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long and one broad; it is linear oblong, and rather narrowish in front, of a pale carnation, head obtuse, rose colour; eyes nearly marginal in the rose-coloured part. It has been found in the neighbourhcod of Edinburgh, as its specific name implies, by Dalyell, Flemming, and Johnston. I have never seen this species.
The family of Dalyellidæ,* so called after Sir John Dalyell, who has paid much attention to these creatures, containing six genera, five of which are lacustrine, differs from the foregoing groups, in all its members having the intestine an undivided tube. “They are small animals, of a parenchymatous consistency, in which it is often difficult to trace any distinctly defined viscera, or their openings on the surface. The body is acephalous, and more or less contractile, with an entire margin. They are either marine or lacustrine; and the latter, in general, lay their eggs enclosed in a cocoon or capsule. Of the mode in which the marine genera are propagated, nothing appears to be known.” The fresh-water genera are defined severally as follows :
(1.) Dalyellia. Body somewhat compressed vertically, elliptical; the mouth terminal; eyes two, parallel, posterior to the mouth and dorsal; ova capsulated. Lacustrine. Dr. Johnston describes two British species, viz. :Dalyellia helluo, which is narrowed at both ends, most so posteriorly, of a uniform grass-green colour, with a transparent margin, one to one and a half lines long, inhabiting stagnant waters; and D. exigua, which in motion resembles a double cone in form, reddish in colour, one-third of a line in length, and an inhabitant of ponds. The first species has been described by several naturalists; the second was first noticed by Sir John Dalyell. I am unacquainted with both.
(2.) Derostoma. Body linear-oblong, rounded at both ends, with two eyes or none; mouth pitcher-shaped, concealed, opening by a longitudinal fissure on the venter. Two British species are described, viz., D. unipunctatum, which is plump, narrowed towards the anterior extremity, and obtuse behind, dingy yellow, with two yellow eyes, and three lines long, an inhabitant of ponds with a muddy bottom; and D. vorax, with round body, obtuse in front, tapering backwards to a point, greenish, and without eyes. It is one and a half lines in length, and is found in fresh-water marshes. The generic name, which signities “ long-mouth," from its longitudinal opening, was proposed by G. Dugès in 1828.
* The Planarian worms have been well divided into the two following sections :--
(1.) DENDROCELS, having a digestive apparatus dendritically branched.
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(3.) Mesostoma. Body somewhat flattened when at rest; the mouth ventral, sub-central, encircled with a broad annular sphincter; eyes two approximate, on the dorsum behind the apex and anterior to the mouth. Lacustrine. The ova capsulated. Dr. Johnston describes one species only, viz., M. rostratum. It is elongate, elliptical, acuminate, and alike at both ends, whitish and pellucid, or tinted a yellowish-red; eyes reddish or black, approximate ; mouth central ; egg capsules dark brown or reddish, length three lines, breadth half a line. This little animal I find quite common within the stems of Sparganium, but owing to its small size and pellucid appearance very easily overlooked. The reddish colour, of which Dr. Johnston speaks, is owing to a number of red capsulated ova often seen within the body of the animal; I have occasionally counted as many as twenty-five or thirty. The proboscis, or @sophagus, is bulbous in form, with five or six strong radiating muscles (see Fig. 6). It glides along the surface of submerged bodies and moves rapidly in the water, which appears to have suggested the epithet Velox to Dr. Johnston. I believe the animal dies immediately after laying its eggs. Another species (Fig. 10), the M. personatum of Dr. Oscar Schmidt, I have found in a reedy pond, near Preston on the Wild Moors, Salop. I have recently added it to the British fauna. See Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. for last December.
(4.) Opistomum. Body flattish, with an anterior sub-terminal mouth; the @sophagus pitcher shaped, not protrusile ; eyes, none. Lacustrine. One British species only has been described, viz., 0. serpentina, which is tongue-shaped, dilated and rounded in front, lanceolate behind, white or grey, two lines in length, and an inhabitant of fresh-water pools. Sir J. Dalyell found this little animal, and on his authority, it is added to the British fauna. It appears, from the description, to be identical with the Opistomum pallidum of Schimdt. It is unknown to me.
(5.) Typhloplana. Body oblong, somewhat roundish ; head continous with body; mouth sub-central, a little posterior to the middle of the body ; eyes, none. Lacustrine. Two British species are enumerated in Dr. Johnston's catalogue, T. frecunda and T. prasina. The first is nearly linear, or a little swollen at the middle, with obtusely rounded extremities, white, and half a line in length; it is found in ponds in autumn. The second is grass-green in colour, obtuse in front, tapering to a point behind; it is gregarious, and is found in ponds in autumn. Both are minute species, about half a line in length. I am not acquainted with either of these species. The species belonging to the genus Convoluta, being marine, do not come within the scope of our inquiries.
The above descriptions of these Planarian worms, partly taken from my own observations and partly from Dr. Johnston's catalogue, will, I hope, be found of use in helping some of my readers to determine the species they may meet with. The works I have consulted on this subject are Dugès two valuable memoirs, Diesing's “Systema Helminthum,” O. F. Müller's “Vermium Terrestrium et Fluviatilium,” the “Prodromus Zoologiæ Danica" of the same author ; Oersted's “ Entrouof Plattwürmer;" Professor Owen's artice on Entozoa in “Todi's Cyclopædia of Anatomy," and Dr. Johnston's “ Catalogue of the British NonParasitical Worms in the Collection of the British Museum," published by Taylor and Francis in 1865. The large work of Müller,“ Zoologia Danica," contains several figures of the Planariæ, as also does Sir John Dalyell's work, “ The Powers of the Creator Displayed in the Creation,” published by Van Voorst. The former work I have not seen, the figures in the latter are not very good. There is also a treatise by Dalyell, “ Observations on the Planarian Worms.” Dr. O. Schmidt's Treatise (“ Die Rhabdocælen Strudelwürmer") is the best work on the fresh-water Rhabdocæls. It contains numerous figures of these animals. The researches of the same author on the sexual organs of the Dendrocæl Planaria, in the “ Zeitschrift für Wissenschaftliche Zoologie,” Band. x. and xi., must be especially mentioned, but I regret I was unable to consult the volumes at the time I was investigating the anatomy of these worms, neither have I been able to meet with Schultze's “Bertrüge zur Naturgeschchte der Turbellariea.”
DESCRIPTION OF PLATE. Fig. 1.-Planaria lactea, showing dendritic form of digestive system (after Dugès).
Fig. 2.—The same species, drawn from a living specimen.
Fig. 6.-Full and side view of proboscis of ditto (from specimen).
Fig. 7.-Head of Polycelis brunnea.
Fig. 11.—Planaria torva, with protruded proboscis, swallowing a worm (after Dugès).
Fig. 12.—The same, in another position, attacking a worm (after Dugès).
Fig. 13.—Polycelis nigra, progressing.
Fig. 14.–Polycelis nigra, at rest.
Fig. 15.- Reproductive organs of P. lactea. a, Penis and sheathe; b, oviduct; C, vesicle and reservoir of eggs; d, common orifice (after Dugès).
All the figures, except 11, 12, 13, and 14, are magnified.
THE GRAVE-MOUNDS OF DERBYSHIRE, AND
BY LLEWELLYNN JEWITT, F.S.A., ETC., ETC.
(Continued from page 350.)
THE ANGLO-SAXON PERIOD.
The county of Derby fortunately affords abundant and unusually excellent, as well as remarkable, examples of the graves of the Anglo-Saxons, and therefore we need be at no loss in describing the modes of interment, and the objects which are found in the graves and in the barrows of this period. When it is recollected that one of the towns of Derbyshire-Repton (Hrepandune)—was the capital of the kingdom of Mercia and the burial-place of the Mercian kings; that the names of many other places are derived from their Saxon owners; and that one of the main roads used by them—and before their time by the Normans and the ancient Britons—the Rykneld Street, ran through the county, it will easily be seen that in the Saxon times Derbyshire was so well populated and so thriving, that the interments must have been not only numerous but of all kinds. Accordingly we find examples both of burial by cremation and of the unburnt body in cemeteries, as well as instances of interment having been made in the earlier Celtic barrows.
Generally speaking the Anglo-Saxon graves were rectangular cists or pits cut in the ground to the depth of from two or three to seven or eight feet. On the floor of this the body was placed at full length, on its back, in the dress which was worn by deceased when living. The arms were usually extended by the sides, with the hands resting on the pelvis. Around the body were placed articles which had been used, or were valued by, or which it was thought might be useful to, the deceased. The grave was then carefully filled, and a mound of but low altitude raised over it; the earth being generally “puddled” or tempered. This mound or hillock was called a Hælw from which the Derbyshire name of Low is evidently derived. The accompanying plan of a grave opened by Mr.
Bateman on Lapwing Hill, will pretty tolerably illustrate this mode of AngloSaxon burial. Beneath the bones of the skeleton were “ traces of light-coloured hair, as if from a hide, resting upon a considerable quantity of decayed wood, indicating a plank of some thickness, or the bottom of a coffin. At the left of the body was a long and broad iron sword, enclosed in a sheath made of thin wood covered with ornamental leather. Under or by the hilt of the sword was a short iron knife; and a little way above the right shoulder were two small javelin heads, fourand-a-half inches long, of
the same metal, which had lain so near each other as to become united by corrosion. Among the stones which filled the grave, and about a foot from the bottom, were many objects of corroded iron, inclading nine loops of hoop jron (as shown in the engraving) about an inch broad, which had been fixed to thick wood by long nails; eight staples or eyes which had been driven through a plank and clenched, and one or two other objects of more uncertain application, all which were dispersed at intervals round the corpse throughout the length of the grave, and which may therefore have been attached to a bier or coffin in which the deceased was conveyed to the grave from some distant place.” Indicacations existed of the shield having been placed in its usual position over the centre of the body, but no umbone was in this instance found. The mounds are usually very low, frequently not being raised more than a foot above the natural surface of the ground. The earth was, as I have stated, usually “puddled” or tempered with water, and thus the body in the grave became closely imbedded in a compact and tenacious mass. That the tempering, or puddling, was accompanied with some corrosive preparation, there can be little doubt, for it is a fact, though a very remarkable one, that whilst the skeletons of the