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leaving the building went into the Liberator office adjoining the hall, where the ladies were making heroic efforts to proceed with the business of their society, and there employed himself, with that marvellous serenity which never deserted him, in writing an account of the riotous demonstrations to a distant friend. But he did not finish the letter, for the rioters, rushing into the hall in search of him, had kicked out the panels of the door leading into the room where he was calmly writing. Escape was not possible, but the presence of mind of Charles C. Burleigh saved him from instant violence. At this crisis, too, the attention

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House, while the other stretched along Court Street to the Court House. The motive which created the riot was hatred of the Abolitionists; its purpose to “smoke out” George Thompson, and treat him to a kettle of tar and feathers. The nonappearance of Mr. Thompson defeated the designs upon himself. Mr. Garrison had also been invited to address the ladies that afternoon; and he was present. Missing Thompson, the mob turned upon him with the fury of madmen. Reading aright the omen of the storm which was gathering about them, the ladies advised Mr. Garrison to retire from the hall. This he prudently did, but instead of

Mr. Phillips's House in Common Street.-From an old Print.

mob threw a rope around his body,tore the clothes from his back, the hat from his head. Some were for murdering him on the spot ; while others stood out for milder measures. This division, undoubtedly, saved his life. Mayor Lyman and his officers came to his rescue. Pulled and hustled, he was at length got into the Old State House through the south door. But the fury of the mob grew so alarming at the escape of their victim, that the officials, as a last desperate resort to save from destruction the old building and Garrison's life, determined hastily to commit him to jail as a disturber of the peace.

It was out of the Theodore Parker.

north door that Garrison was now smug

gled. He was got of the mob was directed to the Anti- into a hack in waiting, and after a terSlavery sign, which hung from the office rific struggle with the maddened multitude, over the street. This the rioters below the horses started at break-neck speed demanded to have thrown down to through Court Street to Bowdoin Square, them; and this by order of the mayor was through Cambridge into Blossom Street, directly done. Garrison could not possibly and thence to Leverett Street jail, the be got out of the front end of the build- mob pursuing the flying vehicle to the ing. Out of the rear, therefore, he and his very portals of the old prison. Here the friends sought a way. But this, too, was editor of the Liberator was locked into a impossible ; for the mob with its ten cell, and there spent the night of Octothousand eyes was searching for him ber 21, 1835. within the building and scanning every The jail, which was situated on the window from without. He was finally dis- north side of Leverett Street near the covered in a carpenter's shop in the rear, corner of Causeway Street, was deand made to descend by a ladder into molished in 1852. The morning after his Wilson's Lane, now a part of Devonshire incarceration, Garrison made upon the Street. At the bottom he was seized by walls of his cell this inscription : “William his enemies and dragged into State Street, Lloyd Garrison was put into this cell on in the rear of the Old State House. The Wednesday afternoon, Oct. 21, 1835, to




from its hall by the mob, the ladies, on invitation of
Francis Jackson, retired to his house, but finding Mrs.
Jackson seriously ill went to the home of Maria Weston
Chapman, at No. 11 West Street, where they finished
their annual business. When Mayor Lyman repre-
sented to the ladies that afternoon, at 46 Washington
Street, that it was dangerous for them to remain in
their hall, it was Mrs. Chapman who undauntedly
replied: “If this is the last bulwark of freedom, we
may as well die here as anywhere.” James Russell
Lowell has preserved for us the portrait of this beau-
tiful and accomplished woman in the following lines :

“ There was Maria Chapman, too,
With her swift eyes of clear steel-blue,
The coiled-up mainspring of the Fair,

Originating everywhere
Col. T. W. Higginson.

The expansive force without a sound

That whirled a hundred wheels around;

Herself, meanwhile, as calm and still
As the bare crown of Prospect Hill;

A nolle woman, brave and apt, save him from the violence

Cumäan Sibyl not more rapt,

Who might, with those fair tresses shorn, of a respectable and influen

The Maid of Orleans' casque have worn.” tial mob, who sought to destroy him for preaching the abominable and dangerous doctrine that all men are created equal,' and that all oppression is odious in the sight of God. Hail Columbia! Cheers for the Autocrat of Russia and the Sultan of Turkey! Reader, let this inscription remain till the last slave in this despotic land be loosed from his fetters !”

Just around the corner from the jail, at No. 23 Brighton Street, Mr. Garrison and his heroic young wife lived at the time. Five weeks before the mob, a strongly built gallows, having two nooses dangling from it, one for Thompson and one for Garrison, was erected before their front door. The house was one of several in a brick block. The block still stands, but exactly which of the dwellings is the identical one occupied by the Garrisons cannot now be satisfactorily established. When the Female Anti

Elizur Wright Slavery Society was driven


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She was, as Mr. Lowell puts it, the Number 31 Hollis Street will be remainspring of the Anti-Slavery Fairs, which membered with emotion as long as any of were at first held in her parlors. Her the old Abolitionists or their descendants home in West Street, and later at 39 survive ; for there lived Francis Jackson, Summer Street, was for a decade the social one of the stanchest of Mr. Garrison's centre of Anti-Slavery Boston. Edmund supporters. It has already been reQuincy, when in the city, could always marked that upon the breaking up of the be found there.

meeting of the Female Anti-Slavery So

ciety by the “ Broadcloth Mob," the 1835, Wendell Phillips declared twenty ladies, on invitation of Mr. Jackson, re- years afterward, was owing to “ fifty or tired to his house, but, owing to the sixty women and mainly to one man,illness of the hostess, finished their busi- Francis Jackson, who gave to the women ness at the home of Mrs. Chapman. driven from their hall the use of his The invitation to the society to hold a house. “And if in defence of this sacred meeting at 31 Hollis Street was subse- privilege (free speech) ... this roof quently repeated and accepted. On and these walls shall be levelled to the November 19, less than a month after earth,” wrote Mr. Jackson in reply to a the riot, the ladies held a notable meeting note of thanks from the society, “let in the parlors of Mr. Jackson, a meeting them fall if they must; they cannot crum

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never to be forgotten in Anti-Slavery ble in a better cause. They will appear circles. Harriet Martineau, then visiting of very little value to me after their Boston, graced the occasion by her pres- owner shall have been whipped into ence and voice, bravely avowing then and silence." Braver words in face of graver there, in words which could not be mis- peril were never uttered by his Puritan understood, her full agreement with the or Revolutionary forefathers. “History, principles of the society. There also which always loves courage,” said Phillips, sprang up between her and Mrs. Chap- “ will write them on a page whiter than man a close and lifelong friendship. marble and more incorruptible than That free speech was saved in Boston in gold.” Certainly the words and the

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