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Vegetation, remarks on 530

Wheat, diseases of 278; smut balls or pepper brand 278; Vermin on plants, to destroy 34

smut or dust brand 280; grain worm (vibrio tritici) Vetches and other green vegetables ploughed in as! 281 manure 382

Wheat, on rolling 456 Veterinary practice-removal of a large wen 28 Wheat on clover, considerations respecting 423 Vine, treatise on the culture of, by N. Herbemont 471; / Wheat on bedded land, improvement in seeding 390

general account of, and its culture in the environs of Wheat, remarks on its supposed reversion into grass Paris 693; various species of, and their peculiarities in England 126, 324; the opinion compared with described 693, 694; propagation of, by seeds and by those concerning cheat and spelt in this country 325 slips 694; by layers and by grafting 695; pruning of Wheat, what soils suitable, and unsuitable for 513 en espalier 695, 696; and when propped 696; culture Wheat cut green, the loss tested by experiment 610 at Fontainebleau and Thomery 696 to 698; enemies Wheat seeding of 1834, memoranda of the operation of 698, 699; culture of near Richmond 351; in Rock- 673 bridge, reported by John F. Caruthers, 381; in Ply- Wheat shocks, proper mode of constructing 56 mouth 467; general want of success in the United Wheat fan of Sinclair and Moore, improvement and States 381

| performance of 485 Vines, the coiling system of cultivating in pots 508 Wheatinsect, description of 548 Vines, foreign, found unprofitable in New York, at White washing improved by using skimmed milk 404 Loubat's vineyard, and abandoned 614

Wickham, J. his remarks on the three and four-shift Vineyard, on the selection of suitable soils for 314;! rotations 380

of Hermitage, its soil and situation 405; of Clos de Wild onion, mode of treating 153 Vougeaud, soil and culture of 574

| William and Mary College, its state and prospects 239 Virginia, essay on the climate of 214

Wind, velocity of under different circumstances 32 Volcanic products, their change by the operation of Wine making, treatise on 474; causes of failure of in time, to fertile soil 12

| the United States, by N. Herbemont 478 Volcanic island, newly formed, account of 267 Wine, Herbemont's trial and report of, by N. F. Ca

bell 648; sparkling Champagne or white wine of Aï, W

directions for making 435; preliminary remarks 434

Wines of Europe, management and adulterations of Wallace, J. R. on the action of gypsum in quantities

404 unusually large 617; on the cultivation of corn 618 Withers, R. W. his remarks on the calcareous region Waste lands, quantity of in Great Britain and Ireland

of Alabama 637

Worm in pine timber 125 703 Water, conversion of salt to fresh 413

Worn lands, on the improvement of 190, 382 Water cart, description of a cheap and useful one 132 Wood snapping in the fire, to prevent 4 Water furrowing, on the benefits of, by R. D. Key

Wood for fuel, importance of its being dry, by N. E. 320

Read 534; quantity required to burn lime, supWeather, diary of, for April, May, and June 1834,

posed mistake in 769 246

Woodson, Charles, on the management of slaves 248; Weather, diary of, for July and August, 1834, 246

fruit without kernels 249; ill effects of transplanting Weevil, (moth) the depredations prevented by the use

| trees 249; on bots in horses 250; on rearing fruit trees of myrtle 156: its appearance in Massachusetts 466) 203; on the Woodson and Cunningham grapes 311; Weights of cattle and sheep, live and dead 163. and ofl on insects, and their destroyers 352; states experidifferent breeds 461, 462

I ments of the loss of corn from gathering fodder 609 Weights, modern, (French,) account of 508

Woodson grape, account of 310 Wells. Artesian. or overflowing, remarkable varia-1 Worms and crows, and their operations on corn 243

tions of one at Rochelle, 509; great quantity of wa- / Worms and insects destroyed by spirits of turpentine ter obtained at Tours 508; one remarkable for its 424 supply of water 630; manner of boring them in Ala

Worms in horses, to destroy 552, 775 bama described 630; general observations on 420 Whale chase, account of 220

Y Wheat, on reaping before the grain is hard-account of the practice and its advantages 35

Yoking of oxen by the horns 332; figures of 464 Wheat, new species of 224

Yucca Filamentosa, a material for cordage 6

Vol. II.

JUNE, 1834.

No. 1.

EDMUND RUFFIN, EDITOR AND PROPRIETOR.

For the Farmers' Register. vidi, et quorum pars fui. In the lower part of SOME ACCOUNT OF THE AGRICULTURAL SOIL Louisiana, however, and in East Florida, that

AND PRODUCTS OF MIDDLE FLORIDA, IN culture may be advantageously pursued, because A LETTER TO THE EDITOR.

there the climate is most favorable for cane, and Sir:

the soil not so suitable for cotton. The high price Agreeably to the wish which you have intima- of sugar

of sugar which now prevails, and which is likely ted, I proceed to give you a sketch, though alo.

to continue, is an additional incentive to its prohasty and imperfect one, of the agriculture, soil, favor it most.

..^{duction in those parts of the United States, which and products of Middle Florida.

me The Floridas were ceded by Spain to the Uni-In

:) So much has, of late years, been written and ted States by the treaty negotiated at Washing-1!

published in the United States concerning the cul

ture of the sugar cane, that I shall be brief in ton, in 1819, but it was not until the summer of 1821, that our flag waved in peaceful possession

what I have to say on this subject. over the fortresses of Augustine, Pensacola, andlun

Two sorts or species are cultivated in Florida, St. Marks. Soon after this latter event, numbers

the Otaheite or Green Cane, and the Ribband

1 Cane. The former attains the largest growth; of our people, with their characteristic enterprise,

ise, the latter is a more hardy plant, and, therefore, prepared to settle in the newly acquired territory,

better adapted to the vicissitudes of our climate. and about the year 1825, the resources of Middle

The mode of planting is in drills, from four to five Florida began to be developed. Up to the pe-1

feet apart; the cane laid horizontally in the trench riod of our acquisition of the Floridas, little was

or drill, two or three together, in order to insure known of their internal condition, their soil, cli

a good stand. The time of planting may be at mate, &c., and the most contradictory opinions:

Us any time between the first of November and the were entertained. But when Middle Florida had

1|first of April, when the temperature of the weather been penetrated and explored, and a country

does not approach the freezing point, at which found possessing a large portion of fertile lands,

times the cane must not be taken from its beds, with a beautifully undulating surface, and a cli

and exposed to the air. After it has come up, it mate, as it was fondly hoped,

is ploughed and hoed like cotton or Indian corn. “Where the flowers ever blossom, the beams ever shine;" About the middle of October, the grinding and the most favorable impressions were made upon boiling should be begun, as the lower part of the the public mind; the expectations of many were canes is then fit for sugar, and the tops for plantwrought up to an inordinate degree, and they in- ing. But it is usual also to reserve a portion of dulged the belief that they would be able to unite the entire canes for planting. When the approach there the various products of the temperate and of frost is feared, the standing cane is cut off at the torrid zones. Besides cotton, sugar cane, &c., surface of the ground, and laid in large flat beds, many hastened to plant the orange, not doubting or mattresses, in which situation, if the operation that, in due time, they would be gratified by the be properly performed, it is secure from the effects fragrance of its bloom, and the luxury of its fruit. of frost. After this the grinding may be continuBut, in the full tide of experiment, there came ed, and I have known sugar made from cane that a frost, a killing frost.” The memorable frost of had lain in mattresses for forty, fifty, and sixty the 6th of April, 1828, and those of the two suc- days. ceeding winters, have demonstrated to the unwil- From the roots of the cane left in the earth, a ling inhabitants of the interior of Middle Florida, second crop is obtained, which is called the “ Ratthat, with them, the orange cannot be produced toon crop,” which ripens earlier and more perfectin the open air. On the sea-coast and islands, ly than the crop from the plantings. It is desirahowever, no doubt can be entertained of the prac- ble, therefore, to have one half the crop of each ticability of producing it, because it is produced in year from rattoons, in order that by mixing them, East Florida, in the same latitude, and on the sea- in boiling, the greater maturity of the one may islands of Georgia, in a higher latitude.

compensate, in a degree, for the deficiency of the With respect to sugar cane, the disappoint-other. After severe winters, however, the rattoon ments have been less signal and decisive, but the crop has been found to fail to a greater or less exlosses far greater. Its production and manufac- tent. In this climate the rattoons can only be reture is an expensive process, and where any lied on for one year, and, without them, it requires thing like a crop is attempted, a failure is attend- from twenty to twenty-five per cent. of the whole ed with serious consequences. The failures which crop to renew it. It is obvious that this alone, is have been experienced here in this crop have re- a severe tax upon the sugar planter. sulted mainly from want of knowledge, and want The cultivation of cotton which, at first, was of adequate preparations for “taking off the crop,” but a secondary object with most of the settlers in that is, for grinding and boiling the cane. In com- Florida, has become the principal pursuit of the mon with Louisiana, however, much loss has re-planters. sulted from the severe frosts of the last three winters. Three sorts or species of cotton are planted in From my own experience, and from my observa- Middle Florida. First, the common green-seed tions in Louisiana and in Florida, I believe that cotton, (Gossypium herbaceum) originally from in no part of the United States is the sugar cane India, and the Levant. Second, the Mexican cotso good a crop as cotton; Quaque ipse miserrima ton, (Gossypium hirsutum?) Third, the sea

VOL. II.-1

island cotton (Gossypium Barbadense?) which is cotton, and it is said to be used in France for aduk a native of some of the West India Islands. The terating their silks. two former are short staples, the last is the long Spanish tobacco has been cultivated in Florida, staple cotton. The modes of cultivating and and found to do well. Segars have been made of ginning the latter differs from that of the two it which have all the perfume of good Havana former, which is so well known in all the southern segars. It is said to be a profitable crop. states.

| The olive tree (Olea Europæa) has been tried, The sea-island cotton being a plant of larger and found not to succeed. Col. John Gamble imgrowth, requires more space than the two other ported a number of trees from Marseilles, and species. On good soils it is not unusual to see it planted them on his estate. He informs me that ten feet high. It is usual to make the beds or they have perished to the roots by frost, every winridges larger, and to hoe it more carefully than the ter since he planted them. And yet in the garden other sorts; but it may be doubted whether there of my friend Dr. Wray, of Augusta, (Geo.) I have is any essential difference in the plants, in this re- seen a young olive tree, which for several years, spect. It requires a longer season to mature its has borne the winters in the open air. Of thé fruit than the others. The difference is probably European olive, however, there are several vaabout four weeks.

rieties, and that which I saw in the garden of Dr. The short staple cottons are prepared for market W. is not the one which is commonly cultivated, with saw-gins, which do their work with great de- as it requires a much longer period to come to maspatch. On the contrary, it is necessary to pre- turity. Like the orange tree, the olive would propare the sea-island cotton with roller-gins, in or- bably do well on the sea-coast and islands. I der to avoid breaking the staple, and thus destroy- learn that the olive has been reared at Augusing that length of fibre which gives it its superiority tine, where oranges are also produced in abunover the other sorts of cotton. Of the roller-gins, dance. there are several sorts, differing in the mode of Indian corn does well, and the crop is easily construction, as the foot-gin, the horse-gin, &c., made. It may be planted the first week in March, but all of which are slow in operation when com- and the cultivation completed early in June. pared with the saw-gin. Again, the product of When the spring is favorable, it may be planted this cotton, to the acre, is not so great as the other. in February, and the cultivation completed in But to compensate for these disadvantages, the May. price of it, when prepared for market, is usually Oats and rye do well, and ought to be extenabout double the price of short staple cotton. On sively introduced to alternate with cotton and corn. some of the sea-islands of South Carolina, a va-l Wheat has been but little tried, and I am unariety of the long staple cotton is produced by a ble to say with what success. few planters)which is much finer than that which is In the soil of Florida there is great diversity. ordinarily cultivated, and which commands about The reader, perhaps, has not to be told that a double the price of the latter, and quadruple the large portion of the country is occupied by pine price of short staple cotton. The knowledge of barrens, as they are called. Even in these, there it was for a long time a secret, confined to a few; is great diversity, some being quite productive, but the seeds are now freely sold in the Charles- while others are extremely barren. In the former, ton market, at from two to five dollars a bushel. the pines (pinus palustris, the long leaf, pitch At times when the prices of cottons have been pine) grow large and tall, and are associated with high, this fine variety has commanded a dollar per the Black Jack, (Quercus nigra) in the latter they pound, and the discoverer of it was offered, by a are stunted in growth, and are associated with the neighboring planter, $50,000 for the secret!” “barrens' scrub oak,” (Quercus Catesbæi) which,

As yet, however, the Mexican cotton is that in common language, is often confounded with which is most commonly cultivated in Middle the “Black Jack." Florida, but the soil and climate having been The richest uplands are the Hammocks or Humproved to be well adapted to the production of mocks, a word which probably has its root in the sea-island cotton, it is probable that, as the plan- Latin humidus, moist, or humeo to be wet, inditations are opened, and the pressure of out-door cating in this instance, not a wet or swampy soil, labor during winter becomes less, the proportion but its contiguity to some body of water, either a of this cotton will be increased.

creek, river, or lake.* Intermediate between these The average product of this species of cotton are the oaky lands, which have a stiffer soil than may be stated at about six hundred pounds to the the others, and by many are thought to excel the acre, though it is not unusual to obtain as much hammocks in the production of cotton. The freas eight hundred pounds. Its yield from the seed, quency and suddenness with which these soils is as one to three, while that of short staple cotton change from one to another, surprises every obis a little more than one to four. During the past server, and baffles every theory to account for it. season, some planters of Mexican cotton have ob- Frequently after passing a dreary tract of pinetained seven, eight, and even nine bags to the barrens, or barren sand-hills, you come, suddenly, hand, but the average is probably not more than on the borders of a hummock, which greets you four or five.

like an oasis in a desert, contrasting with the forCotton in this climate begins to bloom during mer fertility of its soil, and the beauty of its nuthe first week in June, and the picking may be merous evergreens.t commenced early in August. Sea-island cotton 7

* Or perhaps in allusion to the humidity of its atmosshould be planted between the 10th of March and the 1st of April. Short staple cotton may be

phere, as the branches of the trees and their dense fo

be liage detain the evaporation, and keep up a degree of planted at any time from the 10th of March to the moisture var fa

of March to the moisture very favorable to the growth of parasitics, as middle of May. The sea-island cotton is used the Long Moss, Mistletoe, Epidendrum, &c. for the finest cotton fabrics, and the finest sewing! Pre-eminent among these stands the stately Mag

Marl is not rare in Florida, and the whole coun

A BREEDING MULE. try being based on a shell rock, it is, probably,

To tho L ot of the Farmers' Register. abundant, and will, in due time, be developed. have myself seen some very fine specimens.

Spring Hill, Nansemond county, z Very respectfully, yours,

2d May, 1834. A circumstance has occurred on my plantaH. B. CROOM.

M. tation, which seems to be against the general Lake Lafayette, near Tallahassee, March, 1834. principles of nature. On the 23rd of April, 1834,

P. S. With respect to fruits, I may state, that a female mule of mine, had a colt, never suspected peaches do very well, though they are sometimes by me until I saw its birth. I had worked her hard destroyed by the spring frosts. Apples, pears, all last year, upon the farm, and on the rail road, cherries, &c. have not been sufficiently tried." The through the winter hauling marl, and all the month number of wild plums in this country, is remarka- of March hauling logs, from a distance oftwo miles, ble. A species of gooseberry (Ribes rotundifo- six loads a day, and thirty logs each load, making lium of Michaux?) grows wild in the hammocks, twenty-four miles each day. She was at work all and from the quantity of subalpine growth, it April hauling out manure, until the 23d. On that might be inferred that this country would prove day I had gone, a little time before night, from the favorable to the production of most of the fruits of labors of the day, owing to one of my family being temperate climates. But the fact remains to be sick; and about 5 o'clock in the evening, the boy tested. Strawberries grow as large and as fine as that drove the mule, came running to the house, I have seen them in any country. They are now saying that Jenny (for that was her name) had a ripening abundantly. (March 31st.)

colt. I went out and in a few minutes thereafter, 'Some corn which I planted about the 20th of the thing (for I know not what to call it) was deFebruary last, came up in due time, has been livered, and is now doing well. I never suspected plouched and hoed once, and is now thristy and the mother's being with foal, because I thought it promising. It is probable that two crops of corn contrary to nature, though I had for four or six might be made in one season, if it were desirable weeks observed that her belly was enlarged, and so to do so. But late corn in this climate is apt to be much so, that the cart had to be altered, as it attacked by worms, while in roasting ear.

rubbed her. She showed no other sign—so I did

not suspect it. She has little or no bag, though I THE WILD ONION.

believe she gives a plenty of suck, as her child is

now getting fat. At first it was very poor. Now To the Editor of the Farmers' Register.

you will ask what is the father of it? I cannot Cambridge, Md. April 18, 1834. say—but believe, a colt of mine, now three years Will you allow me through the medium of the old. He ran out on Sundays, with the mules, Farmers' Register, to make the inquiry of your and the black boy tells me that there was causé numerous correspondents, whether there is any for such an effect. So it is, the mule has a colt, effectual mode, and what it is, of extirpating and it is exactly like the young stallion. If this is that most destructive of all weeds, the wild a matter of curiosity, you may give publicity to it, onion?

under my name. Hundreds can prove the fact I purchased several years ago, a farm near and several can testify that they were present at Cambridge, of poor clay soil, filled with starveling the birth. onions. I had always been impressed with the

JOHN THOMPSON KILBY. idea, that heavy manuring would eradicate them, p.s. The mother certainly is a mule. for she by the substitution of other vigorous vegetation;

on; was foaled mine, and is now ten years old. but experience teaches me the error of that opinion. I have made the land extremely rich, yet the onions [The fact stated by Mr. Kilby is particularly intehave increased in number, and in vigor of growth, resting, because so authenticated as to leave not the pari passu with the improvement; and now at this slightest ground for doubt. But though it is contrary moment, my wheat field exhibits the mortifying

to the general operation of a law of nature, for any spectacle of a serious and doubtful conflict, between

mule or hybrid animal to be capable of procreation, it these best and worst of the vegetable creation; and I fear the onions will bear the palm.

is well known to naturalists that there have been some An answer to my inquiry will confer an obliga-|(though rare) exceptio

(though rare) exceptions to the rule. Whether in tion on,

these cases the offspring is barren, according to the Yours, very truly. J. E. M. general and wise provision of nature, to prevent the P.S. Has an effectual onion riddle ever been continuance of mongrel breeds, or not, has not yet invented?-by whom?-and, where may it be ob- been determined). tained?

J. E. M. nolia Grandiflora, accompanied by its relative the fra

YELLOW (OR WILD) LOCUST. grant Magnolia Auriculata, the Olea Americana, Ho- The Genesee Farmer of April 5th, says that « vel. pea tinctoria, Ilex Opaca, Prunus Caroliniana, &c. Here too, are the Red bud and the Beech, the elegant low locust seed is worth $4 or $5 the pound-say $1 Stuartia, the showy Hydrangea, and the gay Azalea. the half pint. And trees of suitable size for setting These are often entwined about their trunks by these may be had at several nurseries in Western New York elegant creepers, the Carolina Jessamine, the Coral at $6 per hundred.” At these prices, it would be a Honeysuckle, the Decumaria Sarmentosa, the luxuriant Cissus, and the splendid Bignonias, while the Tilland

| profitable employment of labor to gather the ripe pods sia Resneoides festoons their branches! Such is a Flo. of the wild locust, where they are produced abunrida hammock-the pride of Flora, and the paradise of dantly, as on the high calcareous banks of the lower botanists.

James River.

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