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Love as a Law, which was published in moorings. His was a kindly, generous, 1869. This book grew out of a course of broad, tolerant nature. He had no desire Lowell Institute lectures, delivered in Bos- to push an antagonist to the wall. His ton during the winter of 1867-68. It is whole desire was to harmonize opposing “an exposition of the cardinal principles factions and with all his great powers to of Christian philosophy, 'Thou shalt love build up the interests of his Master's the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and kingdom. thy neighbor as thyself.'” This law re- His life extended to above eighty-five quires love, which carried out, gives “love years, during sixty-two of which he ably as a law.” The end of love is the good and faithfully served his alma mater. In of the person loved. Six years before the beautiful month of June, 1887, his this, in 1863, President Hopkins published long, symmetrical, beautiful life drew to a Lectures on Moral Science. These lec- close. Very touchingly his life-long friend, tures met with much favor and formed a David Dudley Field, describes its sunset. text-book in various colleges. In 1873 On the day preceding his death, he drove appeared An Outline Study of Man, which out at twilight, stopped to drink at a also grew out of a course of twelve Lowell familiar spring, spoke of feeling quite Institute lectures in which, by the aid of a well, and came home to rest well. The blackboard, he had succeeded in popu- next day, his last day on earth, he remained larizing metaphysics. In this the gifted indoors, being a little restless. After relecturer set forth the law of the universe, tiring at night he became more restless, a law of conduct for man, and how to and finally, rising, took two or three turns carry this law into the details of life. In about the room, and then sitting down 1874 Prayer and the Prayer Gauge was in a chair by the bed, said to his aged published. In these forty-four pages we and dearly loved wife, “ This is a new find an able and lucid discussion of the sensation ; I think it must be death." It subject then so much striven over. In was indeed death, and it came at once. the Boston Monday Lectures for 1880–81 “Without lying down or saying another is printed a lecture which he delivered that word, he fell gently into the sleep of death." winter in Tremont Temple, on“ The Place No pain, no sense of suffering, no agoof Conscience.” In 1883 a thin volume nizing delay. In a moment the aged philentitled The Scriptural Idea of Man was osopher and saint had slipped off the published, containing six lectures which worn-out tenement, and his freed spirit President Hopkins had delivered at the was rejoicing amid the immortal glories. New Haven Theological Seminary in 1875, With his bereaved wife and sorrowing and repeated afterwards at Chicago and children mourned the whole college comat Oberlin. In March, 1883, after having munity, the townspeople, the widely scatbeen revised and somewhat rewritten, they tered alumni of Williams, and a great were given to the students at Princeton, company in all lands, who looked upon and in that form printed.

him as one of the ablest and staunchest After serving as president of Williams defenders of true religion. Men forgot College for thirty-six years, he resigned their differences over his grave. He was his position in 1872. But he continued their friend. They recalled the gentle, to give the benefit of his great name and noble qualities of that luminous intellect services as a lecturer on metaphysics to and loving heart. His great soul is with the college for the next fifteen years, God. His body rests under the waving until his death. He never missed a meet- trees of Williamstown. ing of the American Board during the If one examines the oration on Mystery, thirty years that he was its revered presi- which was delivered when he was twentydent. He was active in many forms of five years of age, the great qualities which philanthropic and religious work. He shone so conspicuously in after life are stood in the midst of heated and partisan seen just bursting into bloom. He vividly discussion, preserving a calm and dignified pictures the creation bursting upon the demeanor and meting out even-handed consciousness of the first man, then deals justice to all. Furious attacks on the with the mystery of facts and of known board or hot arguments in its defence did laws. There may be ignorance without not ruffle his calm, or drive him from his mystery. Events are mysterious if con

flicting with some known law or theory. ernment by its fruits. The star of hope is The solution is the “discovery of the a universal Christian brotherhood. The manner in which the mysterious fact con- vessel the fathers launched is yet upon the forms to the general law.” The highest deep. Let every man be at his post, hearpleasure is found in the discovery of a ing the voice of duty and of God. law to account for mysterious facts. All What a long and rare career of usefulness events are really equally mysterious, said was this of Mark Hopkins ! He did not the young tutor, but our senses are dead- expect to live so long. At the semi-cenened to some. Intelligence and experi- tennial, in 1843, he said: “When another ence help us to partial solutions, yet all half-century is past and the call shall go that is in our power is to reduce physical forth for the centennial gathering, we shall facts to general laws and general laws to not hear it. Long before that time the

most of us will have done what we have to Nearly twenty years later (December do for the weal or the woe of man. The 22, 1846), President Hopkins preached impressions which we choose to make in a sermon at old Plymouth, from the words: the yielding material of time will before “And all ye are brethren." He said that that have been made, and have become set the Pilgrims had in view religious free- in the eternal adamant of the past. . .. dom, the right education of their chil- Let us then throw ourselves upon the tide dren, and the extension of true religion of this great movement — the advancing among the savages. “Thank God, their tide of Christian progress, which we trust blood runs in our veins.” Equality and is to rise and swell and flow over the earth." affection form the basis of a perfect soci- He lived on forty-four of these fifty years, ety. Equality means the largest liberty and did more than any other to round out to the individual compatible with the and fulfil his own prediction of “a high good of the whole. Government is not an career of usefulness for the half-century to end but a means. It should secure per- come” at Williams College. sonal liberty and equality, the diffusion of knowledge, security, the prompt adminis- said, “I have no reason to suppose I should

The government must appeal to the higher men have ever so grandly paid back their principles of man's nature. Its rule should debt to an alma mater. He kindled fires be not by fear but by affection; then which will burn as long as human intellects it will call forth sacrifices and quicken respond to great thoughts. He lives on in the intellectual powers. The government the nobler lives of his students. Thousands is a great school for the discussion of respond to the lamented Garfield's hearty questions relating to the interests, rights, acknowledgment of mental indebtedness and duties of social man. The English to him ; and millions of men who never and American character is what it is be- saw Williams College have felt their souls cause it has been trained in such a school. kindle under the glow of his splendid intelChrist had struck down the old systems of lect. As the centennial of Williams College religion, the systems of Greece and India. draws near, her sons will prepare to sing What was needed was not blind submission again the praises of her greatest alumnus and superstition, but reverence for God. and renowned president. The passing years In this spirit were wrought the institutions make more evident how great a place he of our fathers. Let men judge this gov- filled.

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By Edward B. Williams.


N a country so large transient. It is understood, because forced - and populous as the upon observation. But a gradual decline

United States, with in- in agriculture might continue so slowly and dustries so various, the deceptively that it would escape general changes from year to notice. If commerce and manufactures year in the aggregate could prosper, while the farmer's land was of income and produc- losing value, his crops bringing low prices,

tion are so slight, that his debts increasing, and his income dethe tendency toward gain or loss is difficult creasing, neither capitalists nor workingto detect. Gains are offset by losses; and men would concern themselves. The farstill production shows a steady increase; mer himself would sell out and invest in it corresponds to the increase of popula- city property, while his son would become tion, and outstrips this gain by a large a mechanic or clerk. Meanwhile there percentage in the interval between the would be an abundance of bread, meat, census years. Barring out the effects of fruit and vegetables, clothing and furniture, commercial crises and of war as tem- cheap, and all products of city industry porary, we know that the growth of declining in value. This would seem a wealth in the last twenty-five years has golden era for the workingman and all who been immense. The shortage in some buy goods. crops, the depressions in some kinds of Is this a true description of the present manufacturing, and the crises in business, situation? Then can the farmer stand the are only the ebb in the tide of prosperity, pressure — or, if he gives way, will it injure soon to rise higher than before.

the mechanic, the operative, the laborer, Agriculture is considered the foundation or the merchant? These classes are supof all industry. It is so in most countries, posed to know their own interest and proand much more extensively so in a low and vide for themselves. If the farmer grumprimitive civilization. « The king himself bles, he is supposed to be getting along, is served by the field.” If the farmers are and to be envious of the rapid gains of the few in any state, the people must largely business class. We have no “ agricultural import their food. According to Giffen, distress," no agrarian laws, no peasant one-third of the population of England live class, no slaves. Most American farmers on imported food. In the eastern manu- own their land. How can they suffer and facturing states in America there is a like become poorer, except by their own bad dependence upon cheap western crops. management and laziness? The possession Only nine per cent of the people of Mas- of land is proclaimed to be the basis of sachusetts and Rhode Island are engaged freedom and power by the industrial rein farming. As long as there is peace be- formers. The discontent of the farmer tween a mercantile or manufacturing com- arises from his burning desire to make munity and its base of supplies, or while money faster than he can do on the farm ! trade continues profitable to both sections, Has he any idea that the great fortunes both will prosper. When war arose be- made in business may put the small landtween the North and South, commercial holder at a disadvantage by his marked distress in the North, the South, and in inferiority in capital, and run him out in England immediately followed. The con- competition ? The farmers have been comsequences were felt in all Europe, in Egypt, plaining and combining for twenty years. and in India.

The grangers had a great wave of popuNo great disability can fall upon a great larity and public notice. They controlled division of industry in this country, without legislation in some of the western states affecting other industries here, and to a for a time. Their measures were not alserious extent abroad. A convulsion or ways wise or successful. Now they seem disaster has a quick effect, sometimes but to be out-generalled and abashed. We shall watch with interest the new movement The peasant and tenant farmers throughin the South. It was right that the farmers out great parts of Europe are unable to should control legislation when they were improve their condition without the conin the majority. If they made mistakes, sent and assistance of their landlords or they could learn better. Being in the ma- their governments. The crops are sold jority, they would not strive to oppress or cheap, the working-classes are unable to rob themselves. But they lacked ready buy freely, are poorly fed and underfed, money, while furnishing the means of mak- and production is restrained by the poving it to railroads and other corporations. erty and physical weakness of the workingThe first man in the West is the specula- man. Only actual distress appeals to the tor, with or without money; after him the helpful sympathy of the better classes. farmer.

They are satisfied, because they are not in The farmer is at the mercy of the busi- want or obliged to toil. This is the natural ness class. He knows it. The business result of our Christian (?) civilization and man knows it. Though most of the busi- natural selection in beautiful harmony. In ness men fail, their money remains in their bleak and sterile lands like Switzerland, class and increases in its main volume. there is more practical equality and difMany men are killed in war; the armies fused income. We might anticipate that are much diminished; but the survivors northern New England and the mountainconquer, live, and divide the spoils. So ous tracts of the Alleghanies and Rockies in business. The money-power concen- will always be the seat of freedom and entrates and fixes values at pleasure. This durable poverty; and perhaps, centuries power to fix values by speculation, corner- hence, when the people of the Mississippi ing, pools, trusts, and corporations makes basin are degraded by effeminacy in the all outsiders dependents.

upper classes and slavery, shall we say, The farmer is not identified with the among the multitudes, the poor and hardy 66 workingman”; neither is his interest races from the mountains may become identical with that of the capitalist. He their rulers by right of conquest, — Chrisbelongs to a conservative middle class, tianity aside, as usual. But we hope hisalways valuable as an assurance against tory will not repeat itself. We do not oppression from above and disorder from expect that the nation which abolished below. If we are in danger from a moneyed black slavery will submit to white serfdom. aristocracy, we may well be anxious to Before evils are assumed to exist, or to preserve the financial and social freedom be approaching, it is sensible to examine of the farmer. If there is no one between the signs or proofs of them. The Amerithe millionnaire and the soil, those who till can disposition to self-confidence and it will be in the direct employ of the mil- boasting has long since sobered down, lionnaire. Machinery is now applied to the among most of the people, to a thoughtsoil, as it is to its products. When our ful and apprehensive mood. There is no railroads do not pay well, when our manu- question that the wage-working classes are facturing is overdone, when our foreign generally uneasy and disposed to combine trade is small comparatively, and by for- for self-protection. They are not profiting eign vessels, when there is no more desira- by the cheapness of farm products. What ble government land to buy or to grant, they gain by low prices for goods is more our great landholders will become great than lost often by low wages, high rents, landlords, or bonanza farmers. Who can and scarcity of employment. The discompete with them in great staple products ? parity between their poverty, preventing The large farms can undersell the small saving and obliging debt, and the immense ones, until the small farmer is obliged to growth of national wealth, is enough in sell out and work for the capitalist, run itself to give them alarm, and it is in vain hopelessly in debt, or become a tenant. to try to hoodwink them by optimistic He can no longer have a homestead. Per- parade of their advantages over European haps the rich man would rather be a land- labor by writers who are in the interest lord than a farmer, as in England. In that and sometimes in the direct employ of case, the rent would be as much as the those who want to keep the sheep still tenant could bear, and still keep the land while they are sheared. It is for the in good condition.

farmer to choose whether he will curry favor, as a landowner and infant capitalist, hind, where is your “honest yeomanry, a with the corporation which nurses him for country's pride”? a profit, or depend upon the welfare of the For the year 1850 the average income rest of the population, which furnishes of the farming population was $349. In him a market for nearly all he raises. If 1880 it was $288. This is based on rethe poverty of the majority is the pov- turns of farm-product, includes the income erty of the farmer, here is one place where of farm-hands, and makes no deduction we must watch for evil to the farmer for interest, taxes, and loss and shrinkage.

It is easy to take figures and statistics In 1850 the number to each farm of farmprepared by men self-interested, or even ing population was 2.56 ; in 1880, it was disinterested, and, by ignoring certain 1.89. Here again machinery has sent the great factors of fundamental import, make superfluous farm-hand to the town. The a fair showing for the farmer, to overawe farmer's expense is lessened and his power the ignorant and timid, and silence the of production increased, perhaps twofold, doubter. To find out whether the farmer by using the mower, reaper, thresher, hayis losing or gaining, his condition in the tedder, sulky-plough, and grain-drill. Is present and the past must be compared. the farm-hand he sends to town able to To show how much better off he is than buy the increased production without a lowthe European peasant may have a sooth- ered price? In the comparison of prices ing effect upon some spirits. To show that at different periods there is risk of great his condition is worse now than it was ten, error, because prices vary so much, actwenty, and thirty years ago, would have a cording to the season and during the same rousing effect upon most men.

year. But if prices are low in the city for Personal recollections of personal ex- farm-products, the farming business will perience in a few localities are not conclu- not offer so hopeful a prospect. The consive data. The census heretofore has not tinual transfer of population to cities ingiven much or thorough attention to those creases the capital invested there, and facts and figures which would throw a sat lowers the price of farms. Also, the low isfactory light upon the question of agri- price of farm-produce argues that the cultural prosperity from decade to decade. farmer can feed an increasing city populaIn America it is a rather new subject of tion without making money in the same investigation. The labor question, closely proportion. And if the income of the allied to the agricultural problem, is new. whole farming-class was lowered $61 per Before the war our general and rapid man in thirty years, while the farm-hands progress was so apparent and so generally diminished considerably, it points to the shared, that the knowledge of its exist- presumption that the average farmer canence was enough to satisfy, and the cen- not afford to pay so much for help. Even sus returns and business reports were as long ago as 1861 a writer in Appleton's not scrutinized by experts and publi- Cyclopædia said, “15 years ago (1846) cists as they now are for even minute in- the writer required 20 men to cultivate dications of industrial movements and properly a garden of thirty acres ; now, tendencies.

by the use of a few judiciously chosen If we compare the years 1850, 1860, horse-tools, he cultivates many times that and 1880, we escape irregular prices and area, with but 8 farm-hands, 4 of whom the inflation during and after the war. By are boys.” But in 1887 the statistician of the census returns, the specific figures for the Agricultural Department said, “Low each point in each census year are not prices of farm-produce have caused a realways presented. Among all the working duced demand for human labor — in some population, including every class of occu- cases farmers of the poorer class have pation, in 1850, the farmers and farm hands abandoned cultivation of their own land were 7 per cent ; in 1870, 47; in 1880, 44 and accepted employment from others." per cent. Diversified industry -- a better The farm-hand at this day obtains higher market for the farmer, great increase in monthly wages than before the war, but manufactured products. All this is very he is less in demand, while the product is good. But if the rural vote is diminished so increased that the prices are not re33 per cent, and the farmer must turn to munerative to the small farmer. town work for a living, like the English Tables of wages have been compiled

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