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journalism, and makes a charming travelling companion, being gifted with a vivid imagination and keen, but unobtrusive, observation. Mrs. S. Frances Harrison has written some exceedingly clever sketches, full of a subtle appreciation of the more attractive side of French-Canadian life and character. Mr. Nicholas Flood Davin, who is well known in the Dominion as " the poet, journalist, and orator,” is a witty, voluble Irishman, brilliant in his writings and positively dazzling on the floor of the House of Commons. His Eos : An Epic of the Dawn is well worthy of the inspiration of the great Northwest, in which he has made his home. The most ambitious of his prose undertakings is The Irishman in Canada, which is made up of a series of brilliant pen portraits, through whose medium Mr. Davin relates the important parts played by his co-patriots in the history of this country. Mr. Phillips Thompson's Politics of Labor, published by a New York firm, is the result of a life's
devotion to the cause, and is one of the Dr. J. G. Bourinot..
most notable contributions to the literature writers — facile verbiage about nothing in of the labor question that has appeared in particular and interminable digressions. recent years. Dr. George Bryce and Dr. She contributed regularly to the defunct W. H. Withrow are both painstaking, conCanadian Monthly, when it was under scientious historians; but, excepting the the control of Mr. G. Mercer Adam, and her name frequently appears signed to sketches of travel, or articles on social and domestic topics, in the journals of the Western States. She collaborated with Mr. G. Mercer Adam in the production of An Algonquin Maiden, a novel published in Canada and England, which achieved a great success.
There are many other writers of whom I would fain treat at some length, but I am obliged to strangle the inclination in order to bring this article within a reasonable compass. In summing up, however, simple justice compels me to mention a few more names. Miss Sara Jeannette Duncan is perhaps the most finished female Canadian writer. She came prominently before the public a short time ago by trayelling leisurely through Japan, China, and India, in company with a lady friend, and is now in London writing accounts of her experiences in the metropolitan journals. Her papers in the Lady's Pictorial, under the title of“ A Social Departure,” were fresh and sparkling, and have since appeared in hook form. Miss Duncan is an old hand at
William Douw Lighthall.
work of the late Mr. John Macmullen, notice of many of the psychological leaders which is now scarce and in some particu- in England and the States; Thoughts, lars inaccurate, nothing has yet appeared Moods, and Ideals, a collection of verse in Canada worthy of the name of history. with a good ring about them ; The Young Up to the present, all the so-called histories Seigneur, a novel dealing with Frenchhave reflected partyism in almost every Canadian life ; and he has lately edited an chapter, and an impartial history of Canada anthology of Canadian verse, Songs of the yet remains to be written. Mr. Charles Great Dominion, which awakened a lot of Lindsey's Rome in Canada is a useful book of reference and will repay perusal, but it is not particularly distinguished for the literary skill it displays. Mr. Charles Mair is the author of Tecumseh, a drama in blank verse, and Dreamland and Other Poems, both of which books breathe the spirit of the lakes and woodlands among which Mr. Mair has lived and worked, and are peculiar (that is, in their inspiration) to the Canadian Northwest. Principal Grant of Queen's University is a man who, like Coleridge or Laurence Oliphant, has all his life promised great things and performed very little. The sum total of his work is insignificant in quantity, but what there is of it is good. His Ocean to Ocean, -a record of a journey across the continent before the days of the Canadian Pacific Railroad, is full of graphic pictures of the shifting population and queer civilization of the Northwest at the time of the “boom," and is essentially readable. Mr. Grant also writes for the Century and other magazines occasionally. Mr. William McLellan's
Dr. George Stewart, Jr. Songs of Old Canada deserves a wider audience than it has yet received ; and curiosity in England in regard to this counMr. Arthur Wier, having made a reputation try. Dr. George Stewart, Jr., has written in Canada, has sought a wider field in the a great deal for the Encyclopædia BritanStates, where a reputation is more worth nica, is a member of the International having.
Literary Congress, and contributes on hisMr. E. W. Thomson is perhaps the only torical subjects to a number of magazines writer in Canada who perfectly understands in both England and America. Mr. W. the technique of the ideal short story. Dr. D. Le Sueur is a man who would have J. G. Bourinot, the Clerk of the House of made a distinct mark in literature had he Commons, has contributed largely to the had the courage to make the attempt to ponderous English quarterlies and has writ- live solely by his pen, but the enervation ten several works on Parliamentary proce- of the civil service has handicapped him. dure, which have made him authority on He has, however, become identified with such questions in all parts of the British progressive thought and is a valued conEmpire. Mr. John Talon Lesperance is tributor on scientific and semi-literary the author of three successful novels, and subjects to the Popular Science Monthly much good verse. Mr. William Douw and other leading reviews. Mr. William Lighthall is a man with a future before Kingsford is the author of a monumental him in literature, if he does not allow his History of Canada, the third and fourth ambitions in this direction to be swamped volumes of which are still in preparation. by his occupations as a hard-working law- The two volumes already published were yer. He is the author of a Sketch of a warmly received in England and the United New Utilitarianism, which gained him the States.
We noticed in the early part of this arti- than that of any other American poet ; cle the remarkable present development of indeed, the London Academy in a recent poetry in Canada. Entirely different from review places him in the first rank of conLampman and Campbell and Reade in his temporary lyrical writers. He never formethod and style is Bliss Carman, one of gets the high character of his calling, and the most promising of the bright band of his work is saturated with an ideality which intellectual workers hailing from Nova necessarily removes it largely out of the
sympathies of the masses. He believes with Poe in the beauty of the weird, and there is an element of delicate weirdness in nearly all his productions, but it never degenerates into the merely horrible. The spiritual touch is always there. His language is invariably melodious, but it contains no suggestion of effeminacy or a straining after effect. A rugged strength underlies it all. Mr. Carman is a wellknown figure in the literary circles of Boston, where he spent some years and has many cherished associations ; but in his native land he is less widely known than many of his contemporaries, for the reason that much of his best work has been too lengthy for publication in the magazines. A volume of poems from his pen will be issued by a Boston firm this fall. He is an occasional contributor to the Century
and other leading American and English William Kingsford.
magazines, and is literary editor of the New
York Independent. Scotia. One of the first things which It will be seen that Canada takes a attracts the attention of the critical reader high position in the realm of science, is the wonderful phrasing which runs through and even in belles lettres is doing remarkall his work. He possesses a faculty of ably well, when her position as a colony immediately kindling the imagination of and not a nation is duly considered. The his reader and calling up with a few strik- United States had no such list as I have ing words a whole series of pictures — vivid enumerated in the old colonial days; and or shadowy and mystic, according to the removing the artificial barrier between the dominant mood. His style is quite pecu- two countries to-day, it is easily seen that liar to himself. There is no evidence of the Canada has practically shared in the develinfluence of any other writer in a line of opment of American literature, in no small his poetry. His work is more purely lyrical degree.
TO LAKE HURON.
CROM east to west, from north to south, where heaven's dreams are furled,
O Huron glad, O Huron strong, O limpid, laughing, free,
By Archibald Lampman.
PIRIT of joy and that enchanted air
That feeds the poet's parted lips like wine,
A gnawing flame that robbed my songs away,
Master of mine, and Lord of light and ease,
Return, return, and take me by the hand;
No lord but beauty ; let us see once more
By James P. Baxter.
of the Pre-Columbian have experienced a loss of most of the inhabitants of America conditions which make for civilization,
of anthropology an tic seaboard he would have found himself ever increasing inter- face to face with an almost hopeless barest. Not only is his barism. The questions which would per
attention attracted at sistently have presented themselves to him every turn by constantly accumulating col- are the same which present themselves to lections of the archaic belongings of the the student who to-day, in thought, takes peoples who once occupied this vast con- the same journey : questions which relate tinent, but the facilities presented for ex- to origin and antiquity, and to which anploration are such that he may with a swers must largely be derived from arminimum expenditure of physical and chæological remains, though we may learn pecuniary capital personally study the something from early explorers, and may most interesting remains, which a decade not altogether overlook tradition. ago could be reached only by exhausting An early theory of the origin of the Inand dangerous adventure.
dians of America was that they were emiWhen Europeans, the Spaniard and grants from the Asiatic coast, probably by Englishman, first set foot upon this con- way of Behring Strait ; but this theory was tinent, the one upon its southern, the in time overshadowed by that advanced other upon its northern shores, they found by Morton, based upon that illustrious it peopled with men unlike themselves in scientist's study of the crania of tribes incomplexion, language, and modes of life.' habiting widely separated parts of the If they travelled in any direction, they continent. This theory briefly stated was, found that these people themselves dif- that the Indians of America were indigefered in language and appearance, as well nous to the continent; that they differed as in those arts which minister to man's from all other races in essential particulars, comfort and promote his civilization. not excepting the Mongolian race; that Without regard to these differences, they the analogies of language, of civil and applied to them all the common, and per- religious institutions, and the arts, were haps not wholly inappropriate title of In- derived from a possible communication dians, which for convenience we may with Asian peoples or, perhaps, from mere properly adopt. There was, however, a coincidences “ arising from similar wants wide difference between the men who and impulses in nations inhabiting similar occupied the southern and those who latitudes”; that the Indian inhabitants of occupied the northern portion of the con- America, excepting the polar tribes, were tinent, between the Aztecs of Mexico, and of one race and species, “but of two great the Abnakis of Maine. The former had families, which resemble each other in attained a degree of civilization which we physical, but differ in intellectual charachardly yet appreciate, but of which we are ter"; and finally, that all the crania which learning much through study of their ar- he had studied belonged to “the same chitectural, sculptural, and textual remains, race, and probably to the Toltecan family." which almost rival some of the admired To this theory Agassiz lent the weight of achievements of old world art; while the his great name, as it so well accorded latter lived in rude booths or tents of bark with his own theory, that “ men must have and wandered from place to place, half originated in nations, as the bees have naked, or, at best clothed with the skins of originated in swarms, and as the different savage beasts, to which they seemed akin. social plants have covered the extensive Indeed, had one traversed the continent tracts over which they have naturally northward from the Gulf of Mexico, while spread.”