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and discussed very freely and frequently, farm-hand. In the first instance, land is but the facts concerning the farmers' in- worth $38.65, in the second, $5.18 per acre. come are harder to obtain with exactness, Yet in the manufacturing states farm-land and the precise attempt has, perhaps, never is falling in value. The above figures are been made officially. A man carrying on from the United States Agricultural Rea private business is reluctant to publish ports. In Hudson's Railways and the the financial details. The amount of Republic it is stated that while the acreages product per head, or per farm, is only a of improved land increased in New York, rough approximate to the average net in- Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Maryland, Delacome. Quite often crops do not pay the ware, Vermont, and Maine 5,166,000 acres, cost of production, and one bad season farm-land lost in value $408,000,000. Even may blast the farmer's prosperity.

in Illinois, the first agricultural state in the The increase in manufactures does not union, the rural population is decreasing, relieve the farmer by increasing the rela- and lands can be bought as low, or lower; tive number of employés and lessening the than twenty years ago. The complaint in competition in food production. The pro- the East is that farming don't pay ; in the portion of the four great working classes Central states, that the railroads rob the hardly varied from 1870 to 1880. It was, producer ; in the New West, that the landin proportion to all workers, in

grabber dictates terms to the settler and Agricul- Manufac- Prof. & Trade & the great ranches absorb the best tracts with

ture. tures. Personal. Trans. the available water. 1870, percentage 47-35 21.65 21.47 9.53 The future of farming is in the Missis1880, " 44.1 23.04 22.1 10.4 sippi valley, if anywhere, and the prospect Or agriculture lost 61 in 100 hands, while of the great grain states of the West, where manufactures gained 6 in 100. Taking agriculture will always be the first interest, these two classes apart from the others, is of serious importance to every one who however, we have a difference of 13 per eats bread and meat. If tenant-farming cent in favor of manufactures. The sure increases until the greater portion of the inference is that we are becoming a manu- land pays rent, the assessed value may rise, facturing people and that farming is on the while the increase in taxes is added to the decline. A reaction is possible ; but peo- rent. The high price of land, while rent ple are pretty certain to forsake a pursuit is also high, will hold the farmer in his which does not pay, if they have power to dependent position. This state of things choose, for one which does pay. The is already realized in California, where other classes also gained a small percent- great proprietors absorb the proceeds of age. In a hundred years these propor- the crops. The number of tenant farmers tions would show a change, if unchecked in the country was first ascertained by the in their tendency, amounting to a total census of 1880. Their number, as returned revolution in our social system. Nearly in 1890, will be a strong circumstance in all the population, including the farmers, showing the tendency to capitalistic investwould be working for wages. We should ment in land. The increase in the number assimilate to the present condition of Eng- of large farms will also be good evidence lish working people, and classes would be of the establishment of landed estates. fixed and well-defined. If we can rely The power to buy and hold great tracts of upon the enlightened humanity of the em- fertile land is the power to enslave those ployer, very well. Where there is the who live upon it, whether the bondage is densest population and the greatest wealth nominal or real, mild or severe. per caput in the United States, in Massa- The low price of new land, with the dechusetts and Rhode Island, only 9 per cline in value of the old, is a most favorable cent of the people are engaged in farm- chance for investment for those who have ing; in Indiana, 52; in Illinois, 44 ; in the money. Arkansas, 83 (the highest) ; in Mississippi, The average number of acres to each 82 per cent.

farm in the country was in In states where 18 per cent are farmers,


1880 their average income is $457. In states

199 where 77 per cent are farmers, their aver- Little change appears in thirty years. In age income is $160. This includes the 1850 it was roughly estimated that i in every 3.19 of the male population over creased over 900 per cent in value, while 21 was a landholder. By the census of Pennsylvania gained 96 per cent. From 1880 there was a farm to every 3.19 of this 1875 to 1885 farm-land in Massachusetts class of the population, to say nothing of decreased in value 14.12 per cent on woodother real estate. “In eastern Nebraska land, 12.53 on unimproved, but gained 4.95 and Kansas and western Iowa and Missouri per cent on cultivated land. But the gross there were more large farms twenty years income of the farmer in that state was ago than there are to-day.” (James Willis $1061, far above the average of the whole Gleed, Forum, March, 1890.) Here is country. proof that the average size of farms has I n 1886 state district agents reported to decreased. It is an established fact that the Agricultural Department at Washington small farms well worked pay better than concerning the financial condition of the large farms poorly worked. The market- farmers. They declared that eastern farmgardener makes more than the grain farmer. ers were not much burdened ; that many If large tracts are held to sell in quanti- of the more prosperous had western mortties to suit, there is little danger of land gages, and the greatest amount of debt was monopoly. But if these great areas in west of the Mississippi. In New York private hands — whole counties, duchies three-tenths of the farms were mortgaged, and principalities — are held to aggrandize 1 in 20 hopelessly, and land had depreprivate individuals, titles of rank add a ciated fully 33 per cent in ten years. A mere nothing to the power of their owners. large proportion of farm-mortgages were

202 199 153



Between 1870 and 1880 farms of 50 to held by other farmers. Twenty per cent 100 acres have increased in number 37 of the farmers had other investments, but per cent; those of 100 to 500 acres have only 5 per cent had money in anything but trebled ; between 500 and 1000 acres quin- farm property. In Pennsylvania one-fourth tupled their increase ; and those of over of the farmers were in debt. The same in 1000 acres are eight times as numerous. Ohio. In Kentucky only 8 per cent; in In 1883 eight men owned over 18,000,000 Michigan, one-third ; in Illinois, the same; acres, or each of them, on an average, in Wisconsin, 20 or 25 per cent ; in Kanowned a state three times the size of Rhode sas, one-half, but less debt than ten years Island. The railroads have received whole ago ; and in Nebraska but little debt. In kingdoms of the best land in the country. the New West the rapid rise in land-values, All of the government land is now disposed with low and easy terms of purchase, make of, which was considered fit for farming. mortgages at high interest a safe thing in Great land-grants are nothing new in our very many cases, but poverty and lost crops history. They have been sold in small lots, make the settler's lot a hard one just as and settled by a numerous population. If often. The census is expected to ascerthis process goes on as heretofore, the tain the extent of farm-mortgages this year. farmer may remain a freeholder. But if The eastern farmer has capital and owns our money-lords desire to enclose great his farm, and has a better market close at parks and hunting-grounds, and then put a hand. He is in a small minority of all the high price on the land they are willing to farmers. Many western farmers are as sell, they can gradually raise the artificial rich, some of them much richer, than the value of all land; or if they wish to pur- owner of rugged New England soil; but chase, they can depreciate the value by the average western producer, though he railroad discrimination in a certain district, may load a small freight-train with his compelling the sale of any kind of product crops in a good season, has a market and at ruinous rates, till producers must cease soil alike so unreliable, that he is often at and sell their plant.

the mercy of the speculator and mortgage Land-hunger has not yet become an company. It does not insure his success American trait. Land is easy to acquire. that the soil is rich and the market great, Owners sell freely. Land is not sought, because the seasons are uncertain and he but the profit on it. Where population has never been able to control the market. grows but slowly, no one cares to invest, The farmer cannot now go further west unless their means and plans are such that with advantage. The railroads and the they are confident of drawing population. ranches have the start of him. In the Between 1850 and 1860 Iowa land in- South 8,000,000 negroes till the soil. The farmer must study the situation and plundered, without getting any help from make every move with care. The fight those sworn to do their will. But the case for a free life and a true home must be is not yet so bad as this. The American

corporations must be controlled by the going on, and they are themselves at fault farmer and laboring-man, or in a few years for the prevalence of hasty greed, and careit may be called treason for a man to ex lessness in public affairs; and, after all, press such a conviction. If the govern- there is much more integrity and faithfulment is in the hands of a moneyed aristoc- ness among our statesmen and public men racy and the newspapers are in the same than they are credited with in many quarinterest, the people will be deceived and ters.


By Richard E. Burton.


COFT languors on the bosom of the deep,

J A blissful swoon that takes the sense in thrall ;
My hopes are dead, my memory is asleep,

I only lie and watch the waters fall
And lift, and let my tired spirit steep

In sun and sea, as happy as a hound

That lazes on a plot of grassy ground;
Until the dim night shadows come and creep

Between the day and me, and end it all.

No voice of crickets wearing thro' the night

From skeins of dew in scented summer fields;
No sleep-time chirp of birds, no tree that yields
A solemn sigh when touched by breezes light.
Instead, a throb of engines in their might,

The scurrying seamen with their weird Yo-ho!
The creak of ropes, the lapping of sad waves,
That seem to grieve above forgotten graves

And gossip on lost ships of long ago.


UP stole a fog, a chill and ghastly thing,

That gloomed the sea and hid her face from me ;
My soul was like a bird with broken wing;

A dismal bell warned homing barks away.

Then shot a sun-shaft; like a phantom host,

Born of the night and mailed in sullen white,
The riven mists drew off, and lo! the coast

Lay green and glad beyond the waters gray.


By George Stewart, LL. D., D.C.L.

UN his suggestive work well known, wrote his remarkable volume,

on American litera- now a rare treasure in the storehouse of ture, Mr. Charles F. the bibliophile, — for I believe less than Richardson empha- half a dozen copies exist, - Premier étasizes the point, that in blissement de la foy dans la Nouvelle a measure, American France, as a protest in behalf of the

literature is an offshoot Recollet Fathers (so warmly favored by

S y of English literature; Count Frontenac) and to offset the enand the idea is further advanced that croachments of the Jesuits, at that time very no language and literature except the powerful in the new country. Charlevoix, English have ever put forth an offshoot on the other hand, espouses the cause of in another country : that is, a new liter- the Society of Jesus, and presents the exary development, having the form and cellent Recollets in a light which robs them characteristics of the parent stem, yet of much color. Ferland wrote his history growing under essentially different con- from the severely ecclesiastical side, and ditions. This interesting statement seems, from Garneau we have the national view, to my mind, somewhat open to modifica- though the reader is to be warned against tion. In a corner of the North American the wretched translation of the work by continent, in the province of Quebec, we Bell, which takes extraordinary liberties have precisely the same condition of things, with the text, and constantly misrepresents only the language is French and not Eng- the author. Of course, as has been said, lish. Up to half a century ago, French these works have their value, but they Canada had no literature at all. With the must be read with caution, and only after rebellion of 1837, the literary spirit began due allowance is made for the conditions its career. A vigorous newspaper press under which they were composed and the was patriotically maintained long before purpose which they were intended to that date. Printed books in plenty were serve. to be had, of course ; but though they The literary spirit in Quebec has been treated of Lower Canada, and dwelt on her derived from France, and Hugo, Lamartine, splendid historical past, her sacrifices for and Beranger have exercised a marvellous Church and State, her missionary progress influence on the pens of the French-Canaand mental development, these studies dian authors. Statecraft, however, the were not the work of native authors. French Canadian has worked out from the Most if not all of the books were written English model, that form of government by priests and travellers from old France; offering him the greater number of advanand though these works are copious enough, tages, and being eminently suited to his very few of them are trustworthy. The requirements. The strongest name in his contests of the periods which they describe list of patriots is that of Sir George Etienne developed antagonisms, and prejudice and Cartier, - a father of the present conpartisanship tinge deeply the various nar- federation, and whose speeches to-day ratives. Still, the early printed books are afford inspiration to the budding orator.. not devoid of value, though as true chron- It was for many years that statesman's icles they hardly claim our respect. Of boast that he was an Englishman who unity and sympathy there is little, but as spoke French, and yet at heart, in sentiexpressions of current partisan feeling on ment and in practice, Cartier was thorthe different movements of the time, the oughly French, and the prime upholder of books often throw light, which the investi- the French Canadian's chief articles of gator will not fail to prize. With the aid faith, “our laws, our language, and our of official documents, now easy of access, institutions." he will find little difficulty in satisfying his There is not much originality in the mind as regards facts. Le Clercq, as is French-Canadian pen. It betrays con

stantly its true origin, and echoes the ma- and infidelity; but for all that, British ternal voice always. A French academi- valor and the British throne find little, if cian, however, once fancied that in the any, expression in the heroic verse of the poetry of Frechette he detected signs of province. And yet no one would think something with which he was unfamiliar. of questioning the fealty of the French He described it as something French, and Canadians. Their loyalty is particularly yet not wholly French. The poet partially effusive, and at all banquets and public relieved him of his doubt by suggesting dinners the health of the queen is drank that the unknown quantity in his work with enthusiasm, and the national anthem might be Canadian. But there are very invariably closes the entertainment at all few French-Canadian writers who are so places of amusement, the people standing distinctively French-Canadian as Frechette. with uncovered heads. But, notwithstandWe must not forget, however, that French ing all this, the only heroes who are imCanada has practically only begun her lit- mortalized in French-Canadian poems are erary career. The influence of the model men of the blood who fought Englishmen, is still strong, and originality may come in and the only battlefields which find place time.

in their songs are those on which the comMr. Richardson's task was to discover mon enemy appeared. One exception wherein American literature really differs there is, the generous-hearted De Salafrom English literature, and wherein it is berry, who fought under the British fag but a branch bearing the same fruit in a against the Americans at Chateauguay. different corner of the enclosure. We may Pæans in his honor are sung, but they are not follow him in his investigation. Eng- dedicated to his personal renown alone, lish literature may be said to have two and not to the general cause. branches on this continent, the contribu A few years ago Frechette's drama of tion from the United States, and the con- Papineau was produced on the stage, in tribution from Canada ; the latter, it must Quebec, before an audience of a thousand be confessed, is not yet extensive nor very persons. The heroic and patriotic pasvaluable, though it is creditable. But Eng. sages, with which the play abounds, were land's French Canadians are also adding applauded to the echo. The English milto a parent stem; the stem, however, is itary officers, however, and the sentiments French. The French Canadians are ex- which they uttered, were roundly hissed by ceedingly loyal to Britain. A distinguished three hundred young fellows in their teens, son of the soil once said that the last shot who inherited the feeling, doubtless, in for the maintenance of British connection their cradles. And yet those half-grown in Canada would be fired by a French men would fight willingly to maintain BritCanadian. His queen rewarded his patri- ish connection to-morrow, were it in danotism and his services by creating him a ger of being severed, even though they knight and conferring upon him the cov- oppose, with all their might, the policy of eted title of aide-de-camp on her personal imperial federation. staff. But though the devotion of the French Canada, notwithstanding its limFrench Canadians to Britain is strong, and ited opportunities, and the ever-watchful a plebiscite would establish it beyond per- eye of the extreme wing of the church, adventure to-morrow, yet for all that, the which exercises censorship over the pens poets love to sing the praises of the patriots of the faithful, has done very well in letof 1837, and Papineau is still their idol, ters. Poetry, history, and the Chronique though fifty years and more have rolled - the latter borrowed from France - are away since he raised the flag of revolt, and prosecuted with industry, and not a little the old wrongs have long ago been re- ability. Two or three respectable magadressed. This, perhaps, is only natural; zines are maintained, and their circulation but with all their admiration of British in- is on a paying basis. Fifty years ago, the stitutions it is surprising how little in the mental activity of the people of Lower way of praise the Quebec poets and essay- Canada found expression principally in the ists find to say about them. Many writers stormy arena of politics. The great probare ready to admit at once that on no ac- lem of responsible or constitutional govcount would they change their allegiance ernment occupied the attention of her pubto that of France, with her conscription lic men, the Papineaus, Lafontaines, and

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