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Adopted October, 1876. Election of Judges of Probate and term of office.

Adopted October, 1876.
Compensation of General Assem-
bly and mileage.


Adopted October, 1876. In article VIII of amendments, the word "white" shall be erased from the first line.


Adopted October, 1880. Nomination of Judges by Governor, appointment by General Assembly.


Adopted October, 1884. Section 1. State officers to be elected bi

ennially after November, 1886. 2. How long their offices shall be

held. 3. Pay of General Assembly not to

exceed $300 for their term, and one

mileage each way of twenty-five cents


mile, when the regular session of the General Assembly shall

begin. 5. The Senators elected on the

Tuesday after the first Monday of November, 1885, shall hold their offices only until the Wednesday after the first Monday of January, 1887.


Adopted October, 1877. In regard to increasing the pay of officers and employes.


Adopted October, 1877. No city, county, town, borough, or other municipality shall ever subscribe to the capital stock of any railroad corporation, etc.


Adopted October, 1886.
Sheriffs, when to be elected.

PREAMBLE. The people of Connecticut, acknowledging with gratitude the

good providence of God in having permitted them to enjoy a free government, do, in order more effectually to define, secure, and perpetuate the liberties, rights, and privileges which they have derived from their ancestors, hereby, after a careful consideration and revision, ordain and establish the following Constitution and form of civil government:


Declaration of Rights. That the great and essential principles of liberty and free government may be recognized and established,

WE DECLARE, Section 1. That all men, when they form a social compact, are equal in rights; and that no man or set of men are entitled to exclusive public emoluments or privileges from the comwunity.

Sec. 2. That all political power is inherent in the people, and all free governments are founded on their authority, and instituted for their benefit; and that they have at all times an undeniable and indefeasible right to alter their form of government in such a manner as they may think expedient.

Sec. 3. The exercise and enjoyment of religious profession and worship, without discrimination, shall forever be free to all persons in this State, provided that the right hereby declared and established shall not be so construed as to excuse acts of licentiousness, or to justify practices inconsistent with the peace and safety of the State.

Sec. 4. No preference shall be given by law to any Christian sect or mode of worship.

Sec. 5. Every citizen may freely speak, write, and publish his sentiments on all subjects, being responsible for the abuse of that liberty.

Sec. 6. No law shall ever be passed to curtail or restrain the liberty of speech and of the press.

Sec. 7. In all prosecutions or indictments for libels the truth may be given in evidence, and the jury shall have the right to determine the law and the facts, under the direction of the court.

Sec. 8. The people shall be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and possessions from unreasonable searches or seizures, and no warrant to search any place, or to seize any person or things, shall issue without describing them as nearly as may be, nor without probable cause supported by oath or affirmation.

Sec. 9. In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall have a right to be heard by himself and by counsel; to demand the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted by the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process to obtain wit. nesses in his favor; and in all prosecutions, by indictment or information, a speedy public trial by an impartial jury. He shall not be compelled to give evidence against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, but by due course of law. And no person shall be holden to answer for any crime, the punishment of which may be death or imprisonment for life, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury; except in the land or naval forces, or in the militia when in actual service in time of war or public danger.

Sec. 10. No person shall be arrested, detained, or punished, except in cases clearly warranted by law.

Sec. 11. The property of no person shall be taken for publio use without just compensation therefor.

Sec. 12. All courts shall be open, and every person, for an injury done to him in his person, property, or reputation, shall have remedy by due course of law, and right and justice administered without sale, denial, or delay.

Sec. 13. Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed.

Sec. 14. All prisoners shall, before conviction, be bailable by sufficient sureties, except for capital offenses, where the proof is evident, or the presumption great; and the privileges of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless when, in case of rebellion or invasion, the public safety may require it; nor in any case, but by the legislature.

Sec. 15. No person shall be attainted of treason or felony by the legislature.

Soc. 16. The citizens have a right, in a peaceable manner, to assemble for their common good, and to apply to those invested with the powers of government, for redress of grievances, or other proper purposes, by petition, address, or remonstrance.

Ser. 17. Every citizen has a right to bear arms in defense of himself and the State.

Sec. 18. The military shall, in all cases and at all times, be in strict subordination to the civil power.

Sec. 19. No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house without the consent of the owner; nor in time of war but in a manner to be prescribed by law.

Sec. 20. No hereditary emoluments, privileges, or honors shall ever be granted or conferred in this State.

Sec. 21. The right of trial by jury shall remain inviolate.


Of the Distribution of Powers. The powers of government shall be divided into three distinct departments, and each of them confided to a separate magistracy, to wit: Those which are legislative, to one; those which are executive, to another; and those which are judicial, to another.


Of the Legislative Department. Section 1. The legislative power of this State shall be vested in two distinct houses or branches; the one to be styled The Senate, the other The House of Representatives, and both together The General Assembly. The style of their laws shall be, Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives in General Assembly convened.

Sec. 2. There shall be one stated session of the General Assembly, to be holden in each year, alternately at Hartford and New Haven, on the first Wednesday of May (altered by amendments of 1872, 1875, 1876 and 1884) and and at such other times as the General Assembly shall judge necessary; the first session to be holden at Hartford; but the person administering the office of Governor may, on special emergencies, convene the General Assembly at either of said places, at any other time. And in case of danger from the prevalence of contagious diseases in either of said places, or other circumstances, the person administering the office of Governor may by proclamation convene said Assembly at any other place in this State.

Sec. 3. The House of Representatives shall consist of electors residing in towns from which they are elected. The number of Representatives from each town shall be the same as at present practiced and allowed. In case a new town shall hereafter be incorporated, such new town shall be entitled to one representative only (altered by amendments of 1828, 1836 and 1875); and if such new town shall be made from one

more towns, the town or towns from which the same shall be made shall be entitled to the same number of Representatives as at present allowed, unless the number shall be reduced by the consent of such town or towns.

Sec. 4. The Senate shall consist of twelve members, to be chosen annually by the electors (altered by amendments of 1828, 1836 and 1875).

Sec. 5. At the meetings of the electors, held in the several towns in this State in April annually, after the election of Representatives, the electors present shall be called upon to bring in their written ballots for Senators (altered by amendments of 1836, 1875 and 1884). The presiding officer shall receive the votes of the electors, and count and declare them in open meeting. The presiding officer shall also make duplicate lists of the persons voted for, and of the number of


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