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dian chieftains and a forest-queen, Tahat. They added ridge to valley, brook to pond, tawan, with her fortress on Nashawtuc —

And sighed for all that bounded their domain; down through the time of Simon Willard,

Ah, the hot owner sees not Death, who adds

Him to his land, a lump of mould the more." the Indian-fighter, and Peter Bulkeley, the devout pastor, to the day when King

Notwithstanding this discouragement George's red coats, recoiling from the of ownership, Emerson, with that beautimusketry of the minute men at the Bridge, ful inconsistency which is the key to his fled from beneath the window of Parson whole character, became a landowner in Emerson, in the Old Manse, down the Lex- Concord, and gloried thereat. In one of ington road, to Merriam's Corner, and his hundred lectures before the Lyceum Menotomy, and checked not their fight there (in December, 1857), I heard him till they were safe in Boston. Now what say : “ The place where a thoughtful man ever was poetical in the aspect or the in the country feels the joy of eminent annals of Concord, Emerson had early domain is his wood lot. If he suffer from traced and cherished — to appear after accident or low spirits, his spirits rise ward in his verse or prose, oftentimes when he enters it. I could not chide the where the reader least looks for it. Thus citizen who should ruin himself to buy a in “Hamatreya," one of those poems with a mystical title, that so puzzled his early critics, Emerson told in a few lines the whole story of rural Concord for two


"The Lonely Cottage on the Hill."

centuries, — beginning with a bead-roll of patch of heavy oak timber. I admire in the names of the English colonists there: trees the creation of property so clean of

tears, of crime, even of care. They grow " Bulkeley, Hunt, Willard, Hosmer, Merriam, Flint,

at nobody's cost, and for everybody's Possessed the land which rendered to their toil comfort. When Nero advertised for a Hay, corn, roots, hemp, flax, apples, wool and new luxury, a walk in the woods should wood.

have been offered. I think no pursuit Where are these men? Asleep beneath their

has more breath of immortality in it. ground, And strangers, fond as they, their furrows plow. 'Tis one of the secrets for dodging old Earth laughs in flowers to see her boastful boys age ; for Nature makes a like impression Earth-proud, proud of the earth which is not

on age as on youth. It is the best of

on age theirs; Who steer the plow, but cannot steer their feet

humanity that goes out to walk. In Clear of the grave.

happy hours all affairs may wisely be post

poned for this.” Emerson acted upon Of all the companions with whom this rule, and perambulated the roads and Emerson rambled abroad, none had a wood-paths of Concord for many years, — surer instinct for scenery and impressions sometimes with a companion, but more


often alone. He quoted Dr. Johnson as saying, "Few men know how to take a walk," adding for himself that it is a fine art. “There are degrees of proficiency,

The Edmund Hosmer Place. and we distinguish the professors from the apprentices. The qualifi- than Ellery Channing. Describing an cations are endurance, plain clothes, old afternoon with him in October, 1848, shoes, an eye for nature, good humor, vast Emerson said: “In walking with Ellery curiosity, good speech, good silence, and you shall always see what was never nothing too much. We have the finest before shown to the eye of man. We climate in the world for this purpose ; if struck across an orchard to a steep hill of we have coarse days, and dog-days, and the right New Hampshire slope, newly white days, we have also yellow days, and cleared of wood, and came presently into crystal days, — days neither hot nor cold, rudest woodland landscapes, unknown, but the perfection of temperature. The undescribed, and hitherto unwalked by world has nothing to offer more rich than us Saturday afternoon professors. The the days that October always brings us, sun was setting behind terraces of pines, when after the first frosts, a steady shower disposed in groups unimaginable by landof gold falls in the strong south wind, scape gardeners. Through a clump of from the maples and hickories. And in apple-trees, over a long ridge with fair summer we have scores of days, when the outsight of the river, and across the Natheat is so rich, yet so tempered, that it is Meadow Brook, we came out upon the delicious to live. For walking you must banks of the river just below James have a broken country, neither flat, like Brown's. (This is a little southwest of the prairie, nor precipitous like New the village, half-way from the town square Hampshire. The more reason we have to White Pond.) Ellery proposed that to be content with the felicity of our we should send the Horticultural Society slopes in Massachusetts, — rocky, broken our notes, — “Took an apple near the and surprising, but without this Alpine White Pond fork of the Duganne trail, an inconveniency.”

apple of the Beware-of-This variety, -a true Touch-me-if-you-Dare, Seek - no- thorne, Channing or some other holds the further-of-This.' We had much talk of pen. From his hill, Ponkawtasset, in books and lands, and arts and farmers.” 1845, Ellery Channing looking down on Concord authors speak of their neighbors are those farms, but the life of farmers who own and till the soil, — and so there is unpoetic. The life of labor does not has been a greater affinity here between make men, but drudges. The farmer is the man with the hoe and the man with an enchanted laborer, who, after toiling the pen, than in most places. These his brains out, sacrificing religion, love, authors also each took his turn at the hope, courage, to toil, turns out a bankplow or the spade, or some other farm- rupt, as well as the shopman.” This was tool; and I have seen Alcott hoeing in the reverse of the shield. Yet his neigh

The farmers of Concord, to be sure, the river and its intervale, thus contribwere a frequent theme with these profes- uted his chapter to the farmers' chronicle : sional walkers, who crossed their fields, “In my small cottage on the lonely hill. leaped their fences, and gathered new Where like a hermit I must bide my time, and strange fruits from the wild trees of Surrounded by a landscape lying still their pastures. These farms which make

All seasons through, as in the winter's prime,

Rude and as homely as these verses chime,up the town, are now but a small part of

I have a satisfaction which no king that demesne of the mind which goes Has often felt — or Fortune's happier thing. by the name of Concord. All at once

“ For all about me live New England men, their “sitfast acres," as Emerson called

Their humble houses meet my daily gaze,them, began to yield poets and philoso The children of this land, where life again phers, whose lines have gone forth unto Flows like a great stream in sunshiny ways; the ends of the earth. Or, as our poet

This is a joy — to know them — and my days

Are filled with love to meditate on them, said to the farmers about him :

These native gentlemen on Nature's hem. “One harvest from your field

“This man takes pleasure o’er the crackling fire; Homeward brought the oxen strong;

His glittering axe subdued the monarch oak; A second crop those acres yield

He earned the cheerful blaze by something Which I gather in a song.”


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his garden, and Emerson up in an apple- bor and friend for many years was a tree, with saw and shears, pruning the farmer, — Edmund Hosmer, whose pictubranches. Hawthorne milked refractory resque dwelling by the river is here reprecows at Brook Farm, and wore his woollen sented, and over whose well-tilled acres frock at the Old Manse. Thoreau has Emerson was fond of walking and of described his own farm labor, and Chan- leading his companions. ning, in his “Woodman," pictures the I suppose that it was with Hosmer in scenes of that winter when he chopped mind that Emerson wrote for his unfintrees in a Concord wood lot. Before that ished poem of “Saadi,” those lines on he had split rails on an Illinois prairie, Hassan, the camel-driver, which Chanand lived in a log hut there. But they ning, in his life of Thoreau, was the first could all see the other side of the farmer's to publish : life — such golden opportunities and such “ Said Saadi, — When I stood before trivial results — as in the life of other Hassan, the camel-driver's door, men. In a passage from his Journal,

I scorned the fame of Timour brave;

Timour to Hassan was a slave, which Channing has copied in his life of

In every glance of Hassan's eye Thoreau, Emerson says, “ There below I read rich years of victory;

And I, who cower mean and small

those also which could not be stated.” In the frequent interval

This recalls the saying ascribed to Bacon,
When wisdom not with me resides,
Worship Toil's wisdom that abides !

“ Manifest virtues procure reputation ; I shunned his eyes — the faithful man's, occult ones procure fortune.” Miss Hoar I shunned the toiling Hassan's glance." lived with her father in his conspicuous

house on the village street, of which a At the other extreme of the social sketch is here given; she accompanied scale, yet not many generations removed him to South Carolina in 1844, and was

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from the toiling farmer, stood the family banished with him from that ungenerous of Samuel Hoar, who had married a State, which in its love of human slavery, daughter of Roger Sherman, (the Con- forgot its own canons of courtesy. This necticut statesman, bred a shoemaker) drew from Emerson the remark, — “There and who stood in Emerson's mind for is but one man in South Carolina, as far something consular and generous, as as I can see ; the rest are but repeaters indeed he was. His daughter, Miss of his mind," — and that man, of course, Elizabeth Hoar, who would have married was Calhoun. Samuel Hoar died in Charles Emerson, but for his early death, 1856 ; Elizabeth, in 1880 ; of her brothwas one of the dearest of Emerson's (on- ers, one (Edward ) was the companion cord friends, and his counsellor in many of Thoreau in some of his excursions ; matters, intellectual and spiritual. He the others are Judge Hoar and Senator called her “ Elizabeth the Wise," and Hoar. Their mother it was, who said of praised her cheerful outlook on life, the Thoreau : “He talks about Nature just as admirable fairness of her mind, and her if she had been born and brought up in true and delicate sensibility. One dis- Concord.” tinction made by her and cited by Mr. Perhaps Nature had that birth and Cabot, though it has the advantage of training, — it was a good place for her. being reported in Emerson's exquisite But Henry Thoreau certainly was born diction, should be given here, to show and bred in the town, of which Elizabeth the quality of her intelligence: “Eliza- Hoar said, “ Concord is his monument, beth defined common sense as the per- adorned with inscriptions by his own ception of the inevitable laws of existence. hand." He was born in the old-fashioned The philosophers considered only such house which Miss Richardson's sketch has laws as could be stated ; but sensible men restored to its primitive aspect, -- for

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