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average product of the whole supposed to have No. 1. 588 stalks, not marled, 2 bushbeen fully twenty-five bushels to the acre.
els, equal to
7* the acre. 1822. "In wheat-and red clover sowed on all No. 2. 588 stalks, marled, 44 16 .... the old marling, and one or two acres adjoining. 1822. In wheat, the remainder having been A severe drought in June killed the greater part previously marled. of the clover, but left it much the thickest on the 1823. At rest. During the following winter it oldest marled piece, so as again to show the di- was covered with a second dressing of marl at viding line, and to yield in 1823, two middling 250 bushels (406) making 850 bushels to the acre crops to the scythe_ihe first that I had known ob- altogether. tained from any acid soil, without high improve- 1824. In corn. Two quarter acres, chosen as ment from putrescent manures.
nearly as possible on the same spaces that were 1823. At rest-nothing taken off, except the measured in 1821, produced as follows: clover on B C m l.
No. 1. 8 bushels, 2 pecks, or to the acre, 34 1824. In corn-product seemed as before, and The same in 1821, before marling, 7.31 its rate may be inferred from the actual measurements on other parts, which will be stated in the No. 2. 7 bushels, 21 pecks, or to the acre, 30.2 next experiment, the whole being now cleared, The same in 1821, after marling, 16.11 and brought under like cultivation.
1825. The whole twenty-six acres, including Experiment 2.
the subjects of all these experiments and observa
tions, were in wheat. . The first marled piece in The part e f n 0, cleared and cultivated in corn Exp. 1, was decidedly the best-and a gradual at the same times as the preceding-but treated decline was to be seen to the latest. I have nedifferently in some other respects. This had been ver measured the product of wheat from any exdeprived of nearly all its wood, and the brush | periment, on account of the great trouble and diffiburnt, at the time of cutting down-and its first culty that would be encountered. Even if the crop of corn (1818) being very inferior, was not wheat from small measured spaces could be reapfollowed by wheat in 1819. This gave two years ed and secured separately, during the heavy laof rest before the crop of 1821-and five years | bors of harvest, it would be scarcely possible af rest out of six, since the piece had been cut down. terwards to carry the different parcels through all As before stated, the soil rather lighter on the side the operations necessary to show exactly the clear next to o e, than n fi
grain derived from each. But without any sepaMarch, 1821., A. measured acre near the mid- rate measurement, all my observations convince dle, covered with six hundred bushels of calca
th six hundred bushels of calca- me, that the increase of wheat from marling, is at reous sand (%) the upper layer of another body | least equal to that of corn, during the first few of fossil shells.
years, and is certainly greater afterwards, in com
ur parison to its product before using marl. adjoining quarter acres, marked 1, 2, 3, 4, extend
It was from the heaviest marled part of Exp. 1, ing nearly across the piece, two of them within, that soil was analysed to find how much calcaand two without the marled part, measured as reous earth remained in 1826, (page 26.) Before follows:
that time the marl and soil had been well mixed Not marled, No. 1, 61 ) average to the acre by ploughing to the depth of five inches. One of
No. 4, 5 22! bushels of grain. the specimens of this soil then examined, consistMarled, No. 2, 8.
ed of the following parts—the surface, and conseDo. No. 3, 81 average 334 bushels.
quently the undecomposed weeds upon it, being The remainder of this piece was marled before excluded. sowing wheat in 1821.
1000 grains of soil yielded 1823. At rest.
769 grains of silicious sand moderately fine, 1824. In corn-distance 5. by 31 feet, making
finer sand, 2436 stalks to the acre. October 11th, measured two quarter acres very nearly coinciding with Nos.
784 2 and 3 in the last measurement. They now
calcareous earth, from the manure made No 2. 7 bushels 3 pecks, ,
180 finely divided clay, vegetable mator per acre, - - 31.1} average 31.21 |
ter, &c. No 3. 8 bushels, - - 32 S
lost in the process. Average in 1821, - - - 33.1 1
1000 Experiment 3.
This part, it has been already stated, was oriThe part e f g h was cut down in January, ginally lighter than the general texture of the 1821, and the land planted in corn the same year. I land. The coultering and after-tillage very badly exe- | cuted, on account of the number of whortleberry
Experiment 4. and other roots. As much as was convenient was marled at six hundred bushels (37) and the dress- The four acres marked A Dno were cleared in ing limited by a straight line." Distance of corn the winter 1823-4. The lines pg and r s divide 5. by 3! feet-2262 stalks to the acre.
the piece nearly into quarters. The end nearest Results. . 1821. October-on each side of the Apois lighter, and best for corn, and was still dividing line, a piece of twenty-eight by twenty- better for the first crop, owing to nearly that hal. one corn hilis measured as follows:
having been accidentally burnt over. After twice
coultering, marl and putrescent manures were ap-roots still living. The crop was small, as might plied as follows; and the products measured, Oc-have been expected from its preparation. tober 11th, the same year.
1 1828. Corn-in rows five feet apart, and about 89 not marled nor manured-produced on a three feet of distance along the rows, the seed bequarter acre (No. 4.) of soft and badly filled corn, ing dropped by the step. Owing to unfavorable
Bush. P. weather, and to insects and other vermin, not 3 bushels, or per acre - - 12. more than half of the first planting of this field
grand r p, marled at 800 bushels (45) lived—and so much replanting of course caused by three measurements of different pieces its product to be much less matured than usual, on Quarter acre (No. 1.) 5 bushels, very near
the weaker land. All the part not marled, (and ly, or
- 19.31 more particularly that manured,) was so covered Eiõhth (No. 2.) 2.31 ) average S 22.2" by sorrel, as to require ten times as much labor in Eighth No. 3.) 3.11 24.11 ) 27. weeding as the marled parts, which, as in every
st manured at 900 to 1100 bushels to the other case, bore no sorrel. October 15th, gatheracre, of which,
ed and measured the corn from the following Quarter acre (No. 5.) with rotted corn spaces, which were laid off (by the chain) as
stalks, from a winter cow-pen, gave 5.21 22.2 nearly as could be, on the same land as in 1824. Eighth (No. 6.) with stable manure,
The products so obtained, together with those . 4.13
35.2 of the previous and subsequent courses of tillage, Eighth (No.7.) covered with the will be presented below, in a tabular form, for the
same heavy dressings of stable manure, purpose of being more easily compared. and of marl also, gave 4.2
36. 1 On the wheat succeeding this crop, clover seed pw, marled at 450 bushels, brought not so good was sowed, but very thinly, and irregularly. On a crop as the adjoining r p at 800.
(the parts not marled, only a few yards width reThe distance was 51 by 31 feet. Two of the ceived seed, which the next year showed the exquarter acres were measured by a surveyor's pected result of scarcely any living clover. On chain (as were four other of the experiments of the marled portions, the growth of clover was of 1824,) and found to vary so little from the distance middling quality: was not mowed nor grazed, but counted by corn rows, that the difference was not seed gathered by hand both in 1830 and 1831. worth notice.
1832. Again in corn. It was soon evident 1825. In wheat: the different marked pieces that much injury was caused to the marled half seemed to yield in comparison to each other, pro-lapon, by the too great quantity applied. A conportions not perceptibly different from those of siderable proportion of the stalks, during their the preceding crop-but the best not equal to any growth, showed strongly the marks of disease of the land marled before 1822, as stated in the from that cause, and some were rendered entirely 1st, 2nd, and 3rd experiments.
barren. A few stalks only had appeared hurt by 1827. Wheat on a very rough and imperfect the quantity of marl, in 1828. On the lightly summer fallow. This was too exhausting a marled piece w p, and where the heaviest marling course (being three grain crops in the four shift was accompanied by stable manure, there has aprotation, but was considered necessary to check peared no sign of injury. The products were as the growth of bushes that had sprung from the follows:
An accidental omission prevented the measurement of s t 5, in 1832.
This experiment has been made with much screased the expense uselessly, but has served to trouble, and every care bestowed to insure accu-Iprevent the increase of product that would otherracy. Still several causes have operated to affect wise have taken place. This loss is proved by the the correctness of the results, and to prevent the gradual increase, and at last the greater product comparative products showing the true rate of of w p marled at only 450 bushels. improvement either from marl, or the putrescent 2nd. The comparative superiority of all the manure. These causes will be briefly stated. marled ground to 89 not marled, is lessened by
Ist. The quantity of marl (800 bushels) on qr this circumstance: most of the large logs, as well and p is nearly double the amount that ought to as all the small branches, were burnt upon the have been used: and this error has not only in-lland, when it was cleared in 1824, before the experiment was commenced; and the ashes have tive increase or decrease of product in this experidurably improved a spot where each of these ment to be misunderstood. It is well known that large fires were made on s g, but have done no poor land put under tillage immediately after being good, and perhaps have been injurious, to the cleared, as this was in 1824, will not yield near as marled pieces that were made sufficiently calca- much as on the next succeeding course of crops. reous without the addition of ashes. At least, the This increase, which depends merely on the efgood effect of ashes is very evident on s q, and fects of time, operates independently of all other has helped somewhat to increase all its measured means for improvement that the land may possess; products, and no such benefit has been visible on and its rate, in this experiment, may be fairly esthe marled parts.
timated by the inerease on the pieces q from 1824 3rd. The quantity of putrescent manure applied to 1828." The increase here, where time only to s t (900 to 1100 bushels) was much too great acted, was from 12 to 211 bushels: but as the corn both for experiment and profit: and the quantity, gathered here was always much the most impertogether with the imperfectly rotted state of the lectly ripened, and would therefore lose the most stable manure, has given more durability to the by shrinking, I will suppose eight bushels to be eflect, than is to be expected from a more judicious the rate of increase from time, and that so much and economical rate of manuring.
of the product of all the pieces should be attributed For these several reasons, it is evident that far to that cause. Then to estimate alone the inmore satisfactory results than even these, would creased or diminished effects of marl, or manure have been obtained if only half as much of either on the other pieces, eight bushels should be demarl or manure had been applied.
ducted from all the different applications, the estiThere are other circumstances to be considered, mate will stand thus: which if not attended to, will cause the compara
Even the piece covered with both marl and sta- rently composed of the like parts of clay and fine ble manure, (w t) shows according to this esti- sand. This is decidedly the most worthless kind mate a diminished effect equal to 10. bushels; of soil, in its natural state, that our district furwhich was owing to the marl not being able to nishes. It is better for wheat than for corn, though combine with, and fix so great a quantity of ma- its product is contemptible in every thing: 'it is difnure, in addition to the vegetable matter left by its ficult to be made wet, or dry—and therefore sufnatural growth of wood. The piece w p marled fers more than other soils from both dry and wet at 450 bushels alone, has shown a steady in- seasons, but especially from the former. It is alcrease of product at each return of tillage, and most always either too wet or too dry for ploughthereby has given evidence of its being the only ing—and sometimes it will pass through both improvement made in such manner as both judge- states, in two or three clear and warm days. If ment and economy would have directed.
broken up early in winter, the soil, instead of being pulverized by frost, like most clay lands, runs together again by freezing and thawing—and by
March, will have a sleek (though not a very CHAPTER X.
even) crust upon the surface, quite too hard to
plant on before a second ploughing. The natural EFFECTS OF CALCAREOUS MANURE ON ACID growth is principally white and red oaks, a smaller CLAY SOILS, RECENTLY CLEARED. proportion of pine, and whortleberry bushels
throughout. The two next experiments were made on another field of thirty acres of very uniform quality,
Experiment 5. marled and cleared in 1826, and the succeeding years. The soil is very stiff, close, and intracta- On one side of this field a marked spot of thirtyble under cultivation-seems to contain scarcely five yards square was left out, when the adjoining any sand—but in fact, about one-half of it land was marled at the rate of five hundred to six is composed of silicious sand, which is 80 hundred bushels (37) to the acre. Paths for the fine, when separated, as to feel like flour. Only carts were opened through the trees, and the marl a small proportion of the sand is coarser than this dropped and spread in January, 1826: the land state of impalpable powder. Aluminous earth of cleared the following winter. Most of the wood a dirty fawn color forms nearly all of its remaining was carried off for fuel-the remaining logs and ingredients. Before being cleared, the soil is not brush burnt on the ground, as usual, at such disan inch deep, and all below for some feet is appa- tances as were convenient to the laborers. This part was perhaps the poorer, because wood had previously been cut here for fuel; though only a
Product of grain to the acre. few trees had been taken, here and there, without any thing like clearing the land.
1828. I 1831. Results. 1827. Planted in corn the whole re
October 18. October 20. cent clearing of fifteen acres—all marled, except the spot left out for experiment: broken up late
Bush. Pecks. Bush. Pecks. and badly, and worse tilled, as the land was gene- Not marled, - - 7
0 rally too hard, until the season was too far ad-Marled, (averaged,)| 13 3 11 0 vanced to save the crop. The whole product so small, that it was useless to attempt to measure the products. The difference would have been
Experiment 6. only between a few imperfect ears on the marled ground, and still less-indeed almost nothing-on that not marled. 1828. Again in corn: as well broken and cul
į D tivated as usual for such land. October 18th-cut down four rows of corn running through the land not marled, and eight others, alongside on the marled-all fifty feet in length. The rows had been laid off for five and a half feet—but were found to vary a few inches—for which the proper allowance was made, by calculation. The spaces taken for measurement were caused to be so small, by a part of the corn having been inadvertently cut down and shocked, just before. The ears were shelled when gathered; and the products, measured in a vessel which held (by trial) go of a bushel, were as follows:
On land not marled 4 rows, average 5 feet, and 50 in length, (500|
square feet) - - 134 measures, or to the acre,
74 bushels. On adjoining marled land 4 rows, average 5 feet 13 inches by 50 feet =512 The remainder of the thirty acres, was grubbed
square feet, - - - 25measures, during the winter 1826-7-marled the next sumor to the acre,
131 bushels. 'mer at five hundred to six hundred bushels the 4 next rows, 5 feet 41 inches by 50 = 537 square acre: marl . A rectangle (A) 11 by 13 poles, feet,
274 measures, was laid off by the chain and compass, and left or to the acre,
14 bushels. without marl. All the surrounding land supposed
to be equal in quality with A-and all level, ex1829. In wheat.
cept on the sides E and B, which were partly 1830. At rest—the weeds, a scanty cover.
sloping, but not otherwise different. The soil suit1831. In corn. October 20th-measured by ed to the general description given before-no the chain equal spaces, and gathered and measured natural difference known or suspected, between their products. The corn not marled was so im- the land on which Exp. 5 was made, and this, experfectly filled, that it was necessary to shell it, for cept that the latter had not been robbed of any wood fairly measuring the quantity. The marled par- for fuel, before clearing. The large trees (all cels, being of good ears generally, were measured more than ten inches through,) were belted, and as usual, by allowing two heaped measures of the smaller cut down in the beginning of 1828, ears, for one of grain.
and all the land west of the line e f was planted
in corn. As usual, the tillage bad, and the crop On land not marled
very small. The balance lying east of e f, was 363 square yards made
3 gallons, coultered once, but as more labor could not be or to the acre, -
5 bushels. spared, nothing more was done with it until
the latter part of the winter 1829, when it was On marled land close adjoining on one side, broken by two-horse ploughs, oats sowed and 363 square yards made rather more than 6 gal-covered by trowel ploughs-then clover sowed,
lons—to the acre, - - 10 bushels. and a wooden-tooth harrow passed over to cover 363 square yards on another side, made not quite the seed, and to smooth down, in some measure, 8 gallons, or to the acre, - 12 bushels. the masses of roots and clods.
Results. 1829. The oats produced badly—but The piece not marled coincided with that mea-1 yielded more for the labor required, than corn sured in 1828, as nearly as their difference of size would have done. The young clover on the marland shape permitted—as did the last named marl-ed land was remarkably good, and covered the ed piece, with the two of 1828. The last crop surface completely. In the unmarled part, A, only was greatly injured by the wettest summer that I two casts through had been sown, for comparison, have ever known, which has caused the decrease as I knew it would be a waste of seed. This of product exhibited in this experiment-which looked as badly as had been expected. will be best seen in this form:
1 1830. The crop of clover would have been considered excellent for good land, and most extraor-1 In comparing these products with those of the dinary for so poor a soil as this. The strips sow- same land in 1831, stated above, it should be reed through A, had but little left alive, and that membered that the corn formerly measured was scarcely of a size to be observed, except one or dry, while that of the last measurement had yet two small tufis, where I supposed some marl had to lose greatly by shrinking. As after early gabeen deposited by the cleaning of a plough, or thering, the corn from the poorest land of course that ashes had been left, from burning the brush. will lose most by drying, and as the ears on A The growth of clover was left undisturbed until were generally very defective and badly filled, if after midsummer, when it was grazed by my the measurement had been made in the sound and small stock of cattle, but not closely.
well dried grain of each parcel, the product of A 1831. Corn on the whole field. October 20th, could not have exceeded one-fourth of that of the measured carefully half an acre (10 by 8 poles) in surrounding marled land. A, the same in D, and half as much (10 by 4) in But though these differences of product present E No more space could be taken on this side, the improvement caused by marling in a striking for fear of getting within the injurious influence of point of view, this close and stubborn soil at best the contiguous woods. No measurement was is very unfit for the corn crop-and its highest vamade on the side B, because a large oak, which lue is found under clover, and in wheat on clover, belting had not killed, affected its product consid- of which some proofs will be found in the next exerably. Another accidental circumstance preven- | periment. ted my being able to know the product of the side C, which however was evidently and greatly in
Experiment 7. ferior to a!l the marled land on which oats and clover had been raised. This side had been in Another piece of land of twenty-five acres, of corn, followed by wheat, and then under its spon- soil and qualities similar to the last described (Exp. taneous growth of weeds. The corn on each of 5 and 6,) was cleared in 1818, and about six acres the measured spaces was cut down, and put in marled in 1819, at about three hundred and fifty separate shocks--and on Nov. 25th, when well bushels. The course of cultivation was as foldried, the parcels were shucked and measured, I lows. before being moved. We had then been gath-1 1820—Corn-benefit from mar] very unequal ering and storing the crop, for more than fifteen-supposed to vary between twenty-five and eighdays-and therefore these measurements may be ty per cent. considered as showing the amount of dry and firm 1821. Wheat—the benefit derived greater. grain, without any deduction being required for
1822. At rest. shrinkage.
1823. Ploughed early for corn, but not planted. Bushels. Pecks. I The whole marled at the rate of six hundred bush
els (40.,)again ploughed in August, and sowed in A (Half acre) made 74 bushels of
wheat in October. ears, or of grain to the acre,
The old marled space, more 1
lightly covered, so as to make the whole nearly D (Half acre) 16% - - 16 E Quarter acre) 11 . - 22
*1824. Che wheat much improved. The sloping surface of the side E, prevented
1825 and 1826-at rest. water from lying on it, and therefore it suffered
1827. Corn. less, perhaps not at all, froni the extreme wetness
1 1828. In wheat, and gowed in clover. of the summer, which evidently injured the growth
| 1829_The crop of clover was heavier than any on A and D, as well as of all the other level parts
I had ever seen in this part of the country, except of the field.
on rich natural soil, where gypsum was used, and 1832. The field in wheat.
acted well. The growth was thick, but unequal 1833. In clover, which was grazed, though
| in height, (owing probably to unequal spreading not closely, after it had reached its full growth.
of the marl,-it stood from fifteen to twenty-four 1834. Corn, a year earlier than would have
nan would have inches high. The first growth was mowed for been permitted by the four-shift rotation. The
l'hay, and the second left to improve the land. tillage was insufficient, and made still worse by
e py 1830. The clover not mowed. the commencement of severe drought before the
ne August, and sowed wheat in October, after a selast ploughing was completed, which was thereby
cond ploughing rendered very laborious, and imperfect withal.
| 1831. The wheat was excellent-almost heavy The drought continued through all August, and on
enough to be in danger of lodging. I supposed greatly injured the whole crop of corn.
the product to be certainly twenty bushels-perResults continued. October 22d. Marked off haps twenty-five, to the acre. by a chain half an acre within the space A (8 by As it had not been designed to make any exper10 poles) as much in D, and a quarter acre (10 by iment on this land, the progress of improvement 4 poles) in each of the other three sides C, B, and was not observed with much care. But whatever E-having each of the last four spaces as near as were the intermediate steps, it is certain that the could be to the outlines of the space A. The pro
land, at first, was as poor as that forming the subducts carefully measured, (in the ears) yielded as jects of the two preceding experiments in the follows:
unimproved state, (the measured products of B. P.
which have been given)—and that its last crop A, not marled, yielded 6 0 of grain, to the acre. was three or four times as great as could have been D marled, .......... 19 33
obtained, if marl had not been applied. The peE do.
culiar fitness of this kind of soil for clover after í do.
marling, will require further remarks, and will be B do. ......... 2014
again referred to hereafter.