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either wool, cotton, silk or linen. The overseers
From the Fayetteville, N. C. Observer. of all public institutions are particularly invited to
RARE FLOWER. examine it, as it may be very advantageously
Perhaps few of our readers are aware of the efemployed by them, and is within the means of the poor generally.
fects which may be produced on fruits and flowers
by what is commonly called budding, or inocu[The following is the statement of Mr. John More- lating the limbs of trees. We yesterday saw a Liead describing his management of a crop of carrots,
to flower, from the garden of a gentleman of this
county, (who has made many experiments of this for which a premium was awarded to him by the Mas-wind
emas kind,) combining the qualities of the rose and sachusetts Agricultural Society.
peach blossom. The stem and leaf were of the From the New England Farmer. peach, except that the latter was slightly serrated CARROTS AS A FIELD CROP.
similar to the rose leaf; the leaves of the flower 1. The land was planted in corn in 1833, and
were of the color of the peach, and taste of the was in good heart. 2. It has been used as a pas
rose; the farina resembled that of the peach. The ture for more than thirty years; one-half of it was
flower was about four times the size of the peach
blossom. planted without any manure, the other half with a mixture of kelp [sea weedj and common barn yard manure; the product was forty bushels or
From Insect Transformations. over; it was hoed in the usual way three times, be
RAFT OF EGGS OF THE GNAT. sides twice ploughing. 3. In the latter part of
The most singular disposal of eggs with which the winter of 1833, and the first part of the
we are acquainted in the economy of insects, is winter of 1834, there was carted seventy-three
exemplified in the common gnat ( Culex pipiens, loads of kelp from the sea shore, besides two loads of barn yard manure, making the whole seventy
Linn.) It is admirably described by Réaumur,
y though it seems first to have been discovered by five loads for one horse; the loads were about one
Langallo, who mentions it in a letter addressed to half as much as a three cattle team would draw; the distance about one mile; the kelp was laid in
Redi, printed at Florence in 1679; and by Alloa,
who actually saw the eggs laid, and afterwards small heaps, three to each load, upon a piece of land containing one acre and three rods. 4. The
sketched a figure of them. Those who wish to quantity of seed used was a small fraction over
witness this singular operation, must repair before
five or six o'clock in the morning to a pond or a three pounds. 5. In the beginning of April, the
| bucket of stagnant water frequented by gnats; old corn roots were dug up, the kelp spread, and the land ploughed; it was then hoed across the fur- |
when Réaumur went later in the day he was alrows, as it was not loose enough to receive the
ways disappointed. seed. Besides, there were some small stones and
T'he facts of this disposal of her eggs by the brier roots taken out. It was harrowed three
common gnat, are sufficiently curious to excite attimes with a one horse harrow, then raked, which
tention to them; and, therefore, it is not easily to completed the preparation for sowing. The seed
be understood how the following erroneous and was sown from the 14th to 19th of April. First
tanciful account originated. “The manner," says time of hoeing from 29th of May to the 3d of
Goldsmith, “in which the insect lays its eggs is June; second time from the 20th to the 28th of P
s particularly curious; after having laid the proper June; third time from the 19th to the 29th of
number on the surface of the water, it surrounds July.
them with a kind of unctuous matter, which preThe seed was sowed in rows Thirteen inches
vents them from sinking, but at the same time las
tens them with a thread to the bottom, to prevent apart, and after sowing was rolled with a light roller by hand.
their floating away, at the mercy of every breeze, Amount of labor:
from a place the warmth of which is proper for Drawing kelp from the beach,
their production, to any other where the water may Drawing out the corn roots and taking
be too cold, or the animals, its enemies, too nuthem off, .
merous. Thus the insects, in their egg state, rePloughing the land, -
semble a buoy which is fixed by an anchor. As Hoeing across the furrows and taking out
they come to maturity, they sink deeper, and at small stones, - -
last, when they leave the egg as worms, creep to Harrowing and raking it over, .
the bottom."'* This fable, which was first menSowing the seed and rolling
tioned by Pliny, is repeated verbatim by Bingley.t First hoeing, -
| The impossibility of a gnat spinning a ihread, and Second hoeing, weeding and throwin
plunging into the water to fix it at the bottom, Third hoeing and weeding, -
never struck these writers. Harvesting and measuring the whol 25 00
We are the more anxious to expose these erroCarrot seed,
neous acounts, from the persuasion that a taste -
for natural history has been more injured by nuTotal, .
92.00 / merous similar statements, which could not be veBegan to harvest carrots Oct. 26, and finished
finished rified by a student, in many popular works, than Nov. 8. The carrots were first due up and laid by the driest skeleton descriptions of those who in rows to dry, then carted to a piece of green have merely pursued Natural History as a science sward, separated from the tops and dirt, carefully 1° mame measured and some of them weighed. The The problem of the gnat is to construct a boatwhole amount of carrots was six hundred and forty-five bushels, containing fifty-six lbs. and up-1 Goldsmith, Animated Nature, vi. 337. wards.
| Bingley, Animal Biography, iii. 489, 3d ed.
shaped raft, which will float, of eggs heavy | what success others have niet, we cannot say; but enough to sink in water is dropped into it one by in this respect Mr. Avery has been eminently sucone. The eggs are nearly of the pyramidal form cessful-as when we were with it, in running near of' a pocket gunpowder-flask, rather pointed at the ten miles, not a particle of fire was discovered to under end, with a projection like the mouth of a issue from the chimney—and we are told that bottle. The first operation of the mother gnat is neither fire nor cinders ever annoy passengers, as to fix herself by the four-legs to the side of a they never come out of the chimney. bucket, or upon a floating leaf, with her body From further experiments and investigation in level with and resting upon the surface of the relation to this engine, we are disposed to predict water, excepting the last ring of the tail, which -although no pretensions are made to the gift of is a little raised; she then crosses her two hind prophecy--that a locomotive engine will be conlegs in form of an X, the inner opening of which structed upon Avery's plan, within the next six is intended to form the scaffolding of her structure. months, which shall make a trip from Jersey City She accordingly brings the inner angle of her to Newark, and back again to the Ferry, in 45 crossed legs close to the raised part of her body minutes, with 100 passengers—passing the Bergen and places in it an egg, covered, as is usual among Hill, with an elevation of 152 feet to the mile. insects, with a glutinous fluid. On each side of this egg she places another, all which adhere firmly together by means of their glue, and form a ANALYSIS OF THE LEAVES OF THE MULEERtriangular figure thus **, which is the stern of
Translated for the Farmers' Register from the Sommaire des seegg after egg in a vertical (not a horizontal) po ances de la Societe Royale et Centrale d'Agriculture of Decem
ber 1834. sition, carefully regulating the shape by her crossed legs; and as her raft increases in magnitude, M. D'Arcet (the son) sends a letter upon a she pushes the whole gradually to a greater dis- chemical analysis which he has made of the tance, and when she has about half-finished, she leaves of the mulberry. The result of this analyuncrosses her legs and places them parallel, the sis shows that the mulberry leaf contains four angle being no longer necessary for shaping the parts in the 100 of azote. It may result from this boat. Each raft consists of from two hundred composition of mulberry leaves, that silk being a and fifiy to three hundred and fifty eggs, which, product in a high degree supplied with azote, as when all laid, Aoat on the water secure from sink- an ingredient, mulberry leaves for the nourishment ing, and are finally abandoned by the mother. of silk worms could not be advantageously substiThey are hatched in a few days, the grubs issuing tuted except by other leaves which also contain from the lower end; but the boat, now composed azote. Then, as it is not known whether other of the empty shells, continues to float till it is de leaves contain as much azote, he will, to that end, stroyed by the weather.*
make the analysis of such other leaves as are conKirby justly describes this little vessel as resem- sidered proper substitutes for mulberry leaves. bling a London wherry, being sharp and higher, M. Chevreul says that the presence of azote as sailors say, fore and aft, convex below and con- has long been known in the leaves of the mulbercave above, and always floating on its keel. “The ry, and likewise in the leaves of many other most violent agitation of the water," he adds, plants: that the difference which is said to exist "cannot sink it, and what is more extraordinary, between animal and vegetable substances, relaand a property still a desideratum in our life-boats, tively to the presence of azote in the former, has though hollow, it never becomes filled with water, always been faulty-because, that if, in the mass, even though exposed. To put this to the test, I there existed more azote, proportionally, in an aniplaced half a dozen of these boats upon the sur-mal than in a vegetable, still there were immediface of a tumbler half-full of water: I then poured ate products of animals which contained very little upon them a stream of that element from the azote, and even none-while there were immediniouth of a quart bottle held a foot above them. ate products of vegetables which contained much Yet after this treatment, which was so rough as azote—and vice versa. It is not then only the actually to project one out of the glass, I found analysis of the vegetables which is necessary, acthem floating as before upon their bottoms, and not cording to M. Chevreul, but also the analysis of a drop of water within their cavity.”+ We have their immediate products—and especially, to unrepeatedly pushed them to the bottom of a glass derstand well what of the immediate products of water; but they always came up immediately serve for the nourishment of the silk worm-since to the surface apparently unwetted.
it is well known that insects, even more than other
animals, have the property of rejecting, among From the American Rail Road Journal. the vegetable substances on which they feed, and AVERY'S ROTARY ENGINE.
almost as they are taken, those parts which cannot
serve for their nourishment, and for the preparation In our brief notice of this engine in the last of the secretions which the insects yield. number of the Journal, we omitted to state a very
tate a very M. Ardouin adds, in support of what M. Cheyimportant fact in relation to the construction of its reul says, that there are many kinds of caterpillars boiler and chimney.
which produce silk, and in as great quantity as the It has been deemed a very important matter, silk worm, and which live on trees which cannot and great efforts have been made, to construct lo
| furnish support to the silk worm. comotives in such a manner as to avoid the dan- M. Payen says that, according to his own exger arising from sparks from the chimney-with
perience, all the vegetables upon which experi
ments have been made contain azote dans un • Réaumur, Mem. iv. p. 621.
principe continu from the extremities of the roots Introd, iii. p. 32.
I to the extremities of the leaves--and even in the
petals of the flowers, and principally of the stig- | nearest perpendicular object; as if it were assured mas.
of the great danger to which it would be exposed
by extending its branches on the surface of the CLOVER SOWN ON corn LAND, WHILE UN-earth. The Euscreta, American dodder, or love DER TILLAGE.
vine, entwines a number of small plants in To the Editor of the Farmers' Register.
moist places. The seed is deposited in the earth,
and in a short time begins to vegetatea vine puts New York, April 4th, 1835.
up which seizes the first plant it reaches. This Occasionally I have an opportunity of seeing a plant affords it nourishment, the communication number of your valuable Farmers' Register, and between the earth and dodder is now cut off, and as I feel a deep interest in the prospect of every it is dependent on various vegetables for support. thing like improvement in Virginia, (of which If the plant around which the dodder clings bestate, it is with feelings of pride I claim to be a na- comes unhealthy or dies, the dodder is said to detive, I cannot but add my humble mite-the re- sert it for a better friend. The spiral direction of sult of a conversation held a short time since with vines in climbing perpendicular objects seems to be a New Jersey farmer.
a strong argument in favor of some intelligence, In conversing with him upon the subject of ag- for when they creep horizontally, this is not obo riculture as practised in Virginia, I remarked that served. In climbing objects vegetables have to I was but little acquainted with it either theoreti-l oppose gravity, and unless they secure themselves cally or practically; but the information I had, was by winding round their support, they must necesderived almost entirely from the perusal of a num- sarily fall to the ground. The cow itch, ( Dolichos ber published in your Register and contributed by | Pruriens,) climbs erect objects, without winding Hill Carter, Esq. of Shirley, upon the manage- round their support; but it is prevented from falling ment of his estate generally, and the subject of a by a number of radicles that attach themselves to rotation of crops. This I endeavored to explain the object. All plants become languid when deto him in the best manner I could, and believe I prived of light; but if a small hole be made in made myself understood.
their apartments, so as to admit light, they find He replied that he had practised the four-shift they way to it and creep out as if they were tired system, but had latterly adopted a more extended of their confinement, and pleased in looking around method - dividing his farm into some six or seven and contemplating the great variety of objects fields I think, and practising a proper system of ro- that present themselves. tation with the benefit of clover.
The sexual intercourse of vegetables is well But upon the use of clover he said he thought known, for it is ascertained that a powder (or polhe could impart to me a valuable secret. It was a len) secreted upon the anthers is necessary to rendiscovery made by himself, had been adopted by der the young seed fruitsul: without the male inhis immediate neighbors, and they had all pro- fluence, seed cannot ripen or mature. nounced it in a high degree successful.
Venus' fly trap, (Dionea muscipula,) deserves He stated it was his custom, immediately after notice. The leaf is shaped like a shoe or slipploughing through his corn a second time, (to per, the edges of which are notched in such a weed it,) and after it had attained something like manner as to form a very singular apparatus. The a foot in height, to sow clover seed in amongst it. I leaf being very sensitive, when a fly or any insect That the clover would spring up too late to offer lights upon it, the leaf closes and confines the obany obstruction to the corn, and it would answer ject. It is asserted by Mr. Buffon, that the roots the double purpose of not only shielding the earth of plants will creep aside to avoid bad earth, or to from the impoverishing heat of the sun, but of approach good. also cleansing the field from all noxious weeds. Dr. Darwin assures us plants are very particular The corn then matures—it is gathered in due sea- in selecting their food, though they sometimes, son—and then says he, I turn my cattle in upon like animals, take in poisonous substances, produthe clover; or let the field lie as I'may think pro- cing disease and death. per. The fall comes, and I plough my field up, and Dr. Hales put the stem of an apple tree in have a fine clover fallow upon which to sow what strong brandy: in a short time the stem became is usually denominated the corn ground wheat, intoxicated and died.
The remark struck me, with my limited know-) When any part of the sensitive plant is touched ledge of agriculture, as being practicable, and now it falls, which would seem to prove that the plant that the season approaches when it may be tried, possesses a sensorium, or brain. or improved upon, I have taken the liberty to com- Many of the gossiping female flowers are municate it. It can at least do no harm to try the known to be guilty of adultery by deserting their experiment, and if successful, it will always be a husbands and kissing other males or stamens. source of gratification to me to know that I have If vegetables did not possess organs of sense, suggested any thing, however trilling, that can could they be so completely under the influence of redound to the advancement of the good “Old Do- heat and cold, moisture and dryness, light and minion,"
darkness? We know they have life, motion and W. H, H, sensation, and do they not possess mind? If so,
is it not probable that minerals and crude matter For the Farmers? Register.
possess it in some degree? It seems absurd, be
cause philosophy has not yet extended her reVEGETABLE AND MINERAL INTELLIGENCE.
searches far enough to ascertain the truth of this From a variety of experiments made on vege- observation. Is it reasonable to suppose that God tables, many naturalists are of opinion they pos- has created any thing without intelligence? Has sess mind. It is asserted that the common hop, he not given intelligence to the whole globe itself, (Humulus Lupulus,) directs its course to the which is more or less observable according to a
due arrangement of its parts? May not mineral therefore, to set the highest value on the works of matter possess mind in the lowest degree, and or- Deity; for the mineral, vegetable and animal kingganized matter possess it in the highest degree? doms, have high claims to immateriality. Indeed, These are questions I would respectfully ask, if I matter, strictly speaking, can be nothing but an could meet with a phhilosoper who could answer immaterial essencc. or spiritual mass of God's crethem. Minerals are formed spontaneously by vir- ation. He governs it; he exists in it, and he is tue of their affinities: animals and vegetables re- every where!! If a single blade of grass was this quire seed or eggs, so organized as to possess vi- moment annihilated, there would probably be a link tality and irritability. But may not mineral pro- in the universal chain destroyed, which would not ductions have properties in common with vegeta- only produce confusion in this earth, but would conble and animal? It is well known that minerals vulse all the planetary worlds! Nay, if the are capable of assuming and retaining certain smallest grain of sand was removed from existence, forms, which forms they will observe in spite of it might affect the projectile force of the earth, the powers of repulsion. The nitrate of potash, and not only bring it in collision with the sun, but (salt petre,) crystalizes in prismatic octahedrous; derange the whole starry heavens and all the sysand by virtue of certain characteristic qualities of tems and worlds that lie retired beyond our limits this and other salts, which they originally possess- and comprehension. ed, they invariably assume the same forms and ar
GALEN. pearance. The arrangement, disposition, and order observable in the mineral kingdom, must be
| [The writer of the foregoing piece, shows in it more as much admired, as that which forms the admi- power of imagination than adherence to strict rearable and exquisite texture of the organic world: soning. Nevertheless, his facts are interesting, and for they are both the result of certain attractions his deductions and arguments may amuse those whom and motions, which the constituent parts take in they cannot convince.] their formation. Naturalists speak in very extravagant terms of the polish and refinement of organic matter; but let them examine minutely the
For the Farmers' Regster. mineral kingdom, and they will find as much order, ORCHARDS IN ALTERNATE ROWS, OR QUINdesign, just arrangement, delicate workmanship,
CUNX ORDER. regular figure, beauty, variegated color, and in every respect, sublimity and grandeur, rivalling in Xenophon thus describes the gallant plantation a very eminent degree, the vegetable and animal of Cyrus at Sardis, as rendered by Cicero: "Arworld. Let us then, appreciate the value of mat- bores pari intervallo sitas, rectos ordines et omnia ter, and say the mineral, vegetable and animal per puchre in Quincuncum directa”-that is, rows kingdoms all possess mind; that the whole ball ta- and orders 60 handsomely disposed or five trees ken collectively, is a spiritual mass or portion of so set together, that a regular angularity, and divinity, which is to undergo certain forms and thorough prospect, was left on every side, owing then return from whence it came. "All the choir this name to the "Quintuple number of trees," as of heaven and furniture of the earth, all which thus figured, viz: compose the mighty frame of the world, hath not any substance without a mind." If this be the case, mind, like matter, is capable of division; itcan be divided and sub-divided into a number of parts, which may exist in a variety of matter, giving it intelligence; and must possess solidity, extension, figure, and continually going the round of circulation, as is the case with matter, and governed by the general laws of gravity and attraction. When disengaged from one portion of matter, it may get possession of another, and thus produce perception in other matter prepared to receive it.
It is well known that mind and matter exist, and that they act and react upon each other; and from this reciprocal action and reaction, arise all ideas and sensations. It is also known, that when an injury “That the same was used in later plantations, is done to the brain, the mind suffers; and if the is plainly confirmed from the commanding pen of injury be very great, the mind deserts its habita- Varro, Quintilian, and handsome description of tion never to return. What becomes of it? Does Virgil, in his second Georgic. See the garden of it take its flight to another world; or does it go in Cyrus, &c., by Sir Thomas Brown, of Norwich, search of matter prepared to receive it, and get a M. D.” new habitation? Mind is matter disengaged from the brain, and of course, material. But here a very important question arises: can any thing like
From Silliman's Journal 1824. materiality exist, when God is immaterial? He has been pleased to call inatter into existence,
wool MORE ABUNDANT IN COLD CLIMATES. and is it reasonable to suppose any thing he has "From their elevation and latitude, the grazing created can perish? We speak of the affairs of lands situated in the northern part of New Engthis world in a temporal point of view, but the land, are best adapted for sheep. The great conwise disposer of the universe, views them in a sumption of fodder incident to long winters, so obspiritual point of view: and has created every jectionable to the raising of cattle, is more than thing for wise purposes. It is the duty of man, compensated to the merino sheep proprietor, by an improvement in the quantity and quality of wool, hibited. The process of heating is so clean and which is much affected by climate. În tropical simple, that a lady with white gloves on may percountries, sheep are dressed with hair-in more form it without soiling them, or a child three years temperate, the wool is generally short and coarse, ot' age without injury. but longer and finer in cold regions. In Spain, Yesterday its powers were exhibited at the two and a half pounds of wool is the average pro- | West India docks, before Capt. Parish, the dock duct of their merinos, and of a quality interior to master, T. Shelrake, Esq. engineer, — Beck, ours in the middle states, and valley of the Hud- Esq., and a number of other gentlemen connected son, the same; on the elevated ground in the with the dock company, who expressed the greatwestern part of Connecticut and Massachusetts est astonishment at Mr. Wenn's invaluable disthree, and in some flocks, four pounds. In the covery, and said they considered it would be of southern and middle part of Vermont, from four to incalculable service to the navy, &c. Heat was four and a half. In Maine the average is five; produced by invisible means in less than two miand in a few choice flocks, six pounds the sheep. nutes, and in three minutes afterwards, water The best merino wool of Europe, is from the bleak which had been put into the crescent, boiled with mountains of Saxony. The quantity and quality such force, that the window of the room in which of wool is also considerably affected by the food, it was tried was compelled to be opened to let the managernent and selection of flocks, as nature steam escape. There is a drawer in the machine bountifully provides a dress for all animals accord-in which a steak or chop can be cooked in its own ing to their wants. Furs are found to be good, gravy, but there not being one at hand, the experand the staple long, in proportion to coldness of iment was not tried. Three hours after it had climate.
been heated, from which time nothing had been "The northern parts of the United States and done to it, it was found to be still so hot that it Canada, in addition to climate, have for the raising could scarcely be touched with the naked hand, of wool, an important advantage over England, although it had been carried from the docks to the and the south of Europe, in cheapness of soil — city. We understand it is the intention of the inmuch land being required for thesupport of sheep. genious inventor, who has expended all he was The fee simple of good sheep farms in America, possessed of in bringing it to perfection, to exhibit can be procured with the amount of the annual it to the public at the museum of arts and scirent and taxes of the same quality of ground in ences, in Leicester square. England.”
From the Library of Useful Knowledge, Farmer's Series.
From the Athenæum.
THE SHETLAND HORSE.
The Shetland Pony, called in Scotland Sheltie, In the beginning of the reign of George III., an inhabitant of the extremest northern Scottish (1760.) this trade gave employment to 40,000 per- isles, is a very diminutive animal, sometimes not sons, and the value of the goods produced was seven hands and a
was seven hands and a half in height, and rarely ex£600,000. It now employs not less than 1,500,000 ceeding nine and a half. He is often exceedingly persons, and the value of the goods produced ex- beautiful, with a small head, good-tempered counceeds thirty-one millions. The cotton yarn an-tenance, a short neck, fine towards the throttle, nually enun in England would, in a single thread, shoulders low and thick, (in so little a creature far girdle the globe 203,775 times, it would reach 51 from being a blemish,) back short, quarters extimes from the earth to the sun, and it would en panded and powerful, legs flat and fine, and circle the earth's orbit eight times and a half. pretty round feet. They possess immense strength
for their size, will latten upon any thing; and are From the London Morning Chronicle. I perfectly docile. One of them nine ha
three feet in height, carried a man of twelve stone, HEAT WITHOUT FIRE.
forty miles in one day. When the properties of steam and its power A friend of ours was, not long ago, presented were first ascertained, it was supposed that human with one of these elegant little animals. He was genius could extend no further, still since then we several miles from home, and puzzled how to conhave had our streets and houses lighted by gas, vey his newly-acquired property. The Shetlandand now we are to have our residences warmed er was scarcely more than seven hands high, and and our provision dressed without the use of "fire, as docile as he was beautiful. “Can we not carry flame, smoke, steam, gas, oil, spirit, chemical pre- him in your chaise?" said his friend. The strange paration, or any dangerous substance whatever." experiment was tried. The Sheltie was placed in Incredible as this may appear, it is no less true, an the bottom of the gig, and covered up as well as ingenious German having invented a machine by could be managed with the apron; a few bits of which it may be accomplished. It is made of bread kept him quiet; and thus he was safely conbrass, is about 22 inches high, 12 inches wide, veyed away, and exhibited the curious spectacle and six deer, has the appearance of a miniature of a horse riding in a gig. chest of drawers, and is surrounded by an inverted In the southern parts of the kingdom the Shetcrescent, which is hollow for the purpose of con- landers have a very pleasing appearance, harnesstaining water. It is called “Wenn's solar stove," ed to a light garden chair, or carrying an almost and is heated by "elementary heat,” produced baby rider. There are several of them now run(according to the words of the inventor) by 'sepa- ning in Windsor Park. rate and combined elements.' . It may be used. It has been disputed whether the pony and large with the greatest safety in ships, and in manufac- English horse were, or could be, originally from tories and warehouses, where, in consequence of the same stock. The question is difficult to anthe combustible nature of the stock, fires are pro- I swer. It is not impossible that they might have