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xi.

the universe and of all that is in the universe; however, that he has not the figure of a man; and that he is the creator of the universe, and as it were the Father of all things in common, and that a portion of him pervades everything

Zeno. liccii. But Chrysippus, Posidonius, Zeno, and Boëthus say, that all things are produced by fate. And fate is a connected cause of existing things, or the reason according to which the world is regulated.

lacsiv. Apollodorus says, “If any one were to take away from the books of Chrysippus all the passages which he quotes from other authors, his paper would be left empty.”

Chrysippus. iii. One of the sophisms of Chrysippus was, “If you have not lost a thing, you have it.”

Pythagoras used to say that he had received as a gift from Mercury the perpetual transmigration of his soul, so that it was constantly transmigrating and passing into all sorts of plants or animals.

Pythagoras. iv. He calls drunkenness an expression identical with ruin. Among what he called his precepts were such as these : Do not stir the fire with a sword. Do not sit down on a bushel. Do not devour thy heart."

In the time of Pythagoras that proverbial phrase “Ipse dixit”: was introduced into ordinary life. Xenophanes was the first person who asserted ... that

Xenophanes. iii It takes a wise man to discover a wise man.

Protagoras asserted that there were two sides to every question, exactly opposite to each other.

Protagoras. iiä

vi.

xvii.

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the soul is a spirit.

Ibid.

1 See Hall, page 457.

2 See Spenser, page 30. 3 Aůrds épa (The master said so).

1

Nothing can be produced out of nothing

Diogenes of Apıllonia. ii Xenophanes speaks thus :

And no man knows distinctly anything,
And no man ever will.

Pyrrho. civ. Democritus says, “But we know nothing really; for truth lies deep down."

! Jbus Euripides says,

Who knows but that this life is really death,

And whether death is not what men call life? lbid. The mountains, too, at a distance appear airy masses and smooth, but seen near at hand, they are rough.”

iz. If appearances are deceitful, then they do not deserve any confidence when they assert what appears to them to be true.

The chief good is the suspension of the judgment, which tranquillity of mind follows like its shadow.

Ibid. Epicurus laid down the doctrine that pleasure was the chief good.

Epicurusri. He alludes to the appearance of a face in the orb of the moon.

Fortune is unstable, while our will is free.

ATHENÆUS. Circa 200 A. D.

(Translation by C. D. Yonge, B. A.) was a saying of Demetrius Phalereus, that "Men having often abandoned what was visible for the sake of what was uncertain, have not got what they expected, and have lost what they had, — being unfortunate by an enigmatical sort of calamity." ; The Deipnosophists.

ri. 23

1 See Shakespeare, page 146.

2 See Campbell, page 512. 8 Said with reference to mining operations.

ATHENÆUS. — AUGUSTINE. – ALI TALEB.

767

Every investigation which is guided by principles of Nature fixes its ultimate aim entirely on gratifying the stomach.1

The Deipnosophists. vii. 11. Dorion, ridiculing the description of a tempest in the "Nautilus” of Timotheus, said that he had seen a more formidable storm in a boiling saucepan."

On one occasion some one put a very little wine into a wine-cooler, and said that it was sixteen years old. “It is very small for its age," said Gnathæna.

xiii. 47. Goodness does not consist in greatness, but greatness in goodness. 8

viii. 19.

xiv. 46.

SAINT AUGUSTINE. 354–430.

When I am here, I do not fast on Saturday; when at Rome, I do fast on Saturday.

Epistle 36. To Casulanus. The spiritual virtue of a sacrament is like light, – although it passes among the impure, it is not polluted."

Works. Vol. ii. in Johannis Evangelum, c. tr.5, Sect. 15.

ALI BEN ABOU TALEB.6 -660. Believe me, a thousand friends suffice thee not; In a single enemy thou hast more than enough.?

i See Johnson, page 371. 8 See Chapman, page 37. 5 See Bacon, page 169.

2 Tempest in a teapot. – Proverb. 4 See Burton, page 193.

$ Ali Ben Abou Taleb, son-in-law of Mahomet, and fourth caliph, who was for his courage called sorhe Lion of God," was murdered 1. D. 660. He was the author of a "Hundred Sayings.” translation from Omar Khayyam.

Translated by Ralph Waldo Emerson, and wrongly called by him a Poesie."

Found in Dr. Hermann Tolowiez's “ Polyglotte der Orientalischen
Translated by James Rassell Lowell thus :

He who has a thousand friends has not a friend to spare,
And he who has one enemy will meet him everywhere

768 OMAR KHAYYÁM. – ALPHONSO THE WISE.

OMAR KHAYYÁM.

.-1123.
(Translated by Edward Fitzgerald.)
I sometimes think that never blows so red
The Rose as where some buried Cæsar bled;

That every Hyacinth the Garden wears
Dropt in her Lap from some once lovely Head.

Rubaiyát. Stanza zia
A Moment's Halt

a momentary taste
Of Being from the Well amid the Waste

And, Lo! the phantom Caravan has reach'd
The Nothing it set out from. Oh, make haste!

Stanza alviii.
Heav'n but the Vision of fulfill'd Desire,
And Hell the Shadow of a Soul on fire.

Stanza izrii.
The Moving Finger writes; and having writ,
Moves on; nor all your Piety nor Wit

Shall lure it back to cancel half a Line,
Nor all your Tears wash out a Word of it.

Stanza lazima
And this I know: whether the one True Light
Kindle to Love, or Wrath-consume me quite,

One Flash of It within the Tavern caught
Better than in the Temple lost outright. Stanza larvii.
And when like her, O Sáki, you shall pass
Among the Guests Star-scatter'd on the Grass,

And in your blissful errand reach the spot
Where I made One — turn down an empty Glass.

Stanzı ci

ALPHONSO THE WISE. 1221-1284.

Had I been present at the creation, I would have given some useful hints for the better ordering of the universe.'

1 Carlyle says, in his "History of Frederick the Great," book ii. chap. vii. that this saying of Alphonso about Ptolemy's astronomy, "that it seemed a crank machine; that it was pity the Creator had not taken advice," is still remembered by mankind, – this and no other of his many sayings.

DANTE. – VILLOX.

MICHELANGELO.

769

DANTE. 1265–1321.

(Cary's Translation.)
All hope abandon, ye who enter here.

Hell, Cunto iii. Line 9.
The wretched souls of those who lived
Without or praise or blame.

Line 34.
No greater grief than to remember days
Of joy when misery is at land." Canto v. Line 121.

FRANÇOIS VILLON. Circa 1430–1484.

Where are the snows of last year ? 2

Des Dames du Temps jadis. . I know everything except myself. Autre Ballade. i. Good talkers are only found in Paris.

Des Femmes de Paris. 4.

MICHELANGELO. 1474-1564.

(Translation by Mrs. Henry Roscoe.)
As when, O lady mine!
With chiselled touch
The stone unhewn and cold
Becomes a living mould.
The more the marble wastes,
The more the statue grows.

Sonnet.

i See Longfellow, page 618.

* But where is last year's snow? This was the greatest care that Villon, the Parisian poet, took. – RABELAIS : book i.chap. xiv.

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