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aut justitiam'—to no one will we sell, to no one will we deny or delay right or justice.

Pecuniary penalties recovered for crimes, trespasses and offences of all sorts afforded a considerable revenue, more particularly during the times of the Norman kings, when justice was administered mainly on account of the profits. Amerciaments—fines assessed on offenders who were in misericordia regis, at the mercy (merci) of the king, and compositions for offences real or supposed, formed another source of revenue; from which the Conqueror, on the eve of his departure from England in 1086, drew largely, when he 'gathered mickle scot of his men where he might have any charge to bring against them whether with right or otherwise.'1

Lastly, a great variety of extortions helped to augment the royal income. Among the fiscal curiosities to be found on the Rolls of the Exchequer are such items as the following :-The wife of Hugo de Nevill gives to the king 200 hens for permission to sleep with her husband, Hugo de Nevill, for one night, Thomas de Sandford being pledged for 100 hens. Ralph Bardolph fines in five marks for leave to arise from his infirmity. Robert de Abrincis fines for pardon of the king's illwill in the matter of the daughter of Geldewin de Dol, &c. &c. The Bishop of Winchester owes a tonell of good wine for not reminding the king (John) about a girdle for the countess of Albemarle ; and Robert de Vaux fines in five of the best palfreys, that the same king would hold his tongue about the wife of Henry Pinel.

1 Chron. Sax. A.D. 1086.

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The danegeld, revived by the Conqueror, afterwards becomes annual. Is

included in the ferm of the county. Disappears after 1163.

The danegeld, or land tax on the hyde, was revived by the Conqueror in 1084, in consequence of an apprehended attack by Sweyn, king of Denmark; and on this occasion, in lieu of 2s. on the hyde, which had been the rate previously, 6s. was demanded :—The king, after midwinter, 1083, ordered a large and heavy contribution over all England—that is to say, for

every hyde of land two and seventy pence.'1

This “mycel gyld’ was felt to be peculiarly severe, coming as it did in the year after the year of the great famine or mycel hungor.' Henceforth the danegeld, at a higher or a lower rate, according to circumstances, was continued, under the kings of the Norman line, as a regular impost, and in the time of Stephen had become annual, at the rate of 2s. the hyde. Stephen vowed to God that he would repeal the tax, but' kept this no better than other vows he made and broke.' 3

1 Chron. Sax. A.D. 1083. Hoveden, i. 139. 2 Madox, p. 478.

3 Hoveden, i. 190.

The tax was farmed by the sheriff of the county, and was returned by him into the exchequer as settled revenue in the same form as the yearly ferm of the county ; but after the second year of Henry II. ceased to be accounted for in the Great Rolls in that manner; and though there are some traces of its existence for one or two years subsequently, disappears from the Rolls as a separate item after 1163.

? Madox, pp. 478-9.

BOOK III.

THE REIGN OF HENRY II.

1154-1189.

CHAPTER I.

THE COURT OF EXCHEQUER.

CHAPTER II.

THE LAND TAX ON THE KNIGHT'S FEE TERMED

SCUTAGE.

CHAPTER IIJ.

TALLAGE. THE TAXATION OF ROYAL DEMESNE.

CHAPTER IV.

THE TAXATION OF MOVEABLES.

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