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According to the latest government statistics in January, 1905, there were :

Average Valu. Total

Number. ation. Valuation. Horses

16,557,373 62.25 $1,030,705,959 Mules

2,728,088 72.49 197,753,327 Milch Cows. 17,106,227 30.21 516,711,914 Other Cattle. 44,659,206 18.45 824,054,902 Sheep 63,964,876 2.63 168,315,750 Swine

46,922,624 7-78 364,973,688

ers

$3,102,515,540 The total valuation represents a sum inconceivable to the human mind. This great amount of money is duplicated on an average of every four years, and is distributed wholly among stockmen and farmers.

In order to become a producer, the farmer must provide land, food, shelter, water and help. The land produces the pasture and the grain for maturing any or all classes of livestock. After the animal has arrived at the proper age for beast of burden or food, the same land produces the hay and the grain for preparing it for the market.

The great West has become the breeding ground for all kinds of livestock. Lands are cheap, water plentiful and the help skilled. There is a class of people called ranchmen, who are simply producers of young

cattle. Such cattle are raised in large numbers, wholly out of doors, and at the present time, the bulk go to make the beef product of the country. The young cattle are sold to the smaller farmers and feeders in the more thickly populated portions of the West for further development and finishing for the market. This covers a period of two to five years. There is another class of breeders, more trally located in the grass and corn belt, whose business it is to develop a high class of males and females for preserving the beef qualities of the range herds. The producer of the young animal, as well as the man who purchases and its that animal for market, watches the market fluctuations on his own peculiar product with interest. His expenditures for wagons, harness, sad

dles, buggies, farm utensils, are all based and governed either extravagantly or economically, according to the price obtained for his output. If the cattleman realizes a lucrative price for his steers at the market, he immediately “blows himself” for not only the necessities of the farm, but also for many of the luxuries. I have seen within the last month, farm

so interested in the marketing of their cattle, that they immediately called up their daughters and their wives by long distance telephone to inform them that the promised dress, watch, or buggy were forthcoming, as they had realized more for their cattle than they had anticipated.

The development of the great hog industry of the country is confined to a smaller area than that of the steer. So far, the breeding and growing of a hog for market on a large scale has been confined mostly to the corn producing sections of the United States, or what is known as the Corn Belt. The development of the hog is much less intricate than that of a steer. Every small farmer in the country has more or less of hogs, but not every farmer is a cattle grower, though such is usually the case. Six to twelve months are all that is required to develop a 250-1b. hog for market, from the time of its birth. The fact that every man, woman, and child in the United States consumes one hog a year, means that there is a constant market for the hog in some form of food product. The growing of the hog is probably the most profitable industry that a farmer can indulge in. The hog thrives on

grasses, grains and offal, upon which a steer could not exist. The hog and the hen produce the ready money for the average farmer.

It was a common thing in the earlier clays of the West for professional shippers or market men to buy hogs on speculation and ship to market, very often at a good margin, but with the advent of nearby markets, improved packing methods, and the daily farm

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press, the farmer now-a-days markets his own stuff largely, and obtains thereby, the highest market price, shutting out the speculators to a large extent.

Now, in the development of a hog, a good many of the necessaries which enter into the development of the steer, are also necessary. He needs the farm, the grass to a certain extent, the corn and the shelter. Now-a-days the development of the hog is increasing rapidly in the West, even outside of the corn belt district. The recent development of the alfalfa plant has made it possible for irrigating sections to grow a good set of hogs and fatten them on alfalfa. This class of hogs, hardened up on a little oats, wheat, or barley, makes a very choice quality of meat.

The sheep producing industry of the country is confined, from mutton standpoint, largely to the ranges of the Rocky Mountain districts.

The sheep can be ranged on less expensive ground, less shelter, and with less water, than either the hog or the steer. Sheep can be driven for many hundreds of miles to good feeding sections at their maturity, and rustle their own living enroute. In close proximity to these feeding grounds, or feeding places, have sprung up large scouring mills for cleaning the wool and preparing it for market. The feeding grounds for sheep are largely confined to the beet sugar producing sections and the corn belt. The beet pulp-fed sheep are becoming popular with the connoisseurs of mutton, still there is nothing that beats the thick, corn-fat flavored beef, pork or mutton.

The growth and development of the horse is carried on in a much wider area than that of animals for food consumption. There are extensive producing

ranches throughout the West and Southwest, but the horse is more of a domestic animal and there is no limit as to area or special climatic influence conducive to its growth. There are, however, more horses grown in the West than any other section of the country, on account of the smaller cost of production.

The Advertiser's Opportunity. As previously stated, the livestock industry is the paramount industry in the United States; consequently, the demands from the farmer and ranchman must predominate for a larger percentage of agricultural implements and many of the necessities of life. Plows, threshers, harrows, manure spreaders, reapers, garden tools, clothing, boots, shoes, wool and cotton fabrics, household utensils, staple groceries, all must be bought by the men who are busily engaged in breeding, growing, and marketing livestock. There is no other class of people so dependent on implements for properly carrying on an industry, for livestock cannot be divorced from farming. A farm is not profitable without stock, nor can stock be divorced from farming.

The most important event of the year on the range and the farm, is the successful and profitable marketing of the product. The livestock man must keep in close touch with the markets. He must know when to market, and must, therefore, have the best facilities for keeping posted. Consequently he devours the farm dailies, of which all markets have their official organs, with as much interest as the banker or speculator watches the fluctuations in the speculative and money markets of the great financial centers.

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SALESMANSHIP. PICCOLO PARAGRAPHS

BY

W.N.AUBUCHON.

men

are

NE important factor in

management should never be overlooked, namely, all

are human and at

best but grown up children. The Manager of salesmen may

be placed in the same class as the teacher of children when we consider the fundamental principle underlying his work.

The most successful teachers in the schools are those whose resourcefulness enables them to arouse in the minds of their pupils an intense interest in the work before them.

We know that some children make rapid progress under certain teachers, but appear almost stupid under others. The fault is mainly with the teacher.

I have heard employers say with much emphasis—“We do not conduct a school and have no time to teach. You cannot make a salesman of a mutton-head and it is a waste of energy to try it."

There is much truth in this view, but more of error. Age is no barrier to the acquirement of knowledge, and the best salesman in the house can be taught to advantage and profit.

When “teaching" salesmen, under any circumstances, in manner or words, lead them to believe you are teaching them. The method must be one of indirect suggestion. When reaches a certain age, he dislikes anything which appears to be instruction in something which he believes he understands.

Every business house is, in a sense, a training school, and the better the training the more profit to the "faculty.”

The employer who, when he employs

a salesman, believes the contract implies that the salesman should do "all the work,” is no doubt correct "on paper" but in practice is absolutely blind to his own interest.

The science of reading character or determining ability by face and form aids but little in the selection of selling agents. "You can't tell a thing about a man by looking at him; there's only one way-try him."

If a man's record is good as a successful salesman in a particular line, he is a safe man to employ for that line of goods, but if he has failed with it there is a strong chance against him unless you have time to correct past errors.

However, if a man has failed in another line than that for which he is to be engaged, his chances of success greater than those of a "raw" man.

The errors which cause failures do not persist in a changed environment as forcefully as they do when the environment is practically unaltered.

An erroneous thought associated with an act will habitually manifest itself upon repetition of the act. An altered environment obviates the demand for repetition, hence the erroneous impression is held in abeyance.

The human mind is governed by certain definite laws. Recent experiments and observations have made clearer to lis some modes of their operation, and upon the ability to conduct our relations with others, in accord with mental laws, rests the success of an enterprise.

The science of business in the future will and must be chiefly psychological. The successful business man of the past has been unknowingly operating in ac

Never

a

man

cord with the laws of mind. The successful man in the time to come will be a skilled psychologist, and every contemplated action will be subjected to critical scientific analysis.

When we deal with our customers we are, through necessity, considerate of their "feelings.” Attempts to discipline trade are disastrous. When we deal with our salesmen we should treat them with a consideration equaling that which we give to our customers.

The same principle is involved in both cases; if the first is recognized as the true method, the second must be.

We secure from the customer, favor and patronage; from the salesman favor and thorough co-operation. “Educate” your salesmen exactly as you “educate” trade.

If we desire co-operation, we must establish something on which to coOperate; we must be definite in zim; know what we want to do and how to do it.

The field for the genius of salesmanship is practically unlimited. New ideas and new methods in all lines of trade are offered every day and will continue to be presented until the end of time.

When one reaches a point where he believes there is no advance to be made in his business, it is time for him to yield to the competitor who knows better.

When the jeweler tries to sell you a diamond, he displays it from several different positions. You get a glimpse of the "sparkler" at its best, from one point, but the eyes of the customer standing next to you may see it best from another view.

An advertisement dignified in character interests some people; one of the comic variety pleases another class. Both bring results. I am a believer in "dignified persuasion."

There are many classes to reach and many ways of advertising. Many business men do not know that the class of people that do not now buy, would use

many of their goods if they were taught how to use them.

A merchant who sells groceries sells nearly the same goods that thousands of his competitors sell, and his cry is that “You cannot sell goods unless you make as low a price as your competitor." He believes “You can't do anything 'different with groceries.”

Within the last three weeks, one enterprising wholesale grocer, in the way of a boom, put up rice in new barrels, lined them attractively, painted the hoops with a bright color, placed in the barrel a sheaf of rice stalk tied with ribbon, together with a nice show card. Then he went to the printer with his "copy." Result: He covered his territory with advertisements, filled his salesmen with enthusiasm for rice and sold more rice in two weeks than any one house usually sells in a year, and got a better price than his competitors were asking.

This grocer did something "different" with plain, every day rice.

When asked to buy, a purchaser will nearly always reply that “He doesn't need any goods.” The hard point is "starting” the seemingly indifferent buyer; the rest is comparatively easy for the salesman.

An ingenious house-manager will devote time to finding new "points of departure” for his men. The truly up-todate manager of salesmen has his business so well in hand that they can start “anywhere” and gain the buyers' attention.

The art of developing “starting points” is one that yields great returns on the time devoted to its study.

A man may either learn to “start anywhere" outside of business, on the “personal” side of the prospective buyer, or by various devices establish points of interest in his goods. The real genius never approaches the

customer twice in the same way.

To be always new, always interesting, always welcome are the essentials,

same

A starting point is sometimes offered in the form of a “low price” leader. Cut price leaders are an abomination in business and indicate a lack of understanding of the underlying principles of salesmanship.

Leaders, which by an element of originality and attractiveness show selling qualities and consequent profit to the buyer, promote business and reflect credit upon those devising them.

Advertisement writers are giving exhibitions of the art of establishing "starting points." Every issue of the magazines shows a new device for centering the attention of the reader. The manager of salesmen would do well to study the science of advertising, the psychology of it—and apply it to the work of stimulating his salesmen. The points are attention and interest.

When we become accustomed to certain sounds, we cease to be conscious of their continuance. The manner of pre

sentation of merchandise demands change, because mind ceases to take active cognizance of things with which it is long familiar.

New schemes, new combinations, new labels, old things in new dress, even new things in old dress. New uses for this item, new methods of preparation in that, novel exhibits, and without end, the work must go on.

One breakfast food advertiser appeals to the sick; another to the well, one tries to reach grown people directly, another seeks a channel of distribution through children.

The one who first gets into a channel for creating interest generally does the business. Not because he has something new, but because he has a new way of impressing the minds of the lisers.

The insurance people “do things right." They have regular classes of instruction at stated intervals.

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A profitable Dairy Farm near Sioux City, Iowa. From Farmers Tribune.

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