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From Tait's Magazine. it was a calamity for the human race, was an Israel in the World ; or, the Mission of the affliction for the Jewish people; and just as
Hebreus to the Great Military Monarchies. the theocratic constitution of the Christian By W. H. JOHNSTONE, M. A. London: Church extends, so must the prosperity of the J. F. Shaw, 1854.
Jews decline. 2. Wherever and whenever
the Gentile persecutes the Jew, he entails sufThis work of the Rev. W.H. Johnstone is but sering upon himself and his descendants in a comparatively small volume of some two lexact proportion to his crime. hundred pages, and within this narrow compass The mass of evidence adduced in support of it comprises a comprehensive although neces- these two propositions is singularly abundant sarily brief history of the Jewish people, con- and striking. In proof of the first, reference templated from that peculiar point of view is made to the condition of the Jews under which alone enables the writer to establish the Constantine, and later, under Hildebrand, novel and striking propositions which he brings when they were pillaged and massacred by a forward. Starting with the Scriptural fact, furious rabble hounded on by Christian zealots; that the human race has received a Divine com- and, on the other hand, to the peace and prospemand to go forth and subdue the earth, herity they enjoyed during the first hundred years asserts that the attempts to prevent this mission of the rule of the Abbassides, in Asia, among by the establishment of great military mo- whom they were a favored people. These narchies, whose tendency is to compact society examples are corroborated by the history of into one uniform though mutilated mould—of events, reaching to the time of the Reforforcibly preventing the dispersion of separate, mation, illustrative of the truth of the same though friendly communities—is a direct and principle. In proof of the second proposition, flagrant effort to defeat the ends of Providence. the evidence which the writer adduces is so voAgainst all such attempts the Ruler of the luminous, that we can but glance at a few of the World has opposed remedial agencies, amongst items. The Roman emperors persecuted the which the Hebrew nation has been the most Jews from A. D. 50 to 150, and during the next remarkable instrument. Here, according to Mr. 150 years the empire was a prey to anarchy Johnstone, is the mission of the Jews among within and assaults from Goth and Persian withthe nations of the earth—and the object of out. Constantine let loose the Hierarchy against his book is to trace the course of their agency, the Jews. His empire lasted but a few years, in the performance of their special work from and fell to pieces of itself. Towards the close the earliest period down to the present day. of the sixth century the Persian kings op
We must refer the reader to the work itself pressed the Hebrews; they lost almost immefor a succinct and masterly review of the his- diately their fortune and glory, and in 641 tory of the Israelitish nation in regard to its the Moslems utterly destroyed their kingdom. effect upon surrounding peoples up to the Dagobert, of France, in the beginning of the time of the final dispersion at the fall of Je- seventh century, persecuted the Jews : in a rusalem--and we can promise those who will few years the monarchs of France were the be at the pains of carefully perusing this small rois faineants, governed by the mayors of the volume, that their time will be exceedingly palace. The Jews were expelled from Engwell bestowed, inasmuch as it may chance to land in 1290 by Edward I. ; and the land was lead them to a new field of speculation-fur- harassed by the wars of the Roses, and had nishing, as it does, arguments not easily con- to submit to the tyranny of the Tudors. Fertroverted for the truth of the writer's theory, dinand and Isabella of Spain were guilty of which is beyond all question the most impor- the worst atrocities against the Jews, by aid tant and suggestive, as we are inclined to of the Catholic Church; that Church before think it is the most religiously philosophical long was despoiled of its fairest provinces, and that has ever been broached on the subject. Spain reduced to what it is now. These
From the contemplation of the facts both of examples may suffice. They are instances of secular and sacred history, the author comes a Nemesis in no way miraculous or even to certain conclusions, which, being established marvellous. Modern civilization cannot exist upon an irrefragable basis, he rightly regards without a proper diffusion of capital, which is as settled principles, and, arguing from them, its life-blood. Only the Jews understood the arrives at the true policy and duty of modern power of capital, and they almost alone emnations in respect to the community of Israel, ployed it. Sovereigns who encouraged the and of the Jews themselves, in the exercise of commercial prosperity of the Jews secured that influence which in the present day they their own ; while those who oppressed and are in a position to exert over the military mo-pillaged them, not only sapped the public narchies of the world. These principles may credit, but brought in a state of lawless brube briefly stated as-1. The elevation of tality fraught with certain ruin. Christianity into a dominant theocracy, while We must refer, briefly, to the author's sentiments as to the mission of the Jews at the we may soon have the Macedonian Philip, or even present crisis. Looking to the ambition of the Alexander again. Russian sovereigns during so many generations, With these dangers, or worse ones, looming he attributes to the Czar the intention of re- in the future, the writer, in the absence of high newing the fourth monarchy, and of startling principle in society, appeals to the real power the world by the re-appearance of the Roman that moves it—which is Money. The possessors Empire. The partition of Poland, in 1795, be of capital can govern the world, if they will considers the first step towards the ancient seat unite to do it. The sinews of war are in the of empire at Constantinople. He remarks :- hands of the Hebrew race, and it is to them
that the destinies of society are committed :If the history of the Hebrew nation has been The direction of capital is in their hands; and read aright, and correctly compared with the if the princely Jewish inoney-lenders were to agree progress of the profane monarchies, one of two that any potentate should have no money, they alternatives will be offered for the acceptance of could have their own way. Despotism can never mankind :- - Either the Czar will gain the place now hold up its head, if the Hebrew people, mindand the authority of chief of the fourth monarchy; ful of their own mission, use this mighty influence and will declare his opposition to the real liber for good. And if Gentile nations were to recog. ties of the human race, by doing as Sennacherib, nize in the Jews some higher purpose than the and Nebuchadnezzar, and the Roman Emperors mere accumulation of wealth, they would be far did - he will attict Israel ; or, the Hebrew na more ready than at present to synpathize with tion, recognizing their mission and vocation, and the hope of Israel; and to look to Israel as the in imitation of their great ancestor Abraham, only source whence the true arbitrator and judge shall resist and check this military monarchy, and of human destinies can come. shall thus advance the completion of their own destiny:
In conclusion, the author reverts to the proBut' have the Jews the means of doing what bable repossession of Palestine by the Hebrew the courage and science of England and France' race, which would be fraught with the greatest are unable to perform?
The armies blessings to mankind. Though scattered over of the Czar beaten ; his ships and his arsenals the whole habitable globe, the Jews are united taken and destroyed
he may retreat by every natural tie, and their numbers are into his original fastnesses. when this shall have been accomplished, what possession of the country. They have con
But scarcely' larger than those who originally took next? Is not the reluctance of the English Gov-nections with all the centres of commerce ernment to engage in this war due to their fears that, Russia being humbled, anarchy and revolu- throughout the world ; and having all lantion may start up over Europe, which the name guages spoken amongst them, can converse of the Czar has bitherto held in check? Will with every people in their own tongue. They Italy, Hungary, and Poland submit to their may, therefore, not only undo the work of present denationalization, when their most po. Babel, but may carry on the work of the tent oppressor has been withdrawn? Will Eng. Apostles. land continue to connive at that most unright- Appended to this volume is a tabular view eous removal of the bounds of the people?" of the effect produced by the Hebrews on the Will the power now in alliance with us take the Military Monarchies. It is well worthy of an same views of these questions as we do? Shall hour or two's quiet study: its correctness can we have a repetition of the history of the Greek be easily tested by a reader moderately versed States and the Persian Monarchy? - freedom overcoming the overbearing despot; to be suc
in history; and we are bound to observe that cecded by weakness and disorder, and to be it corroborates, in a striking manner, the truth crushed by a new tyrant. We have arrived at the of the principles which form the data of the Marathon and Thermopylæ of modern history : original doctrines contained in this book.
A MOTHER'S EYES.
A mother's eyes are magnets of the child,
That only drift there through Oblivion's night,
In old age,
Alfred B. Richards's Minstrelsy of War.
From the Dublin University Magazine. ed in a large cloak. The exhibition was to be
perfectly private, and the Queen the only specANNE OF AUSTRIA, QUEEN OF tator; but when the infatuated politician was exLOUIS XIII.
ecuting one of his happiest pirouettes, and the
Qucen imperfectly endeavored to suppress her ANNE OF Austria, eldest daughter of Philip laughter, his quick ears caught an accompanyIII. of Spain, and Queen of Louis XIII. of ing titter, which proceeded from the ladies in France, appears to have been a very ambiguous waiting and maids of honor, concealed purposecharacter. Some historians contend for her im. ly behind the arras. He saw at once that he maculate virtue, while others speak freely of her had been made a dupe and a victim. With unto an opposite extreme. Perhaps, as in many utterable vexation at his heart, and a deep scowl other cases, the truth lies in a medium. Born in of malignity on his countenance, he rushed iron 1601, she was married at fifteen to a spouse five the apartment to concoct plans of vengeance, days younger than herself—a precocious union, from which he never afterwards relented for a in which all thought of mutual liking was more moment. Thenceforward the unhappy Queen completely set aside than is usual even in royal was constantly exposed to visits of scrutiny from alliances.' The natural consequence was, that the chancellor, and examinations before the prethey led an unhappy life, and in a short time sel-sidents of the Parliament, on the pretence of bedom met except upon public occasions. When, ing concerned in Spanish plots against the ex. after a nominal union of twenty-three years, isting administration. These inflictions were Louis XIV. was born, the event was so extraor- enforced with personal rudeness, under the alleged dinary and unlooked for, that the ready tongue sanction of the King's authority. Hler strong. of scandal whispered more than doubts of the box was broken open; her presses forced and royal infant's legitimnacy. The Queen was sus- searched; the daring insolence was even carried pected of an undue partiality for Gaston of Or- so far as to ransack her pockets, and to look unseans, her husband's brother; but no evidence der her neck-handkerchief. The most faithful dowas ever produced beyond her atfable demeanor. mestics were torn away from her, some immured This, of itself was sufficient to rouse the King's in dungeons, and others treated with savage barjealousy, which he thought became his dignity, barity: On one of these trying occasions, when although his heart had no interest in the matter. Richelieu himself superintended the proceedings, There was reasonable color for the suspicion, she lost her habitual self-command, and bursting notwithstanding, for when the King fell danger- into an ecstasy of icars, exclaimed, ously ill in 1630, and his life was despaired of, seigneur le Cardinal, Dieu ne paye pas toutes a marriage by mutual consent was talked of be- les semaines, mais enfin il paye." – My Lord tween the widow expectant and the heir pre- Cardinal, God does not settle his accounts with sumptive. The Cardinal Richelieu hated the mankind every week, but at last he winds them Queen, did all in his power to ruin her, and for up effectually." Yet this princess, in spite of the a series of years subjected her to a harassing cruel treatment she received from Richelieu, was and unmanly persecution. If we could believe still so conscious of his great talents for legislasecret anecdotes, and the court gossip of the day, tion, that on seeing a picture of him soon after he had been treated with contempt, and exposed she became regent of France, she remarked, “ If to ridicule in a manner which a haughty and Richelieu had lived till this time, he would have vindictive spirit, such as he possessed, was not been more powerful than ever.” likely to forgive.
Nothing is more certain than that Anne of Whatever might be her imperfections or weak- Austria treated the overtures of Richelieu with nesses, the Queen was endowed with beauty, grace, contempt and derision. It is not so clear that gentleness of manner, a sweet temper, and an she was equally deaf to George Villiers, the first amiable disposition. The king-minister—who, as Duke of Buckingham, who by his influence with he said himself, covered all scruples of con
two successive monarchs-James and Charlesscience with his cardinals robe-full in love with ruled over Great Britain as despotically as the the Queen, and committed himself so far as un. Cardinal governed France. We are so accusequivocally to declare his passion. Anne ap- tomed to associate with this celebrated favorite peared to encourage his hopes, merely to turn the idea of a worthless court minion, swayed by him into ridicule. Such was her ascendency caprice and evil passions, caring for nothing but over that strong mind, and the influence of the his own selfish pleasures, and regardless of the passion which he suffered to obscure his reason, public interest, that we are scarcely prepared for that he was persuaded to appear in the presence the eulogium pronounced on his character by a of her Majesty, and dance a saraband in the cos grave and conscientious historian, Lord Clarentume of Scaramouch. At the appointed time, he don, who, in a comparison between this noblecaused himself to be conveyed secretly to the man and the Earl of Essex, observes, after praispalace in a sedan-chair,* masked, and envelop- ing the Duke's extreme affability and gentleness
to all men—" He had, besides, such a tenderness * So called from Sedan on the Meuse, in France, the laws dead if they are not severely executed,
and compassion in bis nature, that such as think where they were originally fabricated. The Duke of Buckingham imported the first to England in censured himn for being to merciful; but his charthe reign of James I. His appearance in it created ity was grounded upon a wiser maxim of state: great indignation amongst the lower orders, who Non minus turpé principi multa spplicia. quam meexclaimed that he was employing his fellow-crea- dicio multa funeru.' He believed, doubtless, that tures to do the service of beasts.
I hanging was the worst use man could be put
to."* Buckingham, on his last fatal journey to Richelieu, who received intelligence of all that Portsmouth, was intercepted on the road by an had happened within the court circle sooner than old woman, who told him she had heard some the King himself, conceived an inordinate jeal. desperate persons vow to kill him. He laughed, ousy of the pretensions of Buckingham, and and disregarded the intelligence, as Cæsar neg- before long made his rival féel the weight of his lected the augury respecting the ides of March. power. The Duke having shortly after got himHis nephew, Lord Fielding, riding in company self named to a second embassy for France, with him, desired him to exchange doublets, and merely to have an opportunity of again pressing to let him have his blue riband; and undertook his suit to the Queen, he was peremptorily forto muffle himself up in such a manner that he bidden to set his foot within the kingdom. Hence should be mistaken for the Duke. The Duke the succors granted by the English to the Huimmediately caught him in his arms, saying that gucnots of Rochelle. Nani, mentioned above, he could not accept of such an offer from a says of this fact: “ Richelieu and Buckingham nephew whose life he valued as highly as his were appointed one against the other, barefacedown.
ly, for reasons kept so much more under secret Yet the unbridled passions of Buckingham as they were rash in themselves; and afterwards involved two great nations in war, and occasion. the people had to pay out of their pockets for ed the loss of many thousand lives. Being sent the follies and quarrels of these two rivals."to Paris with a complimentary embassy on the Hume, without hesitation, ascribes the rupture occasion of his master's marriage with Henrietta between England and France to the personal Maria, and to conduct the bride elect to England, rivalship of the two ministers. The jealousy of he was bold enough to fall in love with the Queen the Cardinal became the more inflamed as he of Louis XIII., and had the hardihood to declare knew the Duke had been seen and received himself plainly in an interview which he obtain- with favorable eyes. Our English historian ed by artifice. The Marchioness de Senecy, lady maintains that the apparent merit of Bucking, of honor, who was present, thinking the conversa ham made some impression on the Queen, and tion too long, placed herself in the Queen's created “that attachment of the soul which conarm chair, who that day was in bed, only with a ceals so many dangers under a delicious surface." view of preventing the Duke from approaching The list is almost endless of public calamities too closely; and when she saw that he had en- emanating from private jealousy where women tirely lost all self command, and burst forth into are concerned, and passion is seconded by power. the rhapsodies of a passionate lover, she inter. The next compiler should remember to include rupted him with a severe look, saying, " Hold this memorable instance in the amended cata. your tongue, sir, and remember that a Queen of logue. France is not to be spoken to in that strain." -- Buckingham "swore a great oath " that he This fact, which seems somewhat romantic, is would see the Queen, in spite of all the power attested by Giovanni Battista Nani, an Italian of France. Accordingly he excited a war, very historian of good repute, who distinguished him. much against the wishes of the nation, the conself in an important mission from the Republic of sequences of which neither enabled him to fulfill Venice to the French Court. Madame de Motte his vow, nor add anything to his honor. Beaten ville seems to confirm it in her memoirs, for she in an attempt to take the Isle of Rhé, and losing says, that when the court went as far as Amiens many of his troops, he was compelled to return to accompany Madame Henrietta Maria, who was to England, a baffled commander, and found going to marry the king of England, the Duke of himself in consequence, a little more hated than Buckingham found opportunity to obtain a mo. he was before. The Parliament, already at vament's private conversation with the Queen, dur- riance with the King, spoke out plainly, and exing which that princess was obliged to exclaim pressed the most unqualified indignation at seeand call for her equerry. She adds also, that when ing the people made the victims of the frivolous the andacious envoy took leave of the Queen, he gallantries of a favorite, and of his childish cakissed her gown, and let fall some tears. Accord prices." ing to this retailer of court gossip, it was Ma. Soon after this, Richelicu laid siege to Rodame de Launay, and not the Marchioness de chelle. The beleaguered Huguenots sent to Eng. Senecy, who was seated near the Queen's bed, land, imploring fresh assistance. Buckingham, when the Duke, transported beyond reason with animated by the keenest stimulants, love and his passion, having left Henrietta Maria at Bou- jealously, and even more, by the ambition of relogne, came back under pretence of some forgot pairing his recent defeat, prepared quickly a conten affairs, but in reality to see Her Majesty.- siderable fleet, which, had it been despatched at Other authorities say that the King, who, when once, might have destroyed the Cardinal's the royal cortege returned from the journey, was schemes, overthrown his great enterprise, and informed of every minute transaction that had ruined his fortune. In this crisis the Queen was taken place, and a great deal more which never compelled to use her individual influence, and to occurred, discharged several of the Queen's ser- write to the Duke, begging of him to suspend vants, including her equerry, physician, and se- his armament. He received the missive with cretary, Laporte, who has also contribuied some the obedience of a lover, countermanded the sailcurious memoirs.
ing of the ships, and suffered the glory of his antagonist to be consummated by the conquest of
Rochelle. Anne of Austria must have given * This saying has been borrowed from Clarendon by recent penmen of pote, without acknowledg
some tokens that the gallantry of Buckingham
was not offensive to her, or Voiture * would this cardinal, successor to Richelieu (who poshardly have dared to allude to the subject in an sessed all the cunning and finesse of his predeces. imprompiu, which he addressed to her, when one sor, with much of his ability, and very little of his day seeing him walking alone in a gallery of the boldness), was carried to a great extreme, is palace, slie asked him of what he was thinking. certain; but the quality of the liaison is not so The rhyming wit answered, without hesitation : easily determined-it might be platonic, criminal
or matrimonial. The weight of evidence inclines “Je pensois (car nous autres poetes
to the latter solution ; but in either case, the atNous pensons extravagamment),
tachment was absolute and enduring, and led to Ce que, dans l'humeur ou vous etes, all the misfortunes which beset France during Vous fieriez, si dans ce moment
the minority of Louis XIV., and especially to the Vous avisiez en cette place
civil wars of the Fronde. Madame the Duchess Venir le Duc de Buckingham;
de Baviere says in her letters—“The AbbéEt lequel seroit en disgrace,
was detected in an intrigue. Anne of Austria, De lui, ou du Pere Vincent." +
however, did much worse—she was not content
ed with intriguing with.Cardinal Mazarin, she [I was thinking (for poets think extravagantly) what, in the mood you are now in, you would married him.” This she could do if she pleased do, if at this moment the Duke of Buckingham for Mazarin was only a secular cardinal, and had
without infringing the ordinances of the Church, should come here :—and which would be in dis- never taken priest's orders. Whatever might be grace, the Duke or your Confessor.]
their relative position, he soon quarrelled with Wherever Anne of Austria inspired love, she the Queen, and used her as ill as if they had been was so unfortunate as to bring disaster also, as in actually married, and he was tired of her. Yet, the earlier case of Mary of Scotland. The Mar. in opposition to this deduction, when Mazarin quis de Jarsay, who united with his personal sounded her respecting the marriage of Louis graces all the talents and ornaments of the most XIV. with one of his nieces, she rejected the idea accomplished mind, and was, besides, a favorite with becoming indignation. “ I am afraid,” says of the great Condé, was imprudent enough to the Cardinal, fencing, as he approached the subsuffer himself to be seized with a foolish penchant ject, “ that the King's passion will hurry bim on for the Queen, and had the additional fatuity to to marry my niece.” The Queen, who knew persuade hinself that she looked upon him with
every movement of the minister's mind, was not à partial eye. He was bold enough to speak cajoled by this affectation, but saw at once that even to write, and, in short, in a fit of his frenetic in his heart he wished what he pretended to fear. passion, carried things so far as to hide himself The wily Italian had already married another behind the curtains of her Majesty's bed. Full niece to the Prince de Conti (brother of Condè, of indignation, she forbade him ever again to but far from being of the same reputation); a appear before hera punishment singularly mild
second to the Duc de Merceur; and this, the when compared to the audacity of the offence. third, of whom Louis XIV. was enamored, had Nevertheless, the Prince de Condé proud, abso- been refused to Charles II., when in exile, and lute, and who paid respect to nothing but his half proposed to Richard Cromwell
, during the own will, took openly the part of his favorite. It is said that he insisted, in the most imperative all these young ladies the daughters of the Car
Voltaire plainly calls
protectorate of his father. manner, that the Queen should admit De Jarsay dinal; and although his general veracity as an to her presence. But even Condé here exceeded historian is of the lowest order, the chances
are, the verge of his influence. The Queen resisted, that in this particular instance he speaks the and the Prince was imprisoned, as a consequence truth. The Queen replied to the suggestion of of persevering in his disloyal interference.
Mazarin with the dignity of a princess of the According to the conflicting anecdotes of the Austrian blood, who was the daughter, wife, and day, which are to be ferreted out by those patient mother of a sovereign ; and with the contempt investigators who have time, leisure, and taste she had now conceived for the man and the min. for the examination of family history, Anne of ister, who had forgotten his obligations, and afAustria was not always so severe as she is here fected no longer to depend on her. If the represented. The libellous pamphlets which King," said she, “ should show himself capable were published at the time of the Fronde, accuse of committing such a dishonorable and degrad. her of having exceeded ordinary good-nature and ing action, I would put myself and my second friendship in her intercourse with Cardinal son at the head of the whole French nation Mazarin. But it would be cruel injustice to against him and you!” Mazarin nerer pardongive implicit credit to hired partisans, who, from ed her; but he was too prudent not to conform political animosity, crusade against everything to her sentiments, so powerfully expressed. He but their own avowed principles and objects, and made a merit of necessity, and assumed credit are ever ready to change white into black, or to for opposing from that time forward the King's displace truth for falsehood, to serve a political passion. In fact, he feared the haughty characpurpose. That the attachment of the Queen for ter of his niece, who was very capable, when
raised to the summit of power, of forgeting the * A celebrated poet and litterateur of his day, as ladder by which she had ascended. Mazarin was well as an accomplished courtier. He became mas- never honest; his life was a tissue of fal ehood, ter of the ceremonies to Gaston, Duke of Orleans, and his last act of giving his accumulated wealth the King's brother.
to the King, was done under the impression that 7 The Queen's confessor.
his Majesty would restore the gift, which he did,