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and tried by the Superior Court, until the Legislature shall by law make other provision.

Art. 77. The General Court are empowered to give to justices of the peace jurisdiction in civil causes, when the damages demanded shall not exceed one hundred dollars, and title of real estate is not concerned, but with right of appeal to either party to some other court.

Art. 78. No person shall hold the office of judge of any court, or judge of probate, or sheriff of any county, after he has attained the age of seventy years.

Art. 79. No judge of any court of justice of the peace shall act as attorney, or be of counsel to any party, or originate any civil suit, in matters which shall come or be brought before him as judge or justice of the peace.

Art. 80. All matters relating to the probate of wills and granting letters of administration shall be exercised by the judges of probate in such manner as the Legislature have directed or may hereafter direct; and the judges of probate shall hold their courts at such place or places, on such fixed days, as the conveniency of the people may require, and the Legislature from time to time appoint.

Art. 81. No judge or register of probate shall be of counsel, act as advocate, or receive any fees as advocate or counsel, in any probate business which is pending or may be brought into any court of probate in the county of which he is judge or register.

Clerks of Courts. Art. 82. The judges of the courts (those of probate excepted) shall appoint their respective cerks, to hold their office during pleasure; and no such clerk shall act as an attorney or be of counsel in any cause in the court of which he is clerk, nor shall he draw any writ originating a civil action.

Encouragement of Literature, Etc. Art. 83. Knowledge of learning generally diffused through a community being essential to the preservation of a free government, and spreading the opportunities and advantages of education through the various parts of the country being highly conducive to promote this end, it shall be the duty of the legislators and magistrates, in all future periods of this government, to cherish the interest of literature and the sciences, and all semthese departments, shall exercise any of the powers properly belonging to either of the others, except as herein expressly provided.

ARTICLE IV.
Legislative.

Section I. 1. The legislative power shall be vested in the Senate and General Assembly.

2. No person shall be a member of the Senate who shall not have attained the age of thirty years, and have been a citizen and inhabitant of the State for four years, and of the county for which he shall be chosen one year, next before his election; and no person shall be a member of the General Assembly who shall not have attained the age of twenty-one years, and have been a citizen and inhabitant of the State for two years, and of the county for which he shall be chosen one year next before his election: Provided, That no person shall be eligible as a member of either house of the Legislature, who shall not be entitled to the right of suffrage.

3. Members of the Senate and General Assembly shall be elected yearly and every year, on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November; and the two houses shall meet separately 'on the second Tuesday in January next after the said day of election, at which time of meeting the legislative year shall commence; but the time of holding such election may be altered by the Legislature.

Section II. 1. The Senate shall be composed of one Senator from each county in the State, elected by the legal voters of the counties, respectively, for three years.

2. As soon as the Senate shall meet after the first election to be held in pursuance of this Constitution, they shall be divided as equally as inay be into three classes. The seats of the Senators of the first class shall be vacated at the expiration of the first year; of the second class at the expiration of the second year; and of the third class at the expiration of the third year, so that one class may be elected every year; and if vacancies happen, by resignation or otherwise, the persons elected to to supply such vacancies shall be elected for the unexpired term

only.

Section III.

1. The General Assembly shall be composed of members annually elected by the legal voters of the counties, respectively, who shall be apportioned among the said counties as nearly as may be according to the number of their inhabitants. The present apportionment shall continue until the next census of the United States shall have been taken, and an apportionment of the members of the General Assembly shall be made by the Legislature at its first session after the next and every subsequent enumeration or census, and when made shall remain unaltered until another enumeration shall have been taken: Provided, That each county shall at all times be entitled to one member; and the whole number of members shall never exceed sixty.

Section IV.

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1. Each house shall direct writs of election for supplying vacancies, occasioned by death, resignation, or otherwise; but if vacancies occur during the recess of the Legislature, the writs may be issued by the Governor, under such regulations as may be prescribed by law.

2. Each house shall be the judge of the elections, returns and qualifications of its own members, and a majority of each shall constitute a quorum to do business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the attendance of absent members, in such manner, and under such penalties, as each house may provide.

3. Each house shall choose its own officers, determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its members for disorderly behavior, and, with the concurrence of two-thirds, may expel a member.

4. Each house shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and from time to time publish the same; and the yeas and nays of the members of either house on any question shall, at the desire of one-fifth of those present, be entered on the journal.

5. Neither house, during the session of the Legislature, shall, with the consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place than that in which the two houses shall. be sitting.

6. All bills and joint resolutions shall be read three times in each house, before the final passage thereof; and no bill or joint resolution shall pass unless there be a majority of all the

members of each body personally present and agreeing thereto; and the yeas and nays of the members voting on such final passage shall be entered on the journal.

7. Members of the Senate and General Assembly shall receive annually the sum of five hundred dollars during the time for which they shall have been elected and while they shall hold their office, and no other allowance or emolument, directly or indirectly, for any purpose whatever. The president of the Senate and speaker of the House of Assembly shall, in virtue of their offices, receive an additional compensation, equal to one-third of their allowance as members.

8. Members of the Senate and General Assembly shall, in all cases except treason, felony and breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their attendance at the sitting of their respective houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any speech or debate, in either house, they shall not be questioned in any other place.

Section V.

1. No member of the Senate or General Assembly shall, during the time for which he was elected, be nominated or appointed by the Governor, or by the Legislature in joint meeting, to any civil office under the authority of this State which shall have been created, or the emoluments whereof shall have been increased, during such time.

2. If any member of the Senate or General Assembly shall be elected to represent this State in the Senate or House of Representatives of the United States, and shall accept thereof, or shall accept of any office or appointment under the govern ment of the United States, his seat in the Legislature of this State shall thereby be vacated.

3. No justice of the Supreme Court, nor judge of any other court, sheriff, justice of the peace nor any person or persons possessed of any office of profit under the government of this State, shall be entitled to a seat either in the Senate or in the General Assembly; but, on being elected and taking his seat, his office shall be considered vacant; and no person holding any office of profit under the government of the United States shall be entitled to a seat in either house.

Art. 97. In all cases where sums of money are mentioned in this Constitution, the value thereof shall be computed in silver at six shillings and eight pence per ounce.

Art. 98. To the end that there may be no failure of justice or danger to the State by the alterations and amendments made in the Constitution, the General Court is hereby fully authorized and directed to fix the time when the alterations and amend ments shall take effect, and make the necessary arrangements accordingly.

Art. 99. It shall be the duty of the selectmen and assessors of the several towns and places in this State, in warning the first annual meetings for the choice of Senators, after the expiration of seven years from the adoption of this Constitution as amended, to insert expressly in the warrant this purpose among the others for the meeting, to wit: To take the sense of the qualified voters on the subject of a revision of the Constitution; and the meeting being warned accordingly, and not otherwise, the moderator shall take the sense of the qualified voters present as to the necessity of a revision; and a return of the number of votes for and against such necessity shall be made by the clerk, sealed up and directed to the General Court at their then next session, and if it shall appear to the General Court by such return that the sense of the people of the State has been taken, and that, in the opinion of the majority of the qualified voters in the State present and voting at said meetings, there is a necessity for a revision of the Constitution, it shall be the duty of the General Court to call a convention for that purpose; otherwise the General Court shall direct the sense of the people to be taken, and then proceed in the manner before mentioned; the delegates to be chosen in the same manner and proportioned as the representatives to the General Court: Provided, That no alteration shall be made in this Constitution before the same shall be laid before the towns and unincorporated places and approved by two-thirds of the qualified voters present and voting on the subject.

Art. 100. And the same method of taking the sense of the people as to a revision of the Constitution and calling a convention for that purpose shall be observed afterward, at the expiration of every seven years.

Art. 101. The form of government shall be enrolled on parchment and deposited in the Secretary's office, and be a part of the

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