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from whom we quote, “who gave us their company because of our interest in the cause of temperance, or nonresistance, or some other movement, or because of some peculiar crochet of their own.” It was a “constant influx, not without its trials and embarrassments, but more commonly with its enlivening influences."
One chamber in 31 Hollis Street Francis Jackson devoted as a room of refuge for fugitive slaves, and many there were who found shelter therein. “I cannot withhold my aid from them,” he wrote shortly before his death, “I cannot deny them while I have my strength left. They, and the millions they have left, are my system of Theology, my Religion, my Atonement. I have helped to enslave them — my father helped ; unknowingly, it may be, nevertheless, helped. I believe in this kind of Atonement; my reason accepts no other. I believe the slaves are God's chosen people.”
Just across the street from this historic house stood Hollis Street church, theatre now, not wanting in dramatic action then. For, from its pulpit, brave and eloquent
John Pierpont renewed, SunDix Place - Residence of William Lloyd Garrison.
day after Sunday, his contest
with the rum power and the memorable circumstances which called slave power intrenched within the pews. them forth ought to suffice to make the He was sustained in his prolonged old dwelling-house, which still stands, a contest with these twin abominations by landmark of the times when men and the strong arms and unfiagging zeal women struggled and died for liberty. of Francis Jackson and Samuel May,
For many years it chiefly fell to Mr. that sturdy Boston merchant, who, like Jackson and his neighbors, the Garrisons, John Hancock, preferred liberty to dol“ to offer welcome and entertainment to lars and dividends. The name happily Anti-Slavery lecturers, country delegates survives, and with added lustre, in the and visitors to the various Anti-Slavery venerable son who worthily bears it, and anniversaries, newly - ma de converts, who occupied a position of marked instrangers from abroad, and fugitive slaves. fuence and usefulness in the moral move“There were others," wrote Mr. Garrison, ment against slavery.
Some buildings are a kind of palimp- the friends of freedom. After this memorsest in brick and wood, several periods able beginning the old hall did literally having written upon them, one over echo with the principles of the Anti-Slavery another, their different stories. Such a reform. Garrison, Phillips, Sumner, Parbuilding is Faneuil Hall. Here the ker, Wilson, Quincy, the two Adamses, patriots of 1776 rocked the cradle of father and son, Pillsbury, Douglass, HigAmerican Independence. Here in later ginson, Howe and John A. Andrew years their successors nursed the genius became in time familiar figures on its
of universal emancipation. Again and platform. Over and over, as the strife again its walls rang and echoed with waxed between freedom and slavery, did those principles which, at midnight and the “ pictured lips ” of Otis and Quincy, in the obscure room, Garrison had fore- Adams and Hancock, “ break into voice," told would ere long, “ shake the nation by through those, their real descendants, in their mighty power.” The prophecy re- defence of the rights of man. If great ceived remarkable and splendid fulfil- names and eloquence and transcendent ment five years afterward, in the great service in the cause of humanity have meeting called to denounce the murder power to consecrate any place, then of Lovejoy, and which gave to Wendell surely is Faneuil Hall doubly consecrated Phillips the opportunity to make that and sanctified. marvellous speech which placed him at That gloomy granite structure, the its close in the front rank of orators and of Court House, has also its stirring story and associations. During fugitive slave teeth in expectation of an attempt to times it was the scene of some of the rescue the wretched man. A company saddest and most exciting acts in the of Anti-Slavery friends had, notwithstandhistory of Boston. In 1851, pending the ing the obstacles and danger, resolved trial of Sims, it was girdled with heavy that Burns should not be sent back to chains to prevent a rescue by the friends slavery. In execution of this resolution, of the doomed man. That they might a band of Abolitionists, prominent among enter the building, the judges of the Su- whom were T. W. Higginson and Lewis preme Court, among whom was their Hayden, burst open the middle door grand old chief, Lemuel Shaw, bowed on the west side of the Court House by their judicial necks under the infamous means of a heavy beam of wood. During fence. Two months before, Shadrach, the melee which followed, one of the mar
shal's guard was killed by a pistol shot. Just how or by whom the fatal shot was fired has never been settled. The deed demoralized the band of rescuers, who stood not on the order of their going, but in a kind of panic beat a precipitate retreat, leaving poor Burns to his keepers and his too tragic fate.
On the lower corner of Beacon and Walnut Streets stands the house where Wendell Phillips was born. It was there that his mother held up his “baby feet" to walk for the first time the streets of the old town which he loved inexpressibly, and which also, when a man, he was to make “ too sacred for the footsteps of a slave." But the small two-story brick house on Essex Street -- into which he and his invalid bride moved in November, 1841,
and in which they were John A. Andrew.
together for more than forty FROM A PHOTOGRAPH.
years, in joy and sorrow,
through the storm and sunanother fugitive, was spirited away out of shine of the long conflict for freedom — the sinister-looking old temple of justice, was, beyond all other places, “ bound up by a party of colored men under the lead with every fibre of his heart." Not anyof Lewis Hayden. Shadrach's rescue was where within the limits of the city exists effected through the east door opposite a more sacred spot than was this homely where now stands Young's Hotel ex- little house, with its small parlors and tension on Court Square. On the night diminutive bedrooms; for there lived and of May 26, 1854, the Court House wore labored one of the purest spirits and most to the friends of freedom in the city a consummate orators of the century. It particularly villanous aspect; for within was demolished in 1882, to make room for its cruel walls crouched Anthony Burns, a the Harrison Avenue extension. prisoner. It was, besides, armed to the Here is a specimen of the scenes which
the invalid wife grew accustomed to sketch of Mrs. Phillips by Mr. Francis J. expect when the husband went off Garrison : “abolitionizing.” The time was Sunday, December 21, 1860, the day after the
“For some years Essex Street was the centre of
the small Anti-Slavery community of Boston. secession of South Carolina from the Within five minutes walk to the south lived Francis Union; and the particular "abolition- Jackson and Samuel and Mary May, on Hollis izing,” the masterpiece of invective de
Street, and the Garrison family, on Dix Place. Not
much farther away, in the opposite direction, were livered that morning in Music Hall,
Mr. and Mrs. Ellis Gray Loring, on Winter Street; called “Mobs and Education.” The
while just around the corner to the north were speech was a philippic against the Theodore Parker's house on Exeter Place, Miss enemies of free speech, who were the
Mary G. Chapman's on Chauncy Street, (the Bos“ friends of the Union.” Rarely had the
ton home of the Weston sisters and Mrs. Chap
man, when they came to the city,) and Charles F. great orator been so merciless and terrible.
Hovey's on Kingston Street. Mr. Phillips has His words stung to madness the prejudice told how often, as he looked from his own chamand hatred of his foes. The storm of ber window late at night, when some lecture passion which had gathered around him
hours of the morning, he saw the unquenched as he spoke, burst as, under the escort of
light burning in Theodore Parker's study.” a score of friends, he emerged from the Winter Street entrance to the hall. As The house numbered one on Exeter soon as the crowd, which was choking Place was not only the library and study the passageway, caught sight of him, it of a great scholar, with books everywhere, set up angry cries, such as, “ Crush him covering the walls of every room and of out !” “ Bite off his head !” at the same the stairways, running like a luxuriant instant rushing forward to carry out its vine from front hall to attic, but the remurderous purpose. But the resolute sounding smithy of the New England front of the body-guard of the inspired Vulcan of the pulpit, where were forged lasher of iniquity, backed by the energy those thunderbolts against wrong which of the police, balked the mob. We will he launched from the platform of Music let the Liberator finish the story.
Hall at statesmen and their wicked meas
ures. From the passage of the Fugitive “On entering Winter Street, the mob, which Slave Bill in 1850, to the day that the almost blockaded the street, yelled and hissed and
mighty and militant preacher of rightgave vent to their impotent rage by such cries as
eousness passed out of it to meet the those given above; but the party proceeded down the street and up Washington Street, sur death angel under Italian skies, the house rounded by a strong detachment of police, and was a focal point, about which revolved followed by an immense throng of people, many the Anti-Slavery forces of the city. Here of them friends of Mr. Phillips, and determined to protect him from injury. The singular proces
was harbored Ellen Craft, and here with sion excited the attention of people living on the her in the house the “fighting parson" route largely, and the windows looking on the wrote his Sunday sermon, a loaded pistol street were crowded with faces expressing wonder
lying meanwhile on his desk. It was here and curiosity. Arrived at his house on Essex Street, Mr. Phillips entered, with a few of his friends,
on the evening before Thanksgiving Day when three cheers were given by some of those of the year 1854, that Theodore Parker present, which were answered by hisses from the was arrested for violating the provisions other side. Deputy-Chief Ham then requested
of the Fugitive Slave Law. The house, the crowd to disperse, which they did, though
which, alas ! has disappeared before the somewhat slowly, and with manifest reluctance. So ended the disgraceful scene.”
southward march of business “improve
ment," was at once the Mount of TransFrom the Essex Street home the Phil- figuration and the Gethsemane of a lipses moved to No. 37 Common Street, modern prophet, who proved himself in where during the last two years of his very deed a fetter-breaker and genius of life Wendell Phillips lived, and there he universal emancipation. died. There died also Ann Phillips, his On Avery Street lived that accomplished wife, a woman cast in the large mould of scholar and great-hearted defender of the a true daughter of freedom.
rights of man — Elizur Wright, who ably To quote from the excellent memorial edited the Boston Chronotype, in associa
tion with Dr. Samuel G. Howe and Frank its broad sidewalk. There, also, George W. Bird, during the Fugitive Slave Law Thompson once lectured on the same subdays.
ject, and experienced a hairbreadth escape On Phillips Street still stand two of from a mob which had secretly planned the landmarks of Anti-Slavery Boston; to seize him. The plot was discovered viz., the home of the late Lewis Hayden, by Samuel J. May, and frustrated by the and the Baptist Church for colored people. coolness and dexterity of the Anti-Slavery In the latter was held many an Anti- women. Here, also, held forth the infidel Slavery meeting addressed by nearly all of preacher, Abner Kneeland, a man of blamethe prominent leaders. Here Governor less life, whom “ Christian " Boston perAndrew preached, on occasional Sunday secuted and imprisoned on the charge of mornings during the war, sermons fitted “blasphemy." to the needs of his hearers and the exigen- Anti-Slavery Boston would be palpably cies of the hour. There are those who incomplete with the imposing figure of well recall these occasions when the war Sumner left out. He was, in truth, one governor turned parson for an hour, and of the chief builders of the sacred city of his coming into the church leading by the that strenuous martyr age. The site of hand his son John, then a child, now a the house on Revere Street, where he was Massachusetts member of Congress. born, is now occupied by the Bowdoin
Lewis Hayden's house, No. 66 Phillips schoolhouse. But the house which is Street, was a rendezvous of that band of closely associated with him as an AntiAnti-Slavery men who believed that resist- Slavery leader is the one numbered twenty ance to the Fugitive Slave Law was obe- on Hancock Street. Here were prepared dience to God. There went Phillips, many of his early speeches against slavery; Parker, Dr. Bowditch, and others of their and here, also, the orator declaimed them mind, to talk over plans and perfect prior to their delivery in public. arrangements to defeat the execution of As Anti-Slavery Boston had its beginthe law. And there at times John Brown, ning in Garrison and the Liberator, this the stern believer in blood and iron as a article shall find its conclusion in Garrison deliverer, brooded and schemed for the and the Liberator also. The Liberator slave. Some there are who well remember had five successive offices during the when William Craft was in hiding here thirty-five years of its existence. It took from the slave catchers, and how Lewis up quarters first in Merchants' Hall, on Hayden had placed two kegs of gun-pow- the corner of Congress and Water Streets. der on the premises, resolved to blow up Then for a season it was published at No. his house rather than surrender the fugi- 46 Washington Street. Here the landtive. The heroic frenzy of the resolute lord, alarmed for the safety of the buildblack face, as with match in hand Hayden ing at the time of the “Broadcloth Mob," stood awaiting the man-stealers, those who served notice on the publishers to remove saw it declare that they can never forget. the paper. The paper and the society
The Melodeon, where now stands the next took rooms at No. 25 Cornhill. SubBijou Theatre, was the first meeting-house sequently still, they removed to No. 21 of Theodore Parker's society after he Cornhill, the society occupying rooms in began to preach in Boston. It was also the second story and the Liberator in the the hall where Anti-Slavery meetings were fourth story; where together they confrequently held. Many of Mr. Phillip's tinued until the year before the war, when masterly speeches, such as “Public Opin- the inseparables made a final removal to ion," “ The Sims Anniversary,” “Philoso- Washington Building, on Washington phy of the Anti-Slavery Movement,” were Street, opposite Franklin. There the delivered from its platform.
paper passed forever into history as one Mr. Garrison gave his first three lec- of the greatest reformatory instruments of tures on Slavery, in 1830, at Julien Hall, the century. situated on the northwest corner of Milk From Dix Place, in 1864, its editor reand Congress Streets, on the spot now moved to 125 Highland Street in Roxbury, occupied by the Post Office Extension and which was thenceforth to remain his home