related to be inferred, that much of it has been imperfectly or cotton than to coffee. Its flower, which is beauimproperly done, owing to the general wet state of the tiful, very much resembles that of the sea island earth. The wheat has suffered severely, and much of cotton. It is a native of the eastern continent. it is killed. The clover sowing of those farmers who

and if it grows wild in any part of America, it harrow wheat land for that purpose, bas also been

must have been naturalized. " I have seen it, in

Middle Florida, spring spontaneously from the very late-but the plants will probably not, therefore,

seeds of the preceding year. fare worse than those from seed sown early-as the

H. B. CROOM. sprouting of these was either retarded as long by the cold-or if sprouted, may have been killed. More or

From the Farmer and Gardener. less injury will be inevitable every where, from the

INCREASED PRICE OF LAND CAUSED BY MARL. past season to all these crops-varying in extent, according to the nature of the soils, und their greater

A farm near Monmouth in New Jersey, which or less liability to suffer from wet and cold.

was purchased a few years ago for about two dolVegetation has been so long kept dormant, that it is

| lars an acre, recently sold for thirty. This ex

attraordinary increase of value has been produced might have been supposed there was now but little by the effect of marl upon the soil. From this, danger of the most early or tender blossoms being des- many of our fellow-citizens in the country can troyed by future frosts; and, therefore, that a plentiful infer what treasures they possess, either on their fruit year might be anticipated. But if the following own lands, or within reach of them. Land owners statement may be relied on, it seems that the severity throughout Maryland, are greatly indebted to the of cold has destroyed, instead of serving to protect the legislature for providing for a full geological exgerms of early fruit.

amination of every county in it. The lovers of good fruit will be very sorry to learn, that the prospect of a peach crop this year,

THEFTS COMMITTED ON THE MAILS. has been utterly blasted by the extraordinary se-1 The editor of the Southern Religious Telegraph has verity of the past winter. Upon examination, the recently published a list of letters directed to him, vitality of the bud, we are informed, is destroyed, containing money, which had been stolen in passing and there will consequently be no bloom. The through the mails. We could state as many losses of

to

the same kind, and will henceforth adopt that plan ined departure from the previous regardless and denythe receipt lists, in hopes that it may possibly lead to ing course of our state government (the only governthe detection of the thieves. One has recently been ment to which we look for aid, or acknowledge as discovered (an assistant) in the post office at Cumber- having the right to act) in every thing relating to land Court House. But he is not the only one who this great interest of Virginia. These acts, therefore, has lately been engaged in such business, as letters deserve especial notice, not only for their actual containing money have been lost through other routes. worth, but as indications of greater benefits and more

We are content to incur the risk of these and other enlightened and equitable treatment, to be expected losses by mail—but hereafter subscribers remitting

hereafter. money must comply with the published conditions up

Three several acts have been passed in conformity on which that risk was assumed, viz: that evidence be with petitions presented, declaring certain navig furnished by a postmaster's certificate, or otherwise, of vers and creeks to be lawful enclosures. One is for the committing the letter and money to the mail. As rea- Willis' River, another for the Upper James River, and sonable and necessary as this requisition manifestly the third conforms fully to the petition published is, it has seldom been complied with—and we have, in this work at page 450, Vol. II. which asked that the (notwithstanding the omission)given credit for every al

navigable tide-waters of James River and its tributaleged transmission that failed to arrive, upon the simple ries should be deemed lawful enclosures. This act and general statement of the subscriber. But though will b

oscriber. But though will be published hereafter. Another most important not doubting any of these statements, it is evident boon to the landed interests,

been that such procedure subjects us to the danger of im

granted in the act authorizing the commencement of a position and also prevents the possibility of establish

geological survey of Virginia, which, with the report ing the fact of the theft, and tracing it to the offender.

on which it is founded, have been inserted in this No. We therefore shall hereafter admit no payment of mo.

The full and interesting statements of that report leave ney lost or stolen, without the proper evidence and nothing to be said of the advantages to agriculture and date of the mailing—and it will also be more safe, and

to the commonwealth, that may be expected from the serve better the ends of justice, if each remitter of

fulfilment of its object. We will dismiss the subsubscriptions by mail will keep a memorandum not on

ject, with merely congratulating our readers on the ly of the date of his letter, but also of the description of

adoption of a measure which has been strongly urged the notes enclosed. For want of this means for iden

in this journal from its commencement-and with the tifying some of our money which has probably been

expression of the hope that the execution of the work fonnd in the possession of this public officer in Cum

may be committed to one who is worthy of the berland, it will go as part of the fee to his lawyers for

charge. defending him, instead of to its owner.

The three acts making certain rivers lawful encloIt is also requested of subscribers who transmit mo.

sures, are highly important in themselves, as affording ney by mail to enclose it more carefully, as it is fre

extensive relief froin the operation of our abominable quently done in such a manner as to expose the notes

general law of enclosures—and still more so, as steps, contained to both the eyes and fingers of any who may

advancing slowly but surely, to the general adoption of handle the letters, and thus unnecessarily to tempt to

the same system of justice and good policy. Zealthefts.

ous as we are, and long have been, for the overthrow There is one means, which if used, would prevent of

revent of the present law of enclosures, we are free to admit nearly all these thests wbich are now so often commit- that th

commit- that this mode of reaching that end, in connexion with ted in post offices. In every case of the kind, the

enlightening the public mind on the subject, is better postmaster who employed the thief, (however respec- than a sudden and entire change of policy, before the table or honorable the employer may be,) should be proper change of opinion, and removal of prejudice, are displaced-and also be made liable for the money pro-produced. With these views, we canot object (at ved to be stolen by his assistant. This would render this time) to the conclusion to which the Committee of postmasters as careful of the characters of their assis.

Agriculture and Manufactures arrived, (and which tants, as merchants are of their's. As it is, assistants

r's. As it is, assistants was sustained by the legislature,) in recommending the are trusted with the mails who would not be trusted rejection of the petition for a change of the general by their employers with their own “untold money”- law of enclosures. But at the same time, we must and even the postmasters themselves, of very many protest against the miserable and false reasoning by small offices, are men of small pretensions to charac- which they reached that conclusion, and which is worter or responsibility. This state of things is a great thy only of court-yard and grog-pen demagogues, adevil, which surely needs correction, both from the go- dressing themselves to the ignorance of those whom vernment, and from from every individual citizen who they flatter, despise, and betray. This report will be knows any of the existing abuses.

presented below entire. A “committee of agriculture”

that deserved to be so named, would be of the most imTHE RECENT ENACTMENTS OF THE LEGIS

portant use--and the members who composed it would LATURE OF VIRGINIA, AFFECTING THE IN have an opportunity of rendering the most distinguished TERESTS OF AGRICULTURE.

services to agriculture, and their country. But if this

committee, in the six or eight years of its existence, The General Assembly which adjourned the last has ever do

has ever done its country or agriculture the least good, month has done something for the promotion of agri

or has drawn to its members the least honor, we have cultural interests-not much it is true-but let us be vet to learn the facts. thankful for even small favors, as they exhibit a mark

REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE OF AGRICUL- substance, it appears to possess all those of lime.

TURE AND MANUFACTURES ON THE PETI- | It effervesces violently with vinegar and nitric TIONS FOR A CHANGE OF THE GENERAL acid. Before it is burnt, it is insipid, inodorous LAW OF ENCLOSURES.

and permanent-when calcined to a red heat, it The Committee of Agriculture and Manufac becomes as white as lime-becomes lighter-and tures. to whom were referred sundry petitions when pounded and mixed with water, it makes as from the counties of Cumberland, Goochland,

strong lime water as lime itself. When thrown Prince George, Caroline, Essex, Nansemond,

into the water after calcination, it produces a hissStafford and Spottsylvania, praying an alteration

ing noise and heat, as lime does. After calcinain the law relating to enclosures, after having at

tion it is rather of a greenish white, and is of a tentively considered the same, are induced to be strong pungent taste and odor. If properly callieve that the circumstances and condition of va- cined, I have no doubt it would make very good rious parts of the state are so different, that no lime. As yet I have made very little experiment change could be made in the general law, which in the way of digging, and none in the applicawould not operate unequally, and injuriously to tion of these stones or the clay, on the some; that in the west, there are many large bo-1S

are many large bo- sand. The stone is very easily ground as fine as dies of' waste and unappropriated land, which af- flour, from which any one could scarcely discover ford valuable pasturage to the inhabitants of the the difference, either in the appearance (for it is adjacent country, who would be deprived of this very white when ground) or in the feeling. advantage were they compelled to confine their

N. E. READ. stock within their own pastures; that in the eastern and more cultivated parts of the state, many poor

ON EDITORIAL COMMENTS. persons have derived advantage from grazing their small stock on the commons and unenclosed We have understood that an erroneous construction lands, and to whom the obligation to confine has been placed on the circumstance of editorial retheni, or a liability to damages if not con- marks being attached to communications, or not-and fined, would operate as a great hardship. There that, independent of what the words may convey, the are, no doubt, neighborhoods, in regard to which, it might be desirable to change the present laws;

inere accompaniment of any editorial remark is conbut such circumstances seem to your committee sider

sidered as a compliment to the writer, which of course too much circumscribed to justify' a local legisla- is withheld from others on whom no comments are tion extending to the limits of an entire county: made. We should not think this most mistaken opin

Resolved therefore, as the opinion of this com- ion worth correcting, but for fear of its possibly exmittee, That the aforesaid petitions be rejected. tending to some persons who may consider themselves

For the Farmers' Register.

overlooked in a distribution compliments, which we

had no idea of presuming to offer. We desire that MARL IN CHARLOTTE COUNTY, VA. The following is a brief description of a very

our remarks may be construed according to their exsingular argillaceous limestone, as it appears to

pressions only. So far from being called forth merely be, which I lately discovered thrown out of a ditch to express approbation, they have been more generalat the margin of the low grounds, in attempting ly produced by some inquiry, or some difference of to convey water to a meadow.

opinion, or some objection to the writer's views: someThe stones (which appear to have very little times to ask attention to what was novel and contrary grit or sand in them,) have, the most of them, the

to general opinion, and sometimes to carry out the arappearance of races of ginger, or like lead poured out on the earth, by which it is made rough and

gument, left incomplete, or to introduce other views full of holes; or other the surface of these stones

suggested by what had been stated. In short, upon any have the appearance of a petrified wasp's nest ground calling for remarks, they have been made(like what is called the honeycomb rock.) They but very rarely if ever, to convey, either directly or inare of various sizes, (some of which are round) directly, mere approbation of a valuable communicafrom the size of a hen's egg or a walnut, to a pea. tion. On the contrary, it has happened upon many More than half of the earth or clay thrown out in which they are imbedded, and with which they

occasions, that some of those which we would rank have no communication, appears to be composed

among the most valuable in this work, have been inof these stones. They have the appearance of old serted without a word of comment, because none was plastering, thrown out on the ground where they needed. The foregoing pages of this number, prelie, the color of lime mortar when wet, but a great sent several illustrations of our thus acting on the deal whiter when dry. With a knife they cut ground of the old adage, that "good wine needs no very much like slate, and the cut is of a very hush"_and every attentive reader can easily call to whitish appearance-more so than the other part of the stone. The atmosphere has little effect up

m inind many similar and earlier examples: and every on them, where they are on the bank, only to judicious reader will concur in our opinion, that it bleach them, when they have the appearance of would be as improper, as it would be presuming, for us bones scattered on the ground. The indications to make known our comparative estimate of the value are a large round ferruginous rock, found at the of communications-and as improper in others, to bottom of the ditch, with many smaller ones on make for our use an imaginary and false standard, the surface. A very rich blue clav is found under

which we protest against using, or that any should pay this bed of calcareous stones, which ettervesces with acid. The earth also effervesces in which respect to. Of all, therefore, who have fallen into the stones are imbedded.

this mistake, we request that every trace of such im. As to the properties of the above mentioned 'pressions may be dismissed from their minds.

VOL. II.

MAY, 1835.

No. 12.

EDMUND RUFFIN, EDITOR AND PROPRIETOR.

THE CONNEXION OF AGRICULTURE WITH(ties, as that excellent range of land passing near

OTHER SCIENCES, AND REMARKS OR SOILS|Charlottesville and forming one of the finest tracts AND MANURES.

of country in the state. This range principally

rests upon hornblende rock combined with iron in To the Editor of the Farmers' Register,

such proportions, as, by the carbonizing of the lat

ter, causes a rapid disintegration of the rock. The The dependence of every thing connected with peculiar argillaceous loam thus produced, forms human existence on agriculture, has often been re-earth, which in capacity for improvement to a cermarked. That she, in her turn, should receive aid tain extent, is perhaps not surpassed by any in from almost every other science and art, displays the world." beauty and harmony in the economy of nature. There are innumerable other ranges of hornIn this state of things, it were idle to contend with blende in that part of the state lying within sixty the enemies of book-farning. Knowledge, valu- or eighty miles of the Blue Ridge. Indeed, in a able to any man, is so also to the farmer. De- great part of the country alluded to, a little of this graded indeed would be the art, if it could gather material may be found on almost every farm. light from no source but itself. But when philo- There is, however, less iron in it, apparently, and sophically drawing contributions from all quarters, of course, the disintegration is slow, and the rocks and applying them to its own purposes, it shines generally near the surface. Unlike the hornin its full glory. ..

blende in the grand range first mentioned, which It has long been thought that the benificent rises even to the mountain-tops, that, in these creator had probably supplied every arable part of smaller ranges, is swallowed up in the high ridges, the world with the means of fertility. Whether and its out-croppings appear principally in ravines this be literally true or not, we find that discove- and near the watercourses; so that the ranges have ries are continually making, calculated to produce their continuity broken, affording interrupted spots fertility in the earth. The benefits arising from of fertile or iniproveable land, preserving a course the application of calcareous manures in England parallel to the mountains. and Scotland are utterly incalculable. The ac- Wherever this rock is found, its fertilizing procounts of wonderful fertility produced in the ori-perties are displayed in the soil about it. I would asginally barren sands in some parts of the Nether-cribe this to its containing lime in greater or less lands, chiefly by means of Dutch ashes, almost quantities. This has been proved by analysis, and transcend belief. In our own country, we have may be inferred from clay-marl being occasionally reason to hope, that the tide-water districts will an accompaniment of hornblende. I saw, some soon undergo a signal renovation by the applica- months past, on the land of James Wilson, Esq. tion of shell-marl. Shall we, in the central die- of Prince Edward, a bed of marl lying upon this tricts, submit to the belief, that these aids are de- kind of rock-and many marly concretions adher-nied to us, and that we must rely alone on the ing to the rocks, not only in the bed, but to those evanescent benefits of putrescent manures? Or on the surface. I have also recently seen on the shall we court the aid of mineralogy in our own lands of Colin Stokes, Esq., of Lunenburg, a bed region, and search for treasures in the bosom of of marl--appearing to the eye, the richest I have the earth to enrich its surface? It is certain that ever met with-incumbent on a very extensive there is but little limestone between tide-water bed of soft stratified hornblende. That a rockenrichand the mountains. Yet it is believed that this has ing its environs by disintegration, and forming not been sought with sufficient diligence. We marl by decomposition, would, is broken by art, must then look to other mineralogical objects, con- improve the character of the soil on which it taining lime or some other fertilizing ingredients. might be spread, cannot be doubted. But, we are Knowing scarcely any thing of mineralogy, I ap- assured by Professor Eaton that it has been found proach this subject with great diffidence, and only by experiment to possess this property. (See because nono better qualified will undertake it." Farmers' Register vol. I. No. 4, p. 248.) Al

The district in question is perhaps as variable in though this substance should not be spread as masoil as any whatever. While I would not admit, that nure, after pounding or otherwise comminuting, its in all cases, the surface of the earth receives its existence in a soil is well worth observing, as it incharacter from what is called detritus—that is, dicates such to be the very soil for improving more, from the materials of the substratum decomposed, especially by means of clover and plaster. yet probably this is generally the case in primitive I have frequently observed gravelly hills, such formations. In travelling from tide-water to the as while in woods are covered chiefly with postmountains, we cross innumerable veins of land, oak and hickory, to be remarkably free land, pardiffering widely in texture and quality from each ticularly in the growth of tobacco. Much of the other, however contiguous. On examination, these gravel is found on examination to be seldspar, stripes of land are found to contain small particles having smooth reflecting surfaces, often irclined and fragments of the rocks forming their substrata to a flesh color. The soil looks thin, and I never —and close observation leads to the conclusion, could account for its fertility, until I learned that that the character of the soil depends much on feldspar contained both lime and potash. The the materials of which these rocks are composed. latter ingredient sometimes rises as high as fourSome of these veins have considerable breadth, teen per cent. Potash being deliquescent, would and in length extend through many of our coun- run off with the water, as fast as the gravel de

VOL. 11–55

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