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The following tribes are also mentioned :
On White Creek, a branch of the Mis
Grand Yuc } 4000
700 Near Puans Bay.
North-West of L. Michigan, to the
On and near the Wabash toward the
But apprehening these might be different appellations for some of the tribes already enumerated, I have not inserted them in the table, but state them separately as worthy of further enquiry. The variations observable in numbering the same tribe may sometimes be ascribed to imperfect information, and sometimes to a greater or less comprehension of settlements under the same
A notice of the counties, cities, townships, and villages ?
The counties have been enumerated under Query IX. They are 74 in number, of very unequal size and population. Of these 35 are on the tide waters,
or in that parallel ; 23 are in the midlands, between the tide waters and Blue ridge of mountains; 8 between the Blue ridge and Alleghaney; and 8 westward of the Alleghaney.
The state by another division, is formed into parishes, many of which are commensurate with the counties: but sometimes a county comprehends more than one parish, and sometimes a parish more than one county. This division had relation to the religion of the state, a parson of the Anglican church, with a fixed salary, baving been heretofore established in each parish. The care of the poor was another object of the parochial division.
We have no townships. Our country being much intersected with navigable waters, and trade brought generally to our doors, instead of our being obliged to go in quest of it, has probably been one of the causes why we have no towns of any consequence. Williamsburgh, which till the year 1780, was the seat of our government, never contained above 1800 inhabitants ; and Norfolk the most populous town we ever had, contained but 6000. Our towns, but more properly our villages or hamlets, are as follows:
On James river and its waters, Norfolk, Portsmouth, Hampton, Suffolk, Smithfield, Williamsburgh, Petersburgh, Richmond, the seat of our government, Manchester, Charlottesville, New London.
On York river and its waters, York, Newcastle, Han
On Rappahannock, Urbanna, Port royal, Fredericksburgh, Falmouth.
On Patowmac and its waters, Dumfries, Colchester, Alexandria, Winchester, and Staupton.
On Ohio, Louisville.
There are other places at which, like some of the foregoing, the laws have said there shall be towns; but Nature has said there shall not, and they remain unworthy of enumeration. Norfolk will probably be the emporium for all the trade of the Chesapeak bay and its waters; and a canal of 8 or 10 miles will bring to
it all that of Albermarle sound and its waters. Secondary to this place, are the towns at the head of the tide waters, to wit, Petersburg on Appomattox. Richmond on James river. Newcastle on York river. Alexandria on Patowmac, and Baltimore on Patapsco. From these the distribution will be to subordinate situations in the country.
Accidental circumstances however may control the indications of nature, and in no instances do they do it more frequently than in the rise and fall of towns.
The constitution of the state, and its several charters?
Queen Elizabeth hy her letters patent, bearing date March 25, 1584, licensed Sir Walter Raleigh to search for remote heathen lands, not inhabited by Christian people, and granted to him, in fee simple, all the soil within 200 leagues of the places where his people should, within six years make their dwellings or abidings; reserving only to herself and her successors, their allegiance and one fifth part of all the gold and silver ore they should obtain. Sir Walter immediately sent out two ships which visited Wococon island in North Carolina, and the next year despatched seven with 107 men who settled in Roanoak island, about latitude 35° 50. Here Okiskoo, king of the Weopomeiocs, in a full council of his people is said to have acknowledged himself the homager of the Queen of England, and after her, of Sir Walter Raleigh. A supply of 50 men were sent in 1586, and 150 in 1587. With these last, Sir Walter sent a governor, appointed him 12 assistants, gave them a charter of incorporation, and instructed them to settle ou Chesapeak bay. They landed, however, at Hatorask. In 1588, when a fleet was ready to sail with a new supply of colonists and necessaries, they were detained by the Queen to assist against the Span
ish armada. Sir Walter having now expended 40,0001. in these enterprises, obstructed occasionally by the crown without a shilling of aid from it, was under a necessity of engaging others to adventure their money. He therefore, by deed bearing date the 7th of March, 1589, by the name of Sir Walter Raleigh, Chief Governor of Assamácomòc (probably Acomàc,) alias Wingadacoia, alias Virginia, granted to Thomas Smith and others, in consideration of their adventuring certain sums of money, liberty of trade to his new country, free from all customs and taxes for seven years, excepting the fifth part of the gold and silver ore to be obtained; and stipulated with them, and the other assistants, then in Virginia, that he would confirm the deed of incorporation which he had given in 1587, with all the prerogatives, jurisdictions, royalties and privileges granted to him by the Queen. Sir Walter, at different times, sent five other adventurers hither, the last of which was in 1602: for in 1603 he was attainted, and put into close imprisoninent, which put an end to his cares over his infant colony. What was the particular fate of the colonists he had before sent and seated, has never been known: whether they were murdered, or incorporated with the savages.
Sorne gentlemen and merchants, supposing that by the attainder of Sir Walter Raleigh the grant to him was forfeited, not enquiring over carefully whether the sentence of an English court could affect lands not within the jurisdiction of that court, petitioned king James for a new grant of Virginia to them. He accordingly executed a grant to Sir Thomas Gates and others bearing date the 9th of March 1607, under which, in the same year a settlement was effected at Jamestown and ever after maintained. Of this grant however, no particular notice need be taken, as it was superseded by letters patent of the same king, of May 23, 1609, to the Earl of Salisbury and others, incorporating them by the name of “the Treasurer and Company of adventurers and planters of the city of London for the first colony in Virginia,” granting to them and their successors all
the lands in Virginia from Point Comfort along the sea coast to the north ward 200 miles, and from the same point along the sea coast to the southward 200 miles, and all the space from this precinct on the sea coast up into the land, west and north-west, from sea to sea, and the islands within one hundred miles of it, with all the communities, jurisdictions, royalties, privileges, franchises and preeminences within the same, and thereto and thereabouts, by sea and land, appertaining in as ample manner as had before been granted to any adventurers : to be held to the king and his successors, in common soccage, yielding one fifth part of the gold and silver ore to be therein found, for all manner of services; establishing a counsel in England for the direction of the enterprise, the members of which were to be chosen and displaced by the voice of the majority of the company and adventurers, and were to have the nomination and revocation of governors, officers and ministers, which hy them should be thought needful for the colony, the power of establishing laws and forms of government and magistracy, obligatory not only within the colony, but also on the seas in going and coming to and from it; authorising them to carry thither any persons who should consent to go, freeing them for ever from all taxes and impositions on any goods or merchandise on importations into the colony, or exportation out of it, except the five per cent. due for custom on all goods imported into the British dominions, according to the ancient trade of merchants; which five per cent. only being paid they might, within 13 months reexport the same goods in foreign parts, without any custom, tax, or other duty, to the king, or any of his officers, or deputies; with powers of waging war against those who should annoy them; giving to the inhabitants of the colony all the rights of natural subjects, as if born and abiding in England; and declaring that these letters should be construed, in all doubtful parts, in such manner as should be most for the benefit of the grantees.
Afterwards on the 12th of March 1612, by other let