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Each of our speculators closes his book with does not receive this “ Creed" is no philosoa chapter devoted to "the Future.” The pher, nor he who rejects, the “ Hope”a Chrisideas of Sir David concerning the duration of tian. But, in the meantime, how inconceivathe human race upon the earth (which Inspi- bly embarrassing to such a philosopher, and to ration tells us is so awfully uncertain, and will such a Christian, is the possibility that many, be cut short suddenly-in a moment–in the or a few years hence, such immense improvetwinkling of an eye), seem to be curiously defi- ments may be made in telescopes, or in other nite; for we have seen that in his sixth chap- modes of acquiring a knowledge of the celester he states that “ from the birth of man to tial structures, as to demonstrate to the sense, the extinction of his race, the Solar System to as well as reason, of us impatient and presumpwhich he belongs will have described but an tuous tenants of the earth, that the planets infinitesimal are in that grand cosmical orbit are not inhabited ! that the fixed stars are not in which it is destined to move." Without suns, and have not a planet a-piece-no, not pausing to ask who told him this, let us inti- even a solitary planet among them! Thus mate, that in his final chapter he says that the rendering our astounded and dismayed philosscientific truths on which depends the plurality opher homeless and creedless, and the Chrisof worlds are intimately associated with the tian belpless and hopeless :--the former one future destiny of man: he turns to the future of those who professing themselves to be wise of the sidereal systems, as the hallowed spots become fools ;* the latter, likened unto a foolish in which is to be spent his immortal existence. man which built his house upon the sand. Scripture has not spoken articulately of the The “ Future" of the Essayist is of a differfuture locality of the blest ; but Reason has ent kind, and adumbrated with becoming hucombined the scattered utterances of Inspira- mility and diffidence. “I did not,” he says, tion, and with an almost oracular voice declared "venture further than to intimate, that when that the Maker of the worlds will place in these we are taught, that as we have borne the image the beings of his choice. In what region, rea- of the Earthy, we shall also bear the image of son does not determine; but it is impossible the Heavenly, we may find, in even natural for man, with the light of Revelation as his science, reasons for opening our minds to the guide, to doubt for a moment that on the celes- reception of the cheering and elevating antial spheres his future is to be spent in lofty nouncement.”I inquiries ; social intercourse ; the renewal of We have now placed before our readers the domestic ties; and in the service of his Al- substance of the arguments for and against a mighty benefactor. The Christian's future, plurality of worlds, so far as developed in the not defined in his creed, enwrapt in apocalyp- essays of Dr. Whewell and Sir David Brews tic mysteries, evades his grasp: it is only As- ter. The former is a work so replete with tronomy that opens the mysterious expanse of subtle thought, bold speculation, and knowlthe Universe to his eye, and creates an intelli- edge of almost every kind, used with extragible paradise in the world to come : wherefore, ordinary force and dexterity, as to challenge says Sir David, we must impregnate the pop- the patient and watchful attention of the most ular mind with the truths of natural science; thoughtful reader; and that whether he be, or teaching them in every school, and recom- be not, versed in astronomical speculations mending, if not illustrating, them from every Great as are the power and resources of the pulpit: fixing in the minds and associating in author, we detect no trace of dogmatism or the affections, alike of age and youth, the arrogance, but, on the contrary, a true spirit great truths in the planetary and sidereal uni- of fearless, but patient and candid, inquiry. verse, on which the doctrine of More Worlds It is a mighty problem of which he proposes a than One must respectively rest—the philoso- solution, and he does no more than propose it: pher scanning with new sense the sphere in in his Preface declaring that, to himself at which he is to study; and the Christian the least
, his arguments “ appear to be of' no small temples in which he is to worship. Such, in philosophical force, though he is quite ready to his own words, is Sir David Brewster's final weigh carefully and cardidly any answer which and authoritative exposition of the CREED of may be offered to them.” the philosopher, and the hope of the Chris- We feel grateful to the accomplished Essaytian :of such a nature are to be the new ist for the store house of authentic facts, and heavens and the nero earth wherein dwelleth right- the novel combination of inferences from them, eousness; and such, henceforth, as he has in- with which he has presented us; and we are dicated, beconies the duty of the Christian not aware that he has given us just reason to teacher in the Family, in the School, in the regret confiding in his correctness or candor. Pulpit! So absolutely and irrefragably, it And in travelling with him through his vast seems, are demonstrated the stupendous facts and checkered course, we feel that we have of astronomical science on which this Creed and this Faithı depend: so unerring are our * Romans, i. 22. † Matthew, vii, 26, telescopes and other instruments, that he who Dialogue, p. 74
accompanied not only the philosopher and the act of faith; but God has thought fit to predivine, but the gentleman: one who, while serve an awful silence concerning his dealings manifestly knowing what is due to himself, as with other scenes of physical existence : while manifestly respects his intelligent reader. In He has as distinctly revealed that of spiritual several of his astronomical assumptions and beings whose functions are vitally connected inferences we may be unable to concur, par- with man, as he exists upon the earth, the ticularly in respect of the nebulous stars. We subject of a sublime economy, which, we are may also well falter at expressing a decisive assured by Inspiration, that the angels desire to “Ayo” or “ No," to the great question pro- look into. The Christian implicitly believes posed by him for discussion, on scientific that there is a HEAVEN, where the presence grounds, and independently of Scriptural Rev- of the adorable Deity constitutes happiness, to elation; yet we acknowledge that he has sen- the most exalted of His ministers and servants, sibly shaken our opinion as to the validity of perfect and ineffable: happiness in which He the reasons usually assigned for believing in a has solemnly assured us that we may hereafter plurality of worlds. He remorselessly ties us participate : for since the beginning of the world, down to EVIDENCE, as he ought to do; and men have not heard, nor perceived by the ear, all the more rigorously, because the affirmative neither hath the eye seen, o God, beside Thee, conclusion, at which many heedless persons what He hath prepared for him that waileth for are disposed to jump, is one which, if well Ilim.* founded, occasions religious difficulties of a This, our Maker has told us: he has not grave character among the profoundest and told us the other, nor anything about it: no, perhaps even devoutest thinkers. To suppose not when He visited the earth, unless we can that Omnipotence may not have peopled al- dimly see such a significance in the words, ready, or contemplate a future peopling of the " In my Father's house (oikia ) are many manstarry spheres with intelligent beings, of as sions (uovai): if it were not so, I would have different a kind and order as it is possible for told you. I go to prepare a place (rónov) for our limited faculties to conceive, yet in some you.” The word joun is used twice in the way involved in physical conditions, altogether New Testament, and in the same chapter:f inexplicable to us, would be the acme of im- in the verse already quoted, and in the 232 pious presumption. When we look at Sirius," If a man love me, he will keep my words: in his solitary splendor in the midnight sky, and my Father will love him, and we will pouring forth possibly fifty times the light and come unto him, and make our abode (uomo) heat of our sun, upon a prodigiously greater with him.” Here are the three words in the planetary system than our own, it is natural to same verse, oikia, Movn, TOTOS. In my Father's conjecture whether, among many other possibil- house there are povai moddal, many places of ities, it may be the seat of intelligence, perhaps aboole. Heaven is the orria, our common place, of a transcendent character. Here the imag- and it has many subdivisions, room enough for nation may disport itself as it pleases: yet we angels, as well as for the spirits of just men shall feel ourselves compelled—those who can made perfect. It is possibly an allusion to the think about the matter--to own, that our imagi- temple, God's earthly house, which had many nations are, as it were, “ cabined, cribbed, con- chambers in it. But who shall require us to fined,” by the objects and associations to which believe that this mom, was a star, or planet? we are at present restricted; and as the late It may be so, it may not; there can be no sin eminent Prussian astronomer, Bessel, observed, in a devout mind conjecturing on the subject; those who imagine inhabitants in the moon and but the Essayist does not meddle with these planets, TM supposed them, in spite of all their solemn topics: confining himself to the physiprotestations, as like to men, as one egg to cal reasons for conjecturing, with more or less another.".. But when we proceed further, and probability, that the stars are habitations for insist on likening these supposed inhabitants human beings. We take our leave of lim to ourselves, intellectually and morally, then with a quotation from his Dialogue, couched it is that both philosophy and religion concur in grave and dignified terms :in rebuking us, and enjoining a reverent diffidence. We have probably read as much on these subjects as many of our readers, and that you prove only that we do not know the planets
U. But your arguments are merely negative. with deep interest and attention; but we never to be inhabited. met with so cogent a demonstration as is con- 2. If, when I have proved that point, men tained in this Essay, of the theological difficul- were to cease to talk as if they knew that tho ties besetting the popular doctrine of a plural- planets are inhabited, I should have produced a ity of worlds. Had God vouchsafed to tell us great effect. that it was so, there would have been an end
U. Your basis is too narrow for so vast a 90of the matter, and with it all difficulty would have disappeared, to one whose whole life, as
* Isniah, Ixiv. 4; 1 Cor. ii. D. the Christian's ought to be, is one continued
† Jolin, xiv. 2, 23.
perstructure, so that all the rest of the universe, How much more glorious is it for the great God besides the earth, is uninhabited.
to have created innumerable worlds than this Z. Perhaps; for my philosophical basis is only little globe only! Do you ask, then, the earth-ihe only known habitation. But on what is This Spot to the great God? Why, as this same narrow basis, the earth, you build up much as millions of systems. Great and little a superstructure that other bodies are inhabited. have place with regard to us; but before Him What I do is, to show that each part of your they vanish away structure is void of tenacity, and cannot stand. It is probable that when we have reduced to
Fontenelle has much to answer for, if we their real value all the presumptions drawn from may judge from what has been said concernphysical reasoning, for the opinions of planets ing the extent and nature of the influence he and stars being either inhabited or uninhabited, has exercised on thoughtless minds. That the face of these will be perceived to be so small flippant but brilliant trifler, Horace Walpeic, that the belief of all thoughtful persons on this subject for instance, declared that the reading Fonwill be determined by moral, metaphysical, and theo tenelle had made him a sceptic ! He mainlogical consideration.*
tained, on the supposition of a plurality of “ More Worlds than One,” will not, we are That the reception of this opinion was suffi
worlds, the impossibility of any revelation ! constrained to say, in our opinion, add to the cient, with him, to destroy the credibility of well-earned reputation of Sir David Brewster: all revelation !+ This ground he has, if this It is a hasty and slight performance, entirely of a popular character, and disfigured through-l report be true, the honor of occupying with out, not only by an overweening confidence and peremptoriness of assertion, but by tinges differently, remembering fearfully, how often
Let us, however, think and speak and act of personality and outbursts of heat that are the wisdom of this world is foolishness with God. indeed strange disturbing forces in a philo- Is it, indeed, consistent with even mere worldsophical discussion. Dr. Whewell's Essay is ly wisdom, on the ground of an assumption a work requiring, in a worthy answer, great with regard to inhabited planets, to reject a consideration ; and we do not think that belief founded on direct and positive proofs, * More Worlds than One” evidences a tithe such as is the belief in the truths of Natural. of such consideration. Nor does Sir David and Revealed religion? show a proper respect for his opponent; nor has he taken a proper measure of his formida- “ Newton," says Dr. Chalmers, in his discourse ble proportions as a logical and scientific dis- on the Modesty of True Science, “ knew the putant, one who should be answered in a cold boundary which hemmed him. He knew that he and exact spirit; or it were much better to had not thrown one particle of light on the moral leave hiin alone. ' Sir David must forgive us, He had not ascertained what visits of communi
or religious history of these planetary regions. if we quote a sentence or two froin devout old cation they received from the God who upholds John Wesley,—a man who had several points them. But he knew that the fact of a Real of greatness in him :
Visit to this Planet had such evidence to rest Be not so positive, especially with regard to upon that it was not to be disposted by any things which are neither easy nor necessary to
aerial imagination." Let this noble and devout be determined. When I was young, I was sure
spirit be in us: both Faith and Reason assuring of everything. In a few years, having been mis- us, that we stand, in Scriptural Truth, safe and taken a thousand times, I was not half so sure immorable, like a wise man, which built his house of most things as before. At present, I am upon a rock.I hardly sure of anything, but what God has re
* Wisdom of God in the Worlds of Creation, vol, vealed to me!
Upon the whole, an in. iii. p. 265, genious man may easily Hourish on this head. † Monthly Magazine, A.D. 1798-art, “Walpoli* Dialogue, p. 42.
| Matthew, vii. 24.
THE STAR SQUABBLE.
Why will you anew stir the question with me? (AT PRESENT AGITATING ASTROLOGICAL AND
Excepting our planet, Creation's whole cluster THEOLOGICAL SOCIETY.)
'S as empty as you and your volume, Sir D. Says Brewster to Whewell, lets fight a star duel Says Brewster to Whewell, you've just got your
Though you're very cruel to raise such a strife. gruel, What! Nature muke worlds for mere lanterns, So, Mr. Professor, you'd best slecp upon it. or fael ?
Says Whewell to David, go get your head I tell you all planets are swarming with life. shaved,
Unless you're afraid of the bees in your bonSays Whewell to Brewster, you old Cock or det.
ENGLISH CALL ON FRANCE. men who are awaiting the signal to march in (FROJI THE TIMES or 25 Nov.]
the camps of the North and of the South, or
had they been there to second the energetic We have felt it our duty to urge emphati- attack which followed the repulse of the Ruscally upon our own Government and on our sian sortie, instead of a barren and bloody own country the absolute necessity of raising victory we might have had to rejoice over a whatever force we can for the purpose of re- day of signal and unlooked for success. cruiting our army in the Crimea, and convert-| France has undoubtedly the power, if she ing our present anxiety into speedy and glo- do but put forth her strength, in the course of rious success. But we must not forget that we a single month to restore to the allies the supeare not alone in this matter - that we have riority of numbers in the Crimea, and to digallant and faithful allies, whose blood has vert any future reinforcement from the banks been mingled with our own on the glorious of the Danube to those of the schernaya, and battle-fields of Alma and Inkermann, whose she is urged to do so by motives even stronger danger is our danger, and whose safety our than those whose thrill is felt in every English safety. Whatever support the English Gov- heart. She has the memories of former triernment can send to its army is also a support umphs to excite her emulation ; she has to to France, and in the degree in which the show that the soldiers of the second ompiro forces of the French are augmented the chance are worthy descendants of the conquerors of of preserving our own troops is proportionate- Austerlitz and Friedland, and to avenge in a ly increased. We make no apology, therefore, better cause, and on an equally conspicuous for employing towards the Government of our stage, the misfortunes of 1812. That same faithful and valliant ally the same tone of earn- Russia whose troops, when in alliance with all est entreaty which we have not scrupled to use the rest of Europe, she routed in so many towards our own. We have common dangers bloody battles, from Zurich to Borodino, now and common interests, and, when speaking of boasts herself to be strong enough, not merely the future management of the war, are assured to resist France alone, but France in strict ly dealing with a topic in which we are most and binding alliance with England. The nearly anıl intimately concerned.
present Emperor of FRANCE, though to his If England be not a military nation France honor he has ever shown himself desirous of may pre-eminently vindicate to herself the ti- peace, is, nevertheless, the depositary of the tle of a people of soldiers. The long cata- traditions and glories of the Empire, and can logue of her victories goes back to the middle never hope to establish a throne on any other ages, and identifies her with all the most bril- condition than that of maintaining untarnished liant achievements of modern warfare. Nay, the lustre of the arms of France and the her generals may be said to have created the freshness of her warlike renown. France has modern art of war itself, and the generation shown herself tolerant of and even anxious has not passed away which saw her victorious for peace, but she will not bear with patience standards planted on the ramparts of every the disasters of war, unless she be convinced capital of the continent of Europe. Nor do that all that human prudence and energy can the present military establishments of France do has been exhausted to avert them. The degenerate from the renown she has won in Emperor of the French has an infinitely so many brilliant encounters. She has prob- larger force than we, and has that force infiably at this moment within her boundaries nitely more at his disposal. In proportion to three hundred thousand men, completely dis- his greater means and greater powers is his ciplined, admirably organized, supplied with greater responsibility. He is even more deepevery requisite for immediate service, animat- ly interested in the result than we, inasmuch ed with the most glowing enthusiasm, and as his army in the Crimea is more numerous commanded by officers trained to the highest than ours. He must feel, as we do, that he is excellence ainid the burning sands and savage engaged in a duel to the death with a powertribes of Africa. When we have done all it ful adversary, from which there is no flinchis possible for us to do, we can do nothing in ing or drawing back. Either the gallant comparison with the power accumulated ready French army now encamped before Sebasto to the hand of our great ally. To send out pol must perish to a man, — for our enemies thirty thousand fresh men to succor our ex- no longer offer us the option between death hausted and beleagured army appears to us an and captivity, - or it must be reinforced to effort beyond the reach of possibility, while an extent which will render it able to resume the Emperor of the French has only to will the offensive, not only against the broken and it, and three times that number are ready at dispirited troops of the 5th of November, but a week's notice to carry his standards into the against whatever masses the despair of an abheart of the Russian empire. Had the gallant solute Government, all powerful over the lives charge which decided the Battle of Inker- of its subjects, may precipitate upon the allied mann been aided by only ten thousand of those armies. With our present numbers retreat and victory are alike impossible. We sincere- and England cannot command success, but, if ly hope, then, that the French Government, they are to meet with reverses, let them be which has acted throughout these transactions the result of superior skill, co
courage, or fortune with so much firmness, prudence, and good in their enemies, and not of a niggardly polifaith, will see the necessity of limiting its des-cy, which undertakes great enterprises with patch of soldiers to the East by nothing ex- small resources, sacrifices results in order to cept its means of transport. In this instance economize means, and, at once lavish and parnothing can be more wasteful than a niggard simonious, devotes one portion of its army to expenditure of life and money. If we ven- destruction in order to maintain the remainder ture little, we shall lose all; if we venture in idleness. boldly, we have every hope to win all. Let a hundred thousand French and fifty thousand English stand before Sebastopol, and where is
From The Times, 25 Nov. the force that will strive for a moment to hold
RUSSIA IN AMERICA AND CHINA. such an army in check! We should hear no more of surprises and investments, of succes- It conveys an impressive idea of the conses relinquished because we are not strong test in which this country and France are enough to grasp them, and victories left half now engaged to reflect, that we are pursuing accoinplished because we have not numbers to the ships and destroying the towns of our anpursue them to their legitimate result. As tagonist far beyond the limits of the civilized citizens of England, as allies of France, we world. and that the Russian power even in feol still more ashamed than dismayed at the the wilds of Kamschatka is exposed to be position our united forces occupy. It is not for challenged in this war. On the other hand, us to sue Russia in forma pauperis. Immea- it is no less remarkable that the resources of surably superior to her in wealth, in civiliza- the Russian empire appear to be equal to its tion, in intelligence — nay, more considerable extent, and that in the most remoté solitudes in her own peculiar element of numerical to which our seamen have penetrated, such as strength - we must not exhibit ourselves to Kola, in Lapland, and Petropaulovsky, in the world as having raised the Devil we Kamnschatka, we have encountered troops and cannot lay, and provoked a Power with which batteries well supplied with all the means of we are unequal to cope. We ought to carry defence and all the necessary stores of muniinto the battlefield that superiority which we tion and arms. Petropaulovsky is a settlehave so long maintained in the arts of peacement on that rugged peninsula which projects and war and exercised in the councils of man-into the seas of Northern Asia beyond the lonkind. Neither France nor England meant to gitude of Japan. It is a station for whalers expose their soldiers to unequal combats, or to and for the traffic of the Russian fur trade on treat their army as a forlorn hope, to be sac- the confines of Asia and America ; but the rificed in order to bridge over with their bod- distance and obscurity of such a position might ies the path to future victory. To us these well have preserved it from attack if it had considerations apply, though we never pre- not acquired a temporary interest as the place sumed to consider our army a match for the of refuge of the Russian squadron in the Par embattled myriads of the Emperor of Russia; cific. It was known on the outbreak of hosbut France claims, and with justice, to be the tilities that the Russians had three or four fi rst military Power in Europe, and is trifling ships-of-war in the Eastern Seas, which might :with her glory and her prestige if she does not do great injury to our coinmerce in the assert that claim by signal and successful ef Chinese and Australian_trade if they were forts. Both nations find themselves in an un- not closely watched. For this reason the foreseen and new position, and they will do British squadron in the Pacific was reinforced wisely to adapt themselves to it. We have by the Pique, and Admiral David PRICE, been awakened from a dream of easy victory an officer in whose energy and experience by a resistance surpassing in obstinacy any great confidence was placed, took the comthing that history records, and a sudden con- mand on that station. "Two Russian ships, the centration of force which has compelled us to Aurora and the Dwina, were known to be owe our preservation, not to the results of so- vessels of war well found and manned, for one ber and calculated action, but to prodigies of of them had taken advantage of the hospitality romantic and desperate valor. This must not of this country just before the rupture to rebe again. Great empires should not make pair her defects in Portsmouth Dockyard. It war upon a nation occupying one-sixth of the becaine therefore the duty of the French and habitable globe, if they are not prepared to English vessels on the station to co-operate in support armies capable not merely of defend the pursuit of these ships, to capture them if ing their intrenchments
, but of meeting and possible, and, if not, to render them unfit for encountering successfully every force that ulterior service. With this view the Amphimay take the field against them. Even France trite was despatched to watch their course