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give a few swallows of water; for some horses will
THE LOCUST. not eat without, particularly if feverish at night. The locust belongs to that class of insects which Give three quarts of corn soon after the water; he naturalists distinguish by the name of gryllus. should not be limited in fodder, but let him have it The common grasshopper is of this genus, and in before him from the time he is put up at night till its general appearance resembles the “migratory you start. Give him as much water as he will locust,” of which we have to speak. The body drink before you start, travel very slow for the first of this insect is long in proportion to its size, and hour, for many horses are foundered from the body is defended on the back by a strong corslet, either becoming suddenly hot when full of cold water, of a greenish or light brown hue. The head, just as when the reverse happens, filling the body which is vertical, is very large, and furnished with with cold water when it is hot. Give about a two antennæ of about an inch in length: the eyes gallon of water frequently, for by giving a small are very prominent, dark, and rolling: the jaws are quantity often, the stomach is kept more cool, and strong, and terminate in three incisive teeth, the there is less danger. Twice or three times during sharp points of which traverse each other like the day, put about a pint of corn-meal and a little scissors. The insect is furnished with four wings, salt into the water, and stir it well in. Whenever of which the exterior pair, which are properly you water on the road, move off the horse imme- cases to the true wings, are tough, straight, and diately; to stand still after drinking is very wrong. larger than those which they cover, which are When you stop for any time, say an hour or so, pliant, reticulated, nearly transparent, and fold up do not water till you are going off. I never give in the manner of a fan. The four anterior legs corn during the day-three or four quarts of oats are of middling size, and of great use in climbing may be given, and fodder or hay, for the quantity and feeding; but the posterior pair are much larger he will eat will not injure him. In hot dusty and longer, and of such strength that the locust is weather it is very gratifying to the horse to wash enabled by their means to leap more than two or wipe the face, and the inside of the nostrils with hundred times the length of its own body, which a sponge and cold water, and if you add a little is usually from two to three inches. Locusts, as vinegar, it is better;-do this at the time of and the writer of this article has seen them in the East, before watering. When you stop for the night, are generally of a light brown or stone color, with let the horse go into a lot to wallow and walk dusky spots on the corslet and wingcases; the about for half an hour, then let a few bundles of mouth and inside of the thighs tinctured with blue, fodder or hay be given to him while he is rubbed, and the wings with green, blue, or red. These curried, and brushed, and afterwards as plentifully wings are of a delicate and beautiful texture; and as can be given. When cool have his legs wash- in the fine fibres, by which the transparency is traed with soap and cold water, and the feet picked versed, the Moslems of Western Asia fancy that out, and then let him have his fill of water, but they can decypher an Arabic sentence, which sigwithout salt. Be careful that the horse always eats nifies “We are the destroying army of God.” some fodder before he gets his corn: give a strong The female locust lays about forty eggs, which large horse eight quarts of corn at night, or as in appearance are not unlike oat-grains, but smallmany ears as are equal to it-it is better to feed on er. She covers them with a viscid matter, by the ear than to shell it, as the horse eats not so which they are sometimes attached to blades of fast and will perhaps eat less. If the corn is new, grass, but are more usually deposited in the ground. give but half the quantity; always give oats in the For this purpose she prefers light sandy earths, morning if to be, got, six quarts will not injure a and will not leave the cogs in compact, moist, or horse. If the horse gets galled, wash the parts cultivated grounds, unless she has been brought with strong whiskey and water. If your horse down on them by rain, wind or fatigue, and renbecomes dull and heavy on the journey, or loses dered incapable of seeking a more eligible situation. his appeute, tie a lump of gum assatutida on his Having performed this, the female dies; and the bit, covered or wrapped in a strong rag. This eggs remain in the ground throughout the winter. may be continued for the whole journey, and I be- I much rain occurs, the wet spoils them, by delieve prevents his taking any distemper if put with stroying the viscid matter in which they are ensick horses, or in stables where they have been: veloped, and which is essential to their preservait also is a preventive of founder. Horses some- tion. Heat also seems necessary to their productimes get lame on the road without any apparent tion, for the little worm which proceeds from the cause. It is generally from being improperly shod. egg sometimes appears so early as February and There are such various notions as to the treatment sometimes not until May, according to the state of of a horse when foundered, that it is difficult to the season. This, in the usual course, becomes know what to say on the subject. I would bleed a nymph, in which state it attains its full growth freely from the neck-give a pint of whiskey with in about twenty-four days. After having for a a little warm water and molasses, with a lump of few days abstained from food, it then bursts its alum about the size of a nutmeg dissolved in it, skin, comes forth a perfect animal, and immediateand urge the horse on his journey.
ly begins to unfold and trim its wings with the I have now, my good sir, said what I would do hinder feet. The insects which first attain this with my horse on the road, and if any part of it is state do not immediately fly off, but wait in the worth your consideration, you are welcome to it. neighborhood forthose whose developement is more Hoping that you will excuse great hurry and blun- tardy; but when their army is formed, they take ders, and with my best wishes for your having a their flight from the district. safe and pleasant time of it,
To those who have not seen a Aight of locusts,
it is difficult by description to convey an idea of the I remain, yours, with regard,
appearance it presents. As seen approaching in B. the distance it resembles a vast opaque cloud, and
Tas it advances a clattering noise is heard, which is occasioned by the agitation and concussion of How far noise may really operate in preventing wings in their close phalanxes. When they arrive their descent in ordinary circumstances, it is not they fill the air, like flakes of thick falling snow; and easy to ascertain; but on the approach of evening, we have known the bright and clear sky of Chal- or when exhausted by their journey, nothing can dea become darker than that of London on some prevent them from alighting. They will then heavy November day.
descend even on the seas and rivers, of which Wherever they alight, every vegetable sub- some striking instances are recorded. stance disappears with inconceivable rapidity be When a swarm has actually alighted, the means fore them. The most beautiful and highly culti-employed to drive them off are much the same as vated lands assume the appearance of a desert, those to prevent their descent. But this is never and the trees stand stripped of all their leaves as attempted in wet weather, or until the sun has abin the midst of winter. After devouring the fruits, sorbed the dew, as the locust is quite incapable of the herbage, and the leaves of trees, they attack flying while its wings are wet. When the swarm the buds and the bark, and do not even spare the is large, or when it has come down on cultivated thatch of the houses. The most poisonous, caus- grounds, no measure of destruction is practicable tic, or bitter plants, as well as the juicy and nutri- without sacrificing the produce; but when the detive, are equally consumed; and thus the land is predators have been driven to waste grounds, or as the Garden of Eden before them, and behind happened in the first instance to descend upon them a desolate wilderness." It seems as if no- | them, various modes of extirpation are resorted to, thing could appease their devouring hunger, and of which the following is most eflective: a large the energy and activity they exhibit, and the rapid- trench is dug from three to four feet wide, and ity of their operations, almost exceed belief. Their about the same depth; the off side is lined with depredations are not confined to the open air; they people furnished with sticks and brooms, while scale the walls, and penetrate to the granaries and others form a semi-circle, which encloses the exhouses. They swarm from the cellar to the garret, tremities of the trench, and the troop of locusts, 'and, within doors and without, they are a terrible which are then driven into the grave intended for nuisance, for they are continually springing about, I them by the clamorous noises we have already deand often, in consequence, give a person startling scribed. The party stationed on the other side raps on different parts of the face,affordingvery sen- push back such insects as attempt to escape at the sible evidence of the force with which they leap; edges, crush them with their sticks and brooms, and, as the mouth cannot be opened without the and throw in the earth upon them. danger of receiving a locust, it is impossible to These insect devastators have fortunately a converse or eat with comfort. When they have great number of enemies. Birds, lizards, hogs, settled themselves at night, the ground is covered foxes, and even frogs, devour a great number; and with them to a vast extent; and, in some situations, a high wind, a cold rain, or a tempest, destroys they lie one above another several inches thick. In millions of them. In the East they are used as travelling, they are crushed beneath the feet of an article of food. In some parts they are dried the horses; and the animals are so terribly annoy- and pounded, and a sort of bread is made, which ed by the bouncing against them in all directions is of much utility in bad harvests. They are sold of the insects they have disturbed, that they snort as common eatables in the bazaar of Bagdad, and with alarm, and become unwilling to proceed. the cooks of the East have various ways of pre
It is not merely the living presence of these in-paring them for use.- Penny Magazine. sects which is terrible, but new calamities are occasioned by their death, when the decomposition
STABLE MANAGEMENT. of their bodies fills the air with pestilential miasma, From the Library of Useful Knowledge-Farmer's Series. occasioning epidemic maladies, the ravages of Notwithstanding that the cost of horses forms a which are compared to those of the plague. Thus prominent item in the farmer's outlay, there is famine and death follow in their train; and in- frequently no part of his live-stock, nor any branch stances are not of rare occurrence in the East, in of his business, either so ill understood or so much which villages and whole districts have been de- neglected as stable management. Let any one populated by them.
I look into the low-roofed, narrow, dark, and unstallUnder these circumstances it necessarily be- ed building in which teams are often huddled tocomes an object of anxious attention, in the coun- gether in some of the old homesteads, and the tries they are most accustomed to visit, either to fumes arising from stagnant urine lying upon the prevent them from alighting on the cultivated uneven pavement, as well as from accumulated grounds, or to drive them off or destroy them after heaps of fermenting litter, and he must be conthey have descended.
vinced that it is a place as noxious to health as the The impression is very general that noise cobwebbed rafters, the unwhitewashed walls, and frightens these insect devastators, and prevents the confusion of the harness and utensils, show it them from alighting. When, therefore, the people to be devoid of neatness and order. Let him exare aware of the approach of their armies, every amine the horses, and he will find that, although kettle or other noisy instrument in the place is in perhaps sleek from good feeding, their coats are requisition, with which, and by shouts and foul and their heels greasy. Instead of exhibiting screeches, men, women, and children, unite in the the sprightly appearance indicated by animals that endeavor to make the most horrible din in their have been comfortably bedded, their heavy eyes power. The scene would be truly laughable, from and sluggish appearance distinctly mark the state the earnestness which every one exhibits in this of the stable they have quitted. But though this strange employment, were not all disposition to description is strictly applicable to many stables, it mirth checked by the consciousness of the fearful must yet be admitted that those on most farms of consequences of the invasion which it is thus en- magnitude wear a very different appearance. deavored to avert.
A stable for farm-horses need not be trigged out
like one for hunters; but it should be roomy, clean, should be paved with either clinkers or tableand well ventilated, and every thing belonging to stones, laid close and even, and well bedded under it should be kept in its proper place. Neither is it the foundation, as otherwise a portion of the urine necessary that it should be completely stalled: will be absorbed by the soil, and will emit a nauteam-cattle are generally quiet-if vicious, they seous and unwholesome exhalation. The floor should be got rid of. A pair of horses, worked should be slightly raised at the front of the stalls; together, will stand and feed together quite as con- but the slope should not exceed 3 inches, and that veniently as in separate stalls, if allowed sufficient should be provided for by raising the litter behind room, and two in one stall are more convenient to them, or they will stand in an uneasy position. the carter. Horses gather their feet under them; The doors would be more conveniently placed at and 5 feet, or 4. feet if the cattle be not large, is one end of the stable than in the side, as the dung sufficient width for the fore-quarter. A division will be more easily removed, and a free passage between each pair is, however, desirable; but a may be allowed to the urine by a gentle slant in strong post and rail will be sufficient, without close the gutter of the pavement at their feet, which boarding, provided a partition be made about four may then be conveniently carried off by a drain. feet long, and extending from thence upwards at Some very intelligent farmers keep their teams least the full depth of the manger, so as to inclose entirely in open yards, or hammels, surrounded both that and the rack. Horses, however, some- with well-littered sheds for them to run under at times acquire a habit of not lying down at all in pleasure; and experience has proved that, in this the stable, if they be not very conveniently lodged; manner, their health may be maintained as well, and as this cannot but prove highly prejudicial to if not better, than in stables. In the eastern distheir health, they should, in such cases, be accom-trict of Suffolk, horses are seldom permitted to remodated with roomy single stalls, or else turned main in the stable at night, but are turned out out under a loose shed. Double stables, in which when fed in the evening, by which treatment they horses stand heel to hect, are objectionable; and become hardy, and are neither subject to swelled hay is better when cut fresh daily from the stack, legs, nor to colds and inflammation.* Such a yard as well as more economically used, than when does for the whole year-for summer soiling and kept in lofts. Corner racks are preferable to those winter feeding-but it is attended with the inconwhich extend along the front; and if bars be nailed venience of exposing them to accidents when across the manger, at about a foot distance from many are thus together; neither can their food be each other, they will prevent the horses from so equally divided, nor can they be kept equally throwing out their food, which they are apt to do clean.t. in search of the corn, when it is mixed with chaff, Carters have the character of being proverbially as well as when they have filled themselves. thieves—not in the most nefarious sense-but they Every kind of food should also be administered in think it no harm to pilfer corn to pamper their small quantities at a time: when manger-meat is teams: they have no idea of any better mode of given, and even when racked up for the night, the feeding than to cram them to the utmost, and, if provender should be served out sparingly. A allowed the free use of hay, they will not only cart-horse, fed on dry food, will require from two waste it, but, out of mistaken kindness, do the to three hours to consume his morning feed; the animals serious injury by overloading their stomen should therefore be early in the stable, and machs. On every consideration, therefore, of all food should be punctually given at stated hours. health and economy, they should be allowanced. Regularity should also be observed in the hours of The chaff, as well as the corn, should be weighed their work. A farm-horse can well support ten or measured, and if hay be given in the racks, it hours' labor in the day, provided he be not hurried, should be bound, and given out in trusses: the and the time be divided into two equal periods, expense of binding will be more than repaid by with a rest of at least two or three hours between. the saving in consumption. Marshall has justly In the short days of winter, when that cannot be observed in his Minutes of Agriculture, that, by allowed, the time may be prolonged to six or even ' stinting the quantity, the men become more careseven hours, but ought never to extend beyond tul; they look upon it as something, and know that, eight, with a short bait.
if they lavish to-day, they will want to-morrow; Care is also requisite in watering horses in the thus the servant learns frugality, while his cattle stable; and it should never be given either imme- have their food regularly: he will give them a diately before or after their corn, unless they first little at a time, and see that they eat it up clean. eat some hay. On the road they may be watered There is a sympathy between the human and the moderately, and then put gently into motion, in- brute creation, arising from acquaintance, which is stead of allowing them to stand at an ale-house more easily observed than communicated. There door while the carter refreshes himself. Some are carters who would sooner starve themselves persons imagine that hard spring-water is the most than their horses, and among stock-feeders in genewholesome for cattle, but horses invariably prefer ral, it is obvious to common obeervation; though it soft.
this kindness does not extend equally to the beFarm-stables are merely intended to protect the stowal of their labor, and, from habit, as well as cattle from the weather, for, being much exposed idleness, they are very generally neglectful of the to changes of the temperature, they should never essential duties of cleanliness. Much of this must, be kept hot; and, as fresh air is an essential ele- however, be attributed to their masters, who too ment of health, the windows should be merely latticed, like those in granaries, and two or three * Suffolk Report, p. 219; Oxfordshire do., p. 283. wooden funnels, according to the size of the sta
+ See also the plans of Cattle-sheds in the following ble, should be inserted from the ceiling through chapter. the roof, thus forming so many chimneys for the From 54 lbs. to 6 lbs. of short-cut chaff, exclusive escape of foul vapor. The floors of all stables of corn, fill a bushel measure.
commonly treat them as men not to be trusted,
CLIMATE OF ENGLAND. and suspicion naturally begets deceit. There is, Ina
In a paper recently published in the Transacconsequently, but little sympathy existing between
en tions of the Horticultural Society of London, Mr. them; but when servants are used with kindness,
Knight says that he entertains no doubt whatever they often return it with interest, and devote
but that our winters are generally a good deal less themselves with sincerity to the service of their
me severe than formerly,ếour springe more cold and employer.
ungenial,-our summers, and particularly the latCondition is a word of large meaning in the
ter parts of them, as warm, at least, as they forstable of a gentleman; in that of a farmer, whose
merly were, and our autumns considerably warmer. horses should be kept more for work than for show,
In accounting for these changes, our author obit should be understood to mean a sufficiency of
serves, that within the last fifty years, very extenwholesome food, evidenced by a healthy, mellow,
Wisive tracts of ground, which were previously coclean-skinned hide, without much fat,-a lively
ey vered with trees, have been cleared, and much eye, and a general appearance of health. Com
waste land has been inclosed and cultivated; and mon working horses require but little grooming;
oming | by means of drains and improvements in agriculvet their coats should be kept clear of scurt, and I ture, the water from the clouds has been more their feet should be well attended to. The rough
rapidly carried off. From these circumstances, hair which encumbers their fetlocks is useful in
| the ground becomes more dry in the end of May some countries as a protection against flints, but a
al than it was formerly, and it consequently absorbs much less quantity would serve that purpose, and
und and retains much more of the warm summer rain when allowed to remain clogged with dirt, it en
than it did in an uncultivated state; and as water genders grease. Through a very unwise economy
in cooling is known to give out much heat to surof some masters, the shoes, too, are seldom removed until they are either completely worn or
rounding bodies, much warmth must be commubroken, by which much injury is done to the hoof;
nicated to the ground, and this cannot fail to affect their shoulders are galled by want of timely atten
the temperature of the autumn, The warm au
tumnal rains, in conjunction with those of summer. tion to the state of the collars; and time is contin
operate powerfully upon the temperature of the ually lost by the breaking and patching of the harness. In all these cases prevention is better
winter; and, consistently with this hypothesis, Mr.
Knight asserts that he has observed, that during than cure; and, besides the established regulation
the last forty years, when the summer and autumn of removing the dung and 'setting the stable fair?
have been very wet, the succeeding winter has every morning, as well as seeing that each horse be thoroughly dry and clean, his feet washed, and
been mild; and that when north-east winds have occasionally oiled and stopped, before making up
prevailed after wet seasons, the winter has been for the night,'-it would be a good rule to have a
up cold and cloudy, but without severe frost, probably regular inspection of the cattle, harness, and im
na owing to the ground upon the opposite shores of
the continent being in a state similar to that on plements, once every week, even were a portion of
this side the Channel. the Saturday evening's usual work devoted to that
Supposing the ground to contain less water in purpose,
the commencement of winter, on account of the
operations of the drains and improvements before TEA PLANT.
mentioned, more of the water afforded by dissolvNothing seems more extraordinary than that
ing snows and cold rains in winter will necessarily we should be dependent upon one country, and
be absorbed by it; and in the end of February, often upon the will of a capricious government, for
however dry the ground may have been at the a production which may now be considered as a
winter solstice, it will almost always be found
saturated with water; and as the influence of the necessary of life in Great Britain. It does not appear that the tea-plant is altogether the production
sun is as powerful on the last day of February as of a low latitude. On the contrary, various spe
on the 15th of October, and it is the high tempercies of the Camellia of tea-plant seem to be culti
ature of the ground in the latter period which ocvated in China far to the north, and at considera
casions the difference of temperature in those opble elevations. Why, then, might not the tea
posite seasons, Mr. Knight thinks it cannot be plant be cultivated to an unlimited extent in Eu
doubted, that if the soil be rendered more cold by rope; or why might we not produce it in our nu
the absorption of water at nearly the freezing merous colonies, possessed of every variety of cli
temperature, the weather of the spring must be, to mate? In Prince of Wales' Island it has been
some extent, injuriously affected.- Trans. Hort,
Soc. Lond. long introduced, and it is known that there is no difficulty whatever in raising it. In almost every part of Hindostan, therefore, the teå-plant could | From the Library of Useful Knowledge-Farmer's Series. be grown. Nay, there is reason to believe that species of it might be grown in Great Britain as
MULES AND ASSES. easily as some of our most common shrubs. It is A beast of draught throws forward as much of said that the Camellia viridis, or green tea-plant, \ his own weight as enables him to overcome the has been recently successfully planted by Mr. weight, or equivalent resistance, that is behind Rootsey, of Bristol, in a part of Breconshire, near him; and the more spirited the animal, with the the source of the Usk, about 1,000 feet above the more activity will he exert himself; but, the exerlevel of the sea, and higher than the limits of the tion being measured by its rapidity, velocity is native woode, consisting of alder and birch. It labor in another shape, and though he may draw endured the winter, and was not affected by the better for a short space than a heavier and slower frost of the 7th of May, and it has now made animal, yet he will tire sooner: weight is, thereseveral vigorous shoots, - Quart. Journ, Agric. fore, the steady power of heavy draught, and is a chief requisite in horses intended to be used on length of life, which extends to that of double the tenacious soils.
length of the horse, and no deficiency of the stock It is this which deprives mules of the power of is observable in those countries where they are heavy draught. They carry 20 stone of horse- commonly used in labor. It may not either be man's weight, and travel daily upwards of thirty generally known that, when a mare has not stood miles through the mountainous cross-roads of the her stinting when covered by a stallion, she will, Spanish peninsula. Horses are incapable of such notwithstanding, probably prove in foal if afterexertions under the pack; but their weight tells wards covered by an ass.* when opposed to a carriage with little muscular T'ho appearance and manners of the domestic ass exertion, when the mule is forced to put forth his are so well known as to render any description whole strength.
unnecessary. The domesticated race is, however, Mules are sometimes produced by horses upon of comparatively recent adoption in Europe, for she-asses, but are more frequently the progeny of we are told by Hollinshed that 'our lande did yield the jack-ass and the mare. The race is, however, no asses in the time of Queene Elizabeth;' and, in any shape, incapable of reproduction; for, al- although in that he is wrong,- for they are menthough some rare exceptions to this rule are upon tioned as having been used in this country at a record, it yet seems to be a principle in nature, much earlier period,-yet they were probably that all hybrid animals—as those are termed which scarce, and they are even still but rarely seen are the offspring of distinct breeds-should be throughout the north. sterile. Mules are highly esteemed in most parts Those known in England are an inferior kind, of the south as beasts of burden for either the pack to which no attention has been ever paid; but or the saddle; but in this country they are chiefly there are various breeds of a superior species, used for draught. They are more hardy in con- which might be greatly improved by crossing. stitution, more patient, and more muscular in pro- The wild ass of Persia, and of Africa, -of which portion to their weight, than horses; they are also a foal has been recently imported to London, and less subject to disease, and far longer lived, for is now at the Surrey Zoological Gardens, --ig they are commonly able to work during full thirty known to be an animal of great speed and power. or even forty years. They are fed, too, at less ex- | There is also a race of Arabian origin, which is pense; and, when in the hands of good masters, chiefly used for the saddle; and those reared at the and treated with gentleness and humanity, the island of Gozo, in the Mediterranean,-a few of complaints commonly made of their restiveness which have been brought to this country, as stalare wholly destitute of foundation.* They answer lions for the production of mules,-have reached well for hard roads, and for harrowing, because the height of fourteen hands, and have been sold the land is then generally dry, and their feet, which for the sum of 100 guineas." are small, neither sink into the ground, nor are Asses are surprisingly little employed by farthey met by the dead pull which they have to mers, considering their use and economy, for they oppose in the plough. The cattle, as well as the are supported by the worthless pickings of lånes implement with which they are worked, should be and bye-ways, or the scanty refuse of other cattle; in fact, suited to the soil; and it would be equally and yet they carry heavy loads, and might be incongruous to attempt the use of bullocks upon made very serviceable in the supply of green food flinty land, as it would be to employ mules for the to stall-fed beasts and working stock, as well as in ploughing of wet and heavy clay. They have carrying off the weeds from fields when under the been long introduced into Ireland, 7 and the breed hoe; all which might be done with children as has been much improved in the north by the im- drivers, and panniers made to let the load down at portation of a Maltese ass, which is described as bottom. The saving of food by weeding may not having been an animal of a very superior descrip- amount to much in a money calculation, though tion. Wherever they have been regularly em- many herbs thus thrown away would be found ployed in this country their utility has been also palatable if gathered for cattle; but were these aniadmitted; but there is a prejudice against rearing mals only employed to remove the weeds from the them: farmers generally imagining that they are ground when hoed, it would be of great service, to obtain some notable animal out of any wretched for at least one half of them strike root again after mare, provided she be only covered by a sightly the first shower, and the remainder, if not eaten, horse, and thence arise expectations we need not is lost to the dung-heap, whereas that loss would say how disappointed; whereas, had they the be prevented were they raked up and collected. good sense to serve them with powerful stallion-Their drivers also would be kept employed, which asses, something useful might be produced. In would be found very serviceable to the poor, not Spain, where great attention is paid to the breed alone as an addition, however trilling, to their of mules, there is a royal stud" of stallion-asses earnings, but as bringing them up in habits of inmaintained at Reynosa, in the Asturias. Were dustry, and as early initiating them into the care farmers thus to use the small class of mares com- of domestic animals, by which their kindness and monly found upon the moors and mountains in attention to brutes is found to be very much immany extensive districts, they would breed a far proved. This is so remarkable in France, Spain, more valuable stock for their own immediate use, and Switzerland, that sheep and oxen regularly the intrinsic worth of which, for all the common follow their keepers to the field, instead of being purposes of labor, would soon increase its price. driven; and the peasantry, being more accustomed As to the objection arising out of the impossibility in their childhood to attendance upon animals, in of continuing the breed from the same animals, consequence of the general want of inclosures, the remark may be met by that of their greater soon learn to treat them with tenderness and fa
miliarity, which is returned by the increased do* Survey of Leicester, p. 294. + Survey of the County of Antrim, p. 337. Young's
cility and the improved condition of their charge. Tour in Ireland, vol. i j .
* Complete Grazier, 5th edit., p. 192.