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composes, unless means are used to fix it, by com- be found, possessing a constitution superior to the bination with other manures. Every one ac- remainder, and affording strong grounds to susquainted with such land, knows how kindly it im- pect, that they contain materials, which by their proves when properly aided.
chemical powers might act beneficially on other There is a body of clay land about Buckingham lands. It is well known, that lime, soda and potCourt IIouse of great value, and particularly fa- ash and probably magnesia, are, when properly mous for the production of wheat. This soil used, excellent manures; and it is much to be deseems to owe much for its vigor of constitution to sired, that scientific gentlemen would search out the large proportion of argillite, or clay slate, and describe the minerals containing these mawhich enters into its composition. There is also a nures, so that farmers may know how to avail happy admixture of hornblende in this soil, as is themselves of their benefits. evinced, by the quantity of dark green or black sand Chemistry may be expected to contribute more observable in it. These lands are generally in the largely to agriculture than any other science. Inhands of those, who know their value, and what deed, it runs, directly or remotely, into almost all to do with them; and a continued improvement is that concerns the latter. We will, however, at confidently expected. This, most probably, with present notice only its agency in the preparation the river bottom, will eventually form the best and application of putrescent manures. gold regions in that county. After some inter- On this subject disputes have been endless. ruption by the high ridges, the same range (as the Some, contending that manures should be thowriter believes) crosses the Appomattox in the roughly rotted, others, that they should be used in neighborhood of Trent's mill and Patterson's a cruder state; some holding that they should be tavern. Here, however, there is a much larger deeply buried, while others maintain that they proportion of fine black sand. May not what are should be applied to the surface. Manures supcalled the Green Spring lands in Louisa, belong ply the food of plants to the earth, and they imalso to the same range?
prove its texture mechanically, preparing it to beThe lands between Cumberland Court House come a more suitable bed for their roots. The and the Appomattox, commonly called the Guinea chief concern therefore-as was observed by the lands, have often been admired as a remarkably writer of one of the most valuable articles in the fine specimen of sandy loam. This body of land Register, whose words I cannot now quoteseems to belong to the same range, with that on should be, to prepare and apply them in great Bush and Sandy rivers in Prince Edward, and to abundance; and he who does this most diligently, possess about the same characteristics. In its is apt to succeed best. While this is true among virgin state, it could scarcely be surpassed in its us, when we devote very little attention to the subfree and kindly qualities. The quantity of sand lject at all, yet were all equally diligent in this matcontained, makes it, of course, easy to wash; and ter, it would be found that he would succeed best the culture of corn, oats, and tobacco—the two who exerted most skill. first great exhausters, and the last almost the en- Vegetable substances, when thrown into a large tire monopolist of manure-has reduced much mass, go into fermentation, and portions of them of it to poverty. This range of land, whenever become soluble in water. Such portions are then it becomes the subject of meliorating treatment, thought to be in the proper state for nourishing must make most grateful returns, and display fer- plants. If this fermentation be kept up longer, tility rarely seen. Its improvement has, in many portions of them become (if I may use the exinstances, been judiciously attempted, with the pression) soluble in air; that is, they are liable to promise of abundant reward. The peculiar adap- be converted into gas, and to be lost. And the tation of this range to the crops above mentioned, whole pile, however large, would eventually be and its unsuitableness to the best growth of wheat, evaporated, except an inconsiderable residuum. operate—under the miserable state of our avenues Various expedients have been resorted to, in order to market—as discouragements to its improve to save these volatile portions, by causing them to ment. It is founded on slaty hornblende and be absorbed by light earth or other materials. It feldspar, and particles and gravels of these may is probable, however, that this may be unnecessagenerally be readily found, interspersed through ry, should we ever reduce this most important the soil. In some places, these minerals seem to branch of husbandry to an art, with a clear unbe blended, forming what I consider to be the rock, derstanding of its theory. called by mineralogists, sienite. From the ten- The various operations connected with the busidency of the substratum to decomposition, the ness of manuring are most commonly performed soft light earth lies deep upon the rock, in many rather according to convenience, than directed by places, in others, the rocks may be found near the judgement. Our corn-stalks, straw, leaves, &c. surface.
are drawn together when it best suits us; they lie Numerous other ranges might be pointed out, in the farm-pen or stable-yard, exposed to the but the foregoing may suffice to show, that in our weather, until convenience allows, or necessity primitive formation, the earth generally is anallu- compels us to drive them out. I apprehend that vion, that is, formed from the decomposition of considerable increase might accrue in the value of the rocks below, and that its capacity for improve- our manures, were the materials of which they ment depends much upon the constituent princi- are made, kept under shelter, until they are suffiples of ihese rocks. This being the case, the ciently impregnated with animalmatter, to cause a question might arise, on the propriety of pounding brisk fermentation as soon as they are heaped and conveying, for short distances, such rocks as and artificially watered, or exposed to the weather. seem to contain substances calculated to increase The mass then might be equally rotted, and the the capacity of land for improvement. At least vast drain of saline and other soluble matters, the earth, about such rocks, might be removed to usually produced by drenching rains, might in a weaker lands. On almost every farm, spots may great measure, be prevented. Fermentation goes
on, in such heaps, as well and perhaps with less the speedy return from such an investment of mawaste, in cold weather, than in warm. Such nure, would be worth considering. It is, however, heaps might be made once in two weeks, through granted that no harm can result from a deep burial the winter, and often matters might be so arranged, of manure, in a loam sufficiently rich and melas to render it a convenience to haul out manure low to nourish the young plants, until their as a return load, while drawing materials for mak- roots can strike down to it. But, even here, it ing more into the farm-pen. And this, I think, I might be doubted, whether benefit might not be would be more than a mere convenience, as I hold derived from exposing the manure to one or two that the sooner manure is applied to the soil, after rains before ploughing it in. Some of the best it is made, the better. Some expense would arise practical farmers in Virginia have adopted the in erecting suitable shelters, but this would soon plan of top-dressing, not only with prepared mabe amply repaid in the increase in quantity and nures, but also with fresh straw-the soluble porquality of the manure, and camfort and consequent tions of which are readily yielded to water. And improvement of the stock. In a well littered farm- the practice may reasonably be defended, until it pen, exposed through the winter to the weather, can be demonstrated, that the sun and air exert a much of the richer parts must rise, even in cold material chemical action on a thin stratum of maweather, to the gaseous fermentation, and be wast-nure. ed. The same litter, sheltered, would not ferment, A proposition in agriculture, has been too fully for lack of moisture, during the short time allowed demonstrated, to need an attempt at confirmation for its impregnation with animal matter. Indeed, it here, which the improving farmer should always is doubted, whether-should it be necessary-it bear in mind. It is this* that a soil cannot, by might not be kept free from fermentation through the best rotation of crops, aided only by the use of the whole winter. I think it also certain, that, putrescent manures, be permanently kept at a while not chemically fermenting, its loss would be grade of fertility above its natural standard, or that trivial.
which it held before clearing—or, in other words, Much has been said, on the subject of applying that every soil has its natural grade, as regards its manure to land, and many directions given about capacity for improvement, and that this grade deheaping it and carefully covering the piles with pends upon its approach to that happy combinaearth, to save the escaping gases. After all, I tion of sand, clay, and lime,t which constitutes the doubt whether it be not best to spread it at once perfection of a soil. An attention to this doctrine over the surface. While kept in heaps, chemical will lead us to apply putrescent manures largely, action must go on. This produces an evolution of only to those soils which seem to have a large gas; and though much of this may be caught by capacity for retaining them, while we endeavor to the covering of earth, yet this is taken from the keep the weaker soils up to their standard of ferheap below, and leaves it weaker. If, after suffi- tility, by a mild rotation, and occasional melioraciently rotting manure at the farm-pen or stable, it ting crops; using diligently whatever opportunity be equally spread over the surface, little or no may offer itsell, for elevating their grade, by the chemical action can occur. It is true, the sun and use of permanent manures. air speedily dry the water out of it. But this is! The foregoing remarks are offered, with a sinvery different from the chemical fermentation em- cere conviction of the importance of the subjects, ployed in rotting it, while in heaps. After it once and with the hope that more experience, talent, gets dry, it can lose no more, not even of moisture; and science may be brought to bear upon and when it rains, its soluble matters go into the them. earth, where they ought to be, mouldering and
M. N. mellowing the clods, and preparing the land to produce a fine crop. Who has not seen-after a
STATEMENTS OF THE CONSTITUENT PARTS rich dressing of manure has been hastily buried under a poor clay—the clods remaining obdurate,
OF SOILS OF THE PRAIRIES OF ALABAMA, with great detriment to the crop, throughout the To N. Herbemont, Esq. season? And who has not seen a summer cow
Columbia, March 10, 1835. pen, which has not been ploughed till the next
Dear Sir, I have read in the Farmers' Reuisspring, surpass in crop, an adjoining one, which was well turned over in the fall?* This experi
'ter at pages 277 and 367 of Vol. I. the articles on
the prairies of Alabama, extracted from the Southment, I have repeatedly made; and have fancied
Vern Agriculturist, and in them recognize the hand that the advantage gained, was protracted beyond.
of a valued friend, whose intelligence and expethe first year, by the kindly condition in which
rience impart more than ordinary value to his this treatment left the soil-especially, when the
opinions. As I know you are in correspondence land has been in a short time, laid down in grass.
with the editor, to whom I am unknown, I will But, even if the benefit lasted but for one year,
supply you with a few facts in relation to the soil
of this interesting region, which, if you deem * The attention of the writer was drawn to the sub
them worth preserving, you may transmit to him, ject of surface manuring, many years ago, by some
The description of the surface, soils, and apthing written by one of the venerated compeers of Col. Taylor. Since writing the article above, I have received my March number of the Register, and find,
1 * See “Essay on Calcareous Manures.” The book if I may judge from the initials, and from the weli / being lent out, I cannot quote verbatim. known cheery style--something on the same subject That lime exists, in every soil capable of producfrom the same hand. May the periodical numbers of tion, either in a combined or free state, has been fully the work long be enlivened by the effusions of this proved. It is believed, however, that those soils conwriter, who has devoted so much of his life, to the taining a little lime in a free state, and ready for com. service of his country!
bination with putrescent manures, are best,
pearance of that region, given in the articles re- thority which the writer's name would have given,) ferred to, over the signature of "A Planter,” is we will add some similar facts obtained from partial complete; the facts I will now furnish relate to analyses, (limited to ascertaining the proportions of the analyses of some of the varieties of soils. The calcareous matter only,) of other prairie soils. It was analyses were made by Drs. Cooper, Nott, and with the view of prosecuting these examinations that Gibbs. The notes furnished me are not very com
we have more than once asked for specimens of praiplete. The first was a sample of the bald prairie, from
rie soils—and we are much gratified to have here the the plantation of Col. Deas, lying on Big Swamp. results obtained by others, of much higher credit and Lowndes county. It is not known at what precise authority in chemical investigations. We have been depth it was taken. It contained twenty-five per the more forcibly impressed by the highly calcareous cent. of carbonate of lime-twenty-eight of vegeta- nature of the prairie soils, so far as we have been enable matter: the balance not stated in the paper bled to know any thing of their composition, from havlying before me.
ing before ascertained the still more remarkable fact, The second, was from the same plantation, and that (so far as examined) almost all the lands now, or a sample of slue prairie. It contained fifteen per tormerly. covered with wood, and even alluvial lands, cent. of carbonate of lime-twenty-five of vegetable matter the rest aluminous earth and a small
contain not an atom of carbonate of lime. This we
are sure of as to Virginia, and have as yet found no quantity of silex and iron.
The two next samples were from the plantation difference in the soils of other states. It may be that of Elmore and Taylor, on Pintlala Creek, Mont- the quantity of lime in the prairie soils is the primary gomery county, taken from the open prairie. It cause of the strange absence of trees—that to the was taken up with great care, the earth being same cause may be attributed the like peculiarities of first removed to the depth of six inches, and a the vast steppes of Tartary and Russia, and the Pamsample then taken up; the earth was then removed pas of South America—and that to the more general to eighteen inches depth and a second sample ta- diffusion of calcareous earth in European soils, is atken up, and both carefully wrapped up and labelled tributable the general difficulty found there of raising on the spot. The analysis resulted as follows:
trees, the growth of which in our part of America, The first, taken six inches below the surface, yielded carbonate of lime, thirty-eight per cent.
can with difficulty be destroyed, and is renewed as vegetable matter twenty per cent.-silex, alumina,
soon as the labor of man is merely withdrawn. We oxide of iron forty-two per cent.
invite others to aid in investigating this subject, and to The second specimen, taken at the same spot show whether these are baseless speculations, or sugand eighteen inches below the surface, yielded gestions of some value. Before this cause of the forcarbonate of lime forty-eight per cent.-vegetable mation of prairies occurred to us, there appeared no matter twenty-nine per cent.-silex, alumina, ox- rational means for explaining the strange facts conide of iron, &c. twenty-three per cent.
nected with them. Most persons are satisfied to attriThe two last developing a fact most remarka-l bute their formation to the annual fires made by the ble, an increase of vegetable matter as the ground
Indians. These fires are doubtless the immediate is penetrated.
agents of the destruction of growing trees—but could I will only add one other fact, leaving it to others to explain the cause. On the same plantation, no
not have had that effect unless the soil was far more there is in one of the fields, one of those bald prai
favorable to the growth of rank grass than of trees, so rie hills, where the soil is nearly white. It has as to furnish abundant fuel for the destruction of the now borne its seventh crop of corn, being unfit latter. Fires were as frequent on the Atlantic coast, for cotton. When first planted, it scarcely pro- without producing a single prairie. But this is wanduced seed—but every subsequent year its product dering too far, until more facts are furnished. The rapidly increased, without manuring, till its crops few of like kind which follow, are extracted from the have been some years estimated at forty bushels of second edition (now in the press) of the Essay on corn to the acre. The last two years, a few cot-Calcareous Manures.] ton seed have been thrown into the hills, with manifest advantage. I have seen one other field The only soils of considerable extent of surface of the like kind, where the result has been pre- which, from the specimens that I have examined, cisely alike. When I saw it three years ago the appear to be highly calcareous, and to agree in crop was estimated at forty to fifty bushels of corn that respect, with many European soils, are from
The soil in these two fields is very similar to the prairies, those lands of the west which, that analyzed in the two last experiments, the whether rich or poor, are remarkable for being difference being something in color, that analyzed destitute of trees, and covered with grass, so as to being a few shades darker. The only apparent form natural meadows. The examinations were cause for the increased fertility of these soils, un-made but recently, (in 1834) and are reported beder cultivation without manure, is the action of the cause presenting striking exceptions to the general air upon the earths, and the small addition of vege- constitution of soils in this country table matter from the corn-stalks and grass.
20. Prairie soil of the most productive kind in I will, in conclusion, state that it is very proba- Alabama, is a black clay, with very little sand, ble that I may receive specimens of more varieties yet so far from being stiff, that it becomes too light of these soils in the course of this spring, and if I by cultivation. This kind of land is stated by the do, they will be given up for a like examination. friend to whom I am indebted fer the specimens,
to "produce corn and oats most luxuriantly-and
also cotton for two or three years; but after that [To the foregoing very interesting statement in time cotton is subject to the rust, probably from the which there is nothing wanting except the greater au. I then open state of the soil, which by cultivation
has by that time become as light and as soft as a been separated from the milk and churned by itbank of' ashes." One hundred grains of the spe- self. cimen contained eight of carbonate of lime. All Formerly milk and cream were thrown together this prairie land in Alabama lies on a substratum as they came to hand, and either sweet or sour as of what is there called “rotten limestone,” (speci- they happened to be, and the whole stood over till mens of which contained seventy-two to eighty- it was convenient to churn the mass; and that two per cent. of line,) and which rises to the sur- slovenly way of management is still practised by face sometimes, forming the “bald prairies," a many farmers. But wherever sweet-milk and sample of the soil of which (21) contained fifty-sour-milk are mixed, the former is forced into prenine per cent. of carbonate of lime. This was mature acidity, and the coagulum of the latter described as "comparatively poor-neither trees being broken, the whole mass becomes fermented, nor bushes grow there, and only grass and weeds throws off its serum, soon becomes rancid, and before cultivation-corn does not grow well-small communicates that taste to the butter; while the grain better and cotton soon becomes subject to butter-milk continues in a state of fermentation, the rust." The excessive proportion of calcareous and does not again unite with the serum, but earth is evidently the cause of its barrenness. forms itself into curds and whey, having a rancid,
The substratum called limestone is soft enough musty flavor and taste. to be cut easily and smoothly with a knife, and Fortunately a great improvement has been efsome of it is in appearance and texture more like fected in the important process of making butter the chalk of Europe, than any other earth that I and butter-milk far more palatable and wholehave seen in this country.
some than was practicable by the ill conducted 22. A specimen of the very rich "cane brake” operations which have been described. And as it lands of Marengo County, Alabama, contained has been ofien termed the “Mearns" plan of masixteen per cent. of carbonate of lime. This is a king butter and sour milk, it is probable it had its kind of prairie, of a wetter nature, from the winter origin in that parish, where these articles of food rains not being able to run off from the level sur-have long been manufactured to a great extent face, nor to sink through the tenacious clay soil, for the Glasgow market. Be that as it may, the and the solid stratum of limestone below.
mode of making butter and sour milk, all over 23. A specimen from the very extensive the dairy district of Scotland, is nearly the follow"Choctaw Prairie” in Mississippi, of celebrated ing:fertility, yielded thirteen per cent. of carbonate The milk, when drawn from the cow, is placed of lime.
from six to twelve hours in coolers, the same as
when set aside to cast up its cream, but this is From the (British) Quarterly Journal of Agriculture. merely to let the milk cool. And whenever it is
completely divested of its natural heat, the whole ON THE MAKING OF BUTTER AND CHEESE
meal of milk is emptied from the coolers into a IN THE DAIRY DISTRICT OF SCOTLAND.
stand-vat or tub sufficient to contain the whole. If By Mr. WILLIAM Aiton, Hamilton. the vat is large, and a second meal of milk has beOn making Butter.
come cold before the former meal has begun to
| acidify, the second may be turned into the same Milk, as it comes from the cow, is composed of vat with the first. But if the first has in the least three substances, viz., an oily or butyraceous mat- become sour, or is found to be approaching to ter, a lactic or caseous substance, and serum or acidity, the second meal of milk is placed into whey, all in mechanical mixture; and these are another vat by itself, to prevent its being soured separated by the operations of the dairy, and each otherwise than in its own natural course. A lid or of them converted to its proper use as human cover is thrown over the vat which contians the tood. It is the oily part only that can be formed milk, and it is allowed to stand undisturbed till into butter; and that is done by churning or agita- the milk has not only acidified, but till it has been tion, either of the whole mass of the milk, or of formed into a coagulum, (or"apper" in dairy lanthe cream only. As the preparation for churning guage.) Whenever it comes to that state, it is is different in these, it becomes necessary to de- ready to be churned, but it can be allowed to stand scribe both, so as any person in the least acquaint-over till as much is ready as may be convenient to ed with the qualities or management of milk, may churn at the same time, and the milk is no way understand how to extract the butter it contains, l injured by remaining in coagulum for several by the one process or the other as may best suit days, provided that it is not disturbed, or the laphis purpose.
per broken; but if that is done before churning Milk' may be churned, and the butyraceous can be commenced, the serum separates from the matter in it collected, whenever it is drawn from caseous and oily parts, and the whole mass ferthe cows; but, as that oily matter does not sepa- ments. rate from the lactic matter and scrum until the When the churning is commenced, the milk mass has become sour, it is much better to allow that has not soured and coagulated is not churned. the milk to acidify naturally before it is churned, If any milk not fully lappered were to be churned than to force it into that state by protracted agita with the other, the butter would not be hurt by tion in the churn. For when butter is forced from that milk, but the butter-milk would become fersweet-milk, the churning has to be continued tillmented, run into curds and whey, and soon acit becomes sour, by the absorption of oxygen, Iquire a rancid taste and smell. But when the during the course of churning, and in that case whole milk has lappered before churning is begun, the butter is always very soft. But when the milk and where every thing is rightly conducted, the has acidified naturally, before it is churned, that sour-milk, if kept in a cool place, and in clean operation is as speedily and easily performed on dishes, will have a mild and pleasant acid taste, the whole mass of milk, as when the cream has land the lactic parts will not separate from the serum for a good many days after churning; and the ble, and to churn the cream by itself. When this butter manufactured in that manner will be found method is followed, the milk, when drawn from to be every way as good as that made from cream the cow, is placed about three inches deep in coolalone, or in any other way whatever. If the ers of wood, or of iron tinned in the inside, or of cream has been several days in collecting, and stoneware; and it is allowed to stand in the milkbeen allowed to throw off its serum, or stand long house, at a temperature of 50° or 55°, till the exposed to the atmosphere, before it is churned, cream rises to the surface. In the dairies where the butter from it, however oily, will not have the milk is formed into butter and skim-milk such a fine taste as that made from the whole cheese, the milk is generally allowed to remain in milk managed in the way herein pointed out the coolers from 36 to 48 hours, in order to obtain
Milk prepared in this manner is churned in up- the whole cream. In Holland, the milk is not alright or plunge churns, of a size to suit the mag- lowed to stand in the coolers more than from 16 to nitude of the dairy. Where only a few cows are 24 hours, which is one of the reasons of the kept, the churns will contain about fifty Scots Dutch butter being of superior quality to ours. pints (100 quarts,) but, in larger dairies, they ge- The first cream that rises to the surface is always nerally contain from 100 to 120 Scots pints, and richer, and yields better butter than that which is some still larger. These large churns are, on longer in coming to the surface. On this account, some farms, moved by machinery, of various con- some who want butter of the first quality, take oft struction; but, in the greatest number of dairy the cream at six hours' standing, and skim the farms, churns of 100 pints, or more, are wrought milk a second time for butter of inferior quality. If by hand labor only, and frequently by the female the milk stand in the coolers from 24 to 30 hours, servants. After the clotted milk has been put into the butter will be better than when it stands 48 the churn, and agitated for a few minutes, merely hours; because the cream that rises after 24 hours, to break the coagulum of the milk, as much hot is of inferior quality, and the milk and cream, water is poured among the milk as to raise it from when too long exposed to the air, are greatly in50° or 55°, the temperature of the milk-house, to ljured. 70° or 75° of Fahrenheit's scale; one person agi- The cream is taken off the milk, either with a tating the milk, while another throws in the wa- skim-dish, or by pouring it carefully over the lip of ter. The temperature of milk must be raised to the stand-vats or coolers. And it is placed in a or above 70°, before the butter can be separated vat till as much is collected as may be convenient from the milk; and the temperature of milk can- to churn together. The cream in that state soon not be so well raised in any other way as by acidifies, and the oily matter, with some portion of pouring in boiling water among it, when it is be- the milk in the cream, are formed into a clotted gun to be churned. And in this and many other state over the serum; if it remains long unchurned operations of the dairy, every thing regarding fermentation commences, mouldiness soon covers temperature should be carefully regulated by the the surface, and the whole mass acquires a rancid thermometer. This valuable instrument, how-taste. To prevent these evils, the cream ought ever, is seldom used in the Scotch dairies, the de- to be well stirred twice every twenty-four hours, gree of heat being guessed at from the appear- with a stick, from the time it is skimmed off the ance of the milk. It the milk is too cold when | milk till it is churned. churning, it swells, has a pale white color, throws Cream thus separated from milk, is an oily subup to the surface many air-bubbles, and emits a stance. When taken off the milk, it contains a rattling noise. But when the milk' is in proper portion of milk, which is separated by percussion heat, it does not swell, it has a straw or cream co-or churning. When new, cream forms a rich and lor, has a softer sound when agitated, and does delicate food, either by itselt' or under various not throw up bubbles very plentifully. These ap- modes of cookery; but its most common use is in pearances no doubt assist the experienced dairy the shape of butter. people in regulating the heat of milk under the Cream is churned in vessels of various forms operation of churning; but surely the thermome- and dimensions, as upstanding plunge-churns, ter would be a much better guide: for, when milk barrel-churns turned round with a handle, and pais either overheated at the time it is churned, or tent box-churns. But whatever their form be, or when that operation is too hastily performed, 'the the power by which they are worked, the effect is butter is soft, and of a white color. When the to break and shake the cream, till the oily part of heat of the milk is at the proper height, from 24 the mass be separated from the milk, and formed to 24 hours is the proper time for churning. When into butter. The cream must be raised to 70° or milk is of ordinary quality, eight Scots pints (or 175°. 24 pints imperial) yield 24 ounces of buiter; and, Churning of cream should be neither too hurfrom the water necessarily thrown in at the time of riedly nor too slowly performed. Two hours is churning, the quantity of butter-milk is equal to the shortest period in which it can be done with the milk churned.
safety, but it need not be protracted longer than The late Arthur Young has said, that butter- two hours and a half; and the operation should be milk is only fit to be consumed by swine; and Dr. carried on steadily, from its commencement to its Dickson seems inclined to devote skim-milk, but- termination. When the churning is carried on ter-milk, and whey, to the feeding of pigs; but rashly, or the cream too much heated, either by the laboring people in Scotland and Ireland use churning or the admixture of hot water, the butter vast quantities of these as food to themselves and is too soft and of a white color. If the cream their children, and are happy to get them at a have become rancid, that disagreeable taste and penny per Scotch pint, or two quarts.
flavor will not be removed by churning, but will Another method of making butter, and one extend to the butter and butter-milk. most frequently followed, is to separate the cream W henever the butter is made in the churn, it is from the milk and serum, as oompletely as possi- removed from the butter-milk, and well washed,