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ARTICLE XI.

Section 4. Voting residence. 5. Soldiers in United States army. 6. Qualification for office. 7. Persons convicted of crime.

or

ARTICLE VIII.

Education.

1. Free schools. 2. Gifts or grants in aid of schools. 3. Aid to sectarian schools pro

hibited. 4. Sale of text books - Teachers

and officers. 5. County

superintendent of schools.

Corporations. Section 1. Organization of corporations. 2. Existing charters. 3. Election of directors man

agers. 4. Construction of street railroads. 5. State bank forbidden.-General

law. 6. Liability of bank stockholders. 7. Suspension of specie payment. 8. Of a general banking law. 9. Railroad.—Transfer offices, re

ports. 10. Personal property of railroads. 11. Consolidations. 12. Railroads deemed highways.-

Rates fixed. 13. Stocks, bonds and dividends. 14. Power over existing companies. 15. Freight and passenger tariffs

regulated.

ARTICLE IX.

Revenue.

1. Taxation shall be uniform. 2. Other and further taxation. 3. Property exempt from taxation. 4. Sale of real property for taxes. 5. Right of redemption. 6. Release from taxation forbidden. 7. Taxes paid into State treasury. 8. Limitation on county taxes. 9. Local municipal improvements. 10. Municipal taxation. 11. Defaulting officers. 12. Limitation of municipal indebt

edness,

ARTICLE XII.

Militia. 1. Persons liable to duty. 2. Organization-Equipment-Disci

pline. 3. Officers. 4. Privileged from arrest. 5. Records, etc., preservation. 6. Exemption from duty.

ARTICLE XIII.

Warehouses.

ARTICLE X.

Counties. 1. New counties. 2. Division of any county. 3. Attaching or detaching territory. 4. Removal of county seats. 5. County government. 6. Board of county commissioners. 7. County affairs in Cook county. 8. County officers – Terms of office. 9. Salaries and fees in Cook county. 10. Salaries fixed by county board. 11. Township officers' fees. 12. Officers' fees. 13. Sworn reports of fees.

1. Public warehouses. 2. Weekly statements required. 3. Examination of property stored. 4. Delivery of full weights. 5. Delivery of grain by railroads. 6. Warehouse receipts. 7. Grain inspection.

ARTICLE XIV.

Amendments to the Constitution. 1. By a convention. 2. Proposed by the Legislature.

PREAMBLE. We, the people of the State of Ilinois — grateful to Almighty God for the civil, political and religious liberty which He hath so long permitted us to enjoy, and looking to Him for a blessing upon

а. our endeavors to secure and transmit the same unimpaired to succeeding generations — in order to form a more perfect govern. ment, establish justice, insure domestic tranquillity, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the State of Illinois.

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ARTICLE I.

Boundaries. The boundaries and jurisdiction of the State shall be as fol. lows, to wit: Beginning at the mouth of the Wabash river; thence up the same and with the line of Indiana to the northwest corner of said State; thence east with the line of the same State to the middle of Lake Michigan; thence north along the middle of said lake to north latitude forty-two degrees and thirty minutes; thence west to the middle of the Mississippi river, and thence down along the middle of that river to its confluence with the Ohio river, and thence up the latter river along its northwestern shore to the place of beginning: Provided, that this State shall exercise such jurisdiction upon the Ohio river as she is now entitled to, or such as may hereafter be agreed upon by this State and the State of Kentucky.

ARTICLE II.

Bill of Rights. Section 1. All men are by nature free and independent, and have certain inherent and inalienable rights. Among these are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. To secure these rights and the protection of property, governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed.

Sec. 2. No person shall be deprived of life, liberty or property without due process of law.

Sec. 3. The free exercise and enjoyment of religious profession and worship, without discrimination, shall forever be guaranteed; and no person shall be denied any civil or political right,

privilege or capacity on account of his religious opinions; but the liberty of conscience hereby secured shall not be construed to dispense with oaths or affirmations, excuse acts of licentiousness, or justify practices inconsistent with the peace or safety of the State. No person shall be required to attend or support any ministry or place of worship against his consent, nor shall any preference be given by law to any religious denomination or mode of worship.

Sec. 4. Every person may freely speak, write and publish on all subjects, being responsible for the abuse of that liberty; and in all trials for libel, both civil and criminal, the truth, when published with good motives and for justifiable ends, shall be a sufficient defense.

Sec. 5. The right of trial by jury, as heretofore enjoyed, shall remain inviolate; but the trial of civil cases before justices of the peace, by a jury of less than twelve men, may be authorized by law.

Sec. 6. The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers and effects against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated; and no warrant shall issue without probable cause, supported by affidavit, particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.

Sec. 7. All persons shall be bailable by sufficient sureties, except for capital offenses, where the proof is evident or the presumption great; and the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in cases of rebellion or invasion the public safety may require it.

Sec. 8. No person shall be held to answer for a criminal offense, unless on indictment of a grand jury, except in cases in which the punishment is by fine, or imprisonment otherwise than in the penitentiary, in cases of impeachment, and in cases arising in the army and navy, or in the militia when in actual service in time of war or public danger: Provided, That the grand jury may be abolished by law in all cases.

Sec. 9. In all criminal prosecutions the accused shall have the right to appear and defend in person and by counsel; to demand the nature and cause of the accusation, and to have a copy thereof; to meet the witnesses face to face, and to have process to compel the attendance of witnesses in his behalf, and a speedy public trial by an impartial jury of the county or district in which the offense is alleged to have been committed.

Sec. 10. No person shall be compelled in any criminal case to give evidence against himself, or be twice put in jeopardy for the same offense.

Sec. 11. All penalties shall be proportioned to the nature of the offense; and no conviction shall work corruption of blood or forfeiture of estate; nor shall any person be transported out of the State for any offense committed within the same.

Sec. 12. No person shall be imprisoned for debt, unless upon refusal to deliver up his estate for the benefit of his creditors, in such manner as shall be prescribed by law; or in cases where there is strong presumption of fraud.

Sec. 13. Private property shall not be taken or damaged for publio use without just compensation. Such compensation, when not made by the State, shall be ascertained by a jury, as shall be prescribed by law. The fee of land taken for railroad tracks, without consent of the owners thereof, shall remain in such owners, subject to the use for which it is taken.

Sec. 14. No ex post facto law, or law impairing the obligation of contracts, or making any irrevocable grant of special privi. leges or immunities, shall be passed.

Sec. 15. The military shall be in strict subordination to tbe

civil power.

Sec. 16. No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house without the consent of the owner; nor in time of war except in the manner prescribed by law.

Sec. 17. The people have the right to asseinble in a peaceable manner to consult for the common good, to make known their opinions to their representatives, and to apply for redress of grievances.

Sec. 18. All elections shall be free and equal.
Sec. 19. Every person ought to find a certain remedy in the

. laws for all injuries and wrongs which he may receive in his person, property, or reputation; he ought to obtain, by law, right and justice freely, and without being obliged to purchase it, completely and without denial, promptly and without delay.

Sec. 20. A frequent recurrence to the fundamental principles of civil government is absolutely necessary to preserve the blessings of liberty.

ARTICLE III.

Distribution of Powers. The powers of the government of this State are divided into three distinct departments—the Legislative, Executive, and Judicial; and no person, or collection of persons, being one of these departments, shall exercise any power properly belonging to either of the others, except as hereinafter expressly directed or permitted.

ARTICLE IV.

Legislative Department. Section 1. The legislative power shall be vested in the General Assembly, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives, both to be elected by the people.

Election. Sec. 2. An election for members of the General Assembly shall be held on the Tuesday next after the first Monday in November, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and seventy, and every two years thereafter, in each county, at such places therein as may be provided by law. When vacancies occur in either house, the Governor, or person exercising the powers of Governor, shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies.

Eligibility and Oath. Sec. 3. No person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained the age of twenty-five years, or a Representative who shall not have attained the age of twenty-one years. No person shall be a Senator or a Representative who shall not be a citizen of the United States and who shall not have been for five years a resident of this State, and for two years next preceding his election a resident within the territory forming the district from which he is elected. No judge or clerk of any court, Secretary of State, Attorney-General, State's Attorney, Recorder, Sheriff, or Collector of Public Revenue, members of either house of Congress, or person holding any lucrative office under the United States or this State, or any foreign government, shall have a seat in the General Assembly: Provided, That appointments in the militia, and the offices of notary public ad justice of the peace, shall not be considered lucrative. Nor shall any person

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