« AnteriorContinuar »
pp. 31, 32.
government should answer the purpose of mo- ing, hardly voluntary, as being extorted by ral discipline; that it should enforce the claims, | force of arguments, should deserve such repu or avenge the cause of God. Those evil doers tation and such recompenses; for if (argued which it is alone competent to restrain, are they) a doctrine be propounded with evident such as are not subject to the conservative and cogent reason, whai virtue is there in beauthority instituted for the protection of the lieving it, seeing a man, in that case, cannot personal rights of the community. And what. avoid believing it, is therein merely passive, ever political authority, whether it call itself and by irresistible force subdued? If it be procivil or ecclesiastical, attempts to extend its pounded without such reason, what fault can jurisdiction to the consciences or the characters it be to refuse assent or to suspend his opinion of men, is guilty of usurping the Divine pre about it? Can a wise man then do otherrogative, and assumes ihe character of an wise? Is it not in such a case simplicity or oppressor. To govern the heart, to control fond credulity to yield assent; yea, is it not the character, to dictate to the conscience, to deceit or hypocrisy to pretend the doing so. change the will, require the attributes of Deity; May not justly then all the blame be charged and the means and instruments by which this rather on the incredibility of the doctrine, or moral government is administered, have no the infirmity of reasons enforcing it than on affinity to political sanctions.
the incredulity of the person who does not adIt cannot be necessary, then, to prove that mit it? Whence no philosophers ever did imerror is innocent, in order to take away all pre- pose such a precept, or did assign to faith a text from religious intolerance. It is very place among the virtues. true, that governments are very incompetent " To clear this matter, and to vindicate our judges of what is truth, and whai is error; and religion from such misprisions, and that we churches, even infallible churches, are much may be engaged to prize and cherish it, I shall in the same predicament as soon as they begin endeavour to declare, that Christian faith does to legislate on the subject. But supposing the worthily deserve all the commendations and church to be right in its decision, and the the advantages granted thereto; this I shall do government to be in unison with that Church, by considering its nature and ingredients, its the heresy or infidelity which it denounces, rise and causes, its efficacy and consequences." however criminal in a moral respect, cannot be visited with political penalties without He proceeds to remark, in the first place, manifest injustice; without a violation of every that, " as to its nature,” faith “does involve sound principle of legislation. If the state is knowledge; knowledge of most worthy and not endangered, nor the rights of individuals important truths, knowledge peculiar and not invaded, no political offence is committed, and otherwise attainable, knowledge in way of no political penalty can be righteously incurred. great evidence and assurance." Secondly, The existence of such heresy and error is a i Faith has also divers ingredients, or inseparagreat evil, calling for the most active counter- ble adjuncts, which it doth imply, rendering action by other means than force or fine (into it commendable and acceptable to God.”. As which all political penalties resolve them- “ Faith implies a good use of reason. This is solves); but the arm of power is not the re- that which cominends any virtue ; that a man medy for moral evil. The tares and the wheat acting after it, does act wisely, in conformity must grow together until the harvest.
to the frame and design of his nature, or like a We shall not now enter upon the question rational creature; using his best faculties in of the criminality of error. That subject is the best manner, and in their proper operations fully and satisfactorily treated by Dr. Wardlaw towards the end intended by the all-wise Creaand Mr. Taylor in the works before us; and in tor. This is that upon which all dispensation the admirable discourses of Barrow, (whose of justice is founded; a man being accountable authority, strange to say, has been adduced in for the use of his reason, so as to deserve resupport of the dogma, that belief is involun. ward for the right management, and punishtary,) it had already received an occasional but ment for the misuse of it; this is that, consc. masterly illustration. The public are under quently, on which God so often declares himobligations to the Editor of the present judi- self to ground his judginent; so that, in cious reprint of this portion of his writings. A effect, he will justify men for being wise, and writer in the Westminster Review had said, condemn theni as guilty of toily; whence, “ The proof that belief is not voluntary, is well in the language of Scripture, wisdom and put by Barrow in his first sermon on Faith, virtue or piety are cquivalent terms, and a fool but the passage is too long for insertion. The signifies the same with a vicious or impinus following is the passage referred to, in which person. And if ever a man deserves connnenit will be seen that Barrow is putting the sen- dation for using his reason well, it is then timent in question, preparatory to his exposing when, upon mature deliberation, he embraces its fallacy.
the Christian doctrine ; for so doing is a most “ Thai faith should be thus highly dignified, rational act, arguing the person to be sagacious, has always appeared strange to the adversaries considerate, and judicious; one who carefully of our religion, and has suggested to them mat. inquires into things, seriously weighs the case, ter of obloquy against it. They could not ap. and judges soundly concerning it. prehend why we should be commanded, or “It was a foul aspersion cast upon our reli. how we can be obliged to believe; as if it gion by its ancient opposers, that it did require wore an arbitrary thing depending on our free * a mere belief, void of reason,' challenging aschoice, and not rather did naturally follow the sent to its doctrines without any trial or proof. representation of objects to our mind. They This suggestion, if true, were, I confess, a would not allow, thai an act of our understand. mighty prejudice against it, and no man, in.
pp. 43, 44.
deed justly could be obliged to admit it upon hold others stiff; few do follow the results of such řerms." pp. 39, 40.
impartial contemplation. Indeed, if we seriously weigh the case, we " All faith, therefore, even in common things, shall find, that to require faith without reason, may be deemed voluntary, no less than intel. is to demand an impossibility ; for faith is an lectual; and Christian faith is especially such, effect of persuasion, and persuasion is nothing as requiring thereto more application of soul, else but the application of some reason to the managed by choice, than any other; whence mind, apt to draw forth its assent.
the ancients, in their description of it, do therefore, can believe he knows not what or usually include this condition, supposing it not why. He that truly believes, must apprehend to be a bare assent of the understanding, but a the proposition, and he must discern its con- free consent of the will. “Faith,' saith Clemens nexion with some principle of truth, which, as Alexandrinus, is a spontaneous acceptance more notorious to him, he did before admit; and compliance with divine religion. And otherwise he only pretends to believe, out of "to be made at first, was not in our power ; some design, or from affection to some party; but God persuaded us to follow those things his faith is not so much really faith as hypo- which he liketh, choosing by the rational fa. crisy, craft, fondness, or faction.
culties which he hath given us, and so leadetli “God, therefore, neither does nor can enjoin us to faith,' saith Justin the Martyr. us faith without reason ; but therefore does re- " The same is supposed in holy Scripture ; quire it, as matter of duty from us, because he where, of believers, it is said, that they did has furnished sufficient reason to persuade us. gladly, or willingly, receive the word, and they And having made his doctrine credible, (a received it with all willingnoss or readiness of faithful or credible word, and worthy of all ac- mind. ceptation,) having given us reason chiefly to " And to defect of will, infidelity is often as. be employed in such matters, as he justly may cribed :-Ye will not come unto me,' saith our claim our assent, so he will take well our ready Saviour, 'that ye might have life;' and How surrendry of it to him, as an act of reason and often would I have gathered thy children towisdom becoming us.
gether as a hen doth gather her brood under These passages will sufficiently show, how her wings, and ye would not !' and. The king. far this profound writer was from thinking dom of heaven is like unto a certain king, that the infidel may be one who, having dealed which made a marriage for his son, and sent faithfully with evidence, has come, unavoid forth his servants to call them that were bidden ably and involuntarily, to a wrong conclusion to the wedding, and they would not come ;' But the following paragraphs are still more to and · Of this,' saith St. Peter of some profano the point.
infidels, they are willingly ignorant, that by “Whoever indeed will consider the nature the word of God the heavens were of old;' of man, or will consult obvious experience, shall and the like St. Paul saith,' that they received find, that, in all practical matters, our will, or not the love of the truth, but had pleasure in appetite, has a mighty influence upon our judg. unrighteousness.' ment of things; causing men with great atten- Indeed, to prevent this exception, that tion to regard that which they love, and care- faith is a forced act, and therefore not moral, fully to mark all reasons making for it; but or to render it more voluntary and worthy, averting from that which they dislike, and God has not done all that he might have done making them overlook the arguments which to convince mnen, or to wring belief from them. persuade to it. Whence men generally suit He hath not stamped on his truth that glaring their opinions to their inclinations ; warping evidence which might dazzle our minds; he to that side where their interest lies, or to does not propose it armed with irresistible cowhich their complexion, their hunour, their gency; he has not made the objects of faith passions, their pleasure, their ease, sway them; conspicuous to sense, nor the propositions so that almost any notion will seem true, which thereof demonstrable by reason, like theorems is profitable, safe, pleasant, or anywise grate of geometry: this indeed would be to depose ful: that notion false, which in any such re- faith, to divest it of its excellency, and bereave spect does cross them. Very few can abstract it of its praise ; this were to deprive us of that their minds from such considerations, or em- blessedness which is adjudged to those who brace pure truth, divested of them; and those believe and do not sce;' this would prostitute few who do so, must therein most employ their wisdom to be deflowered by the foolish and exwill, by strong efforts of voluntary resolution pose truth to be rifled by the profane ; this and patience, disengaging their minds from would take from our reason its noblest exercise those clogs and biasses. This is particularly and fairest occasion of improvement; this notorious in men's adherence to parties, divided would confound persons fit to be distinguished, in opinion, which is so regulated by that sort of the sagacious and the stupid, the diligent and causes, that if you mark what any man's tem- the slothful, the ingenuous and the froward, the per is, and where his interest lies, you may sober and the vain, the pious and profane; the easily prognosticate on what side he will be, children of wisdom, which are apt to justify it, and with what degree of seriousness, of vigour, and the sons of folly, who hate knowledge ; of zeal, he will cleave to it. A timorous man, the friends of truth and virtue, and the lovers you may be almost sure, will be on the safer of falsehood and unrighteousness. side; a covetous man will bend to that party “God therefore has exhibited his truth, shiwbere gain is to be had; an ambitious man will ning through some mists of difficulty and doubt, close with the opinion passing in court; a that only those who have clear eyes, who do careless man will comply with the fashion ; af. look attentively, who are willing to see, may fection arising from education or prejudice will discern it; that those who have eyes may see,
and those who have ears may hear.' le We may safely admit, that all mental error means this way of discovering his mind for a which is unconnected with the state of the test to prove our ingenuity, for a field to exer- heart, all unbelief which does not involve disocise our industry, for an occasion to express his bedience, is innocent. There could be no guilt goodness in crowning the wisdom and virtue of in erroneous opinions, if those opinions were good believers; that 'the trial of your faitli,' not the result of the perverting influence of saith St. Peter, óbeing much more precious moral pravity. “ Those who wish to consider than of gold that perisheth, though it be tricd miental errors as venial," remarks Mr. Taylor, with fire, might be found unto praise, and ho- “ maintain that a man cannot believe as he nour, and glory at the appearing of Jesus | pleases or as he wishes." Christ; whom having not seen, ye love; in "Now this is greatly a false statement; and, whom, though ye see him not, yet believing, so far as it is true, it is not to the point. It is ye rejoice with joy unspeakable and full of glo- a false statement; for these very persons do ry! He meaneth also thence to display his form their faith, at least their notions, accordjustice in punishing the slothful, the vain, the ing to their wishes. They wish to have their perverse, the profane; that, as the apostle saith, minds left quite at liberty to embrace what noall men might be judged who believed not tions may suit thein, and therefore maintain, the truth, but had pleasure in unrighteousness that any error in their opinions cannot be sinHence, “there must of necessity be ofiences,' ful. They wish to have the notions they thus said our Saviour; hence our Lord was set for form true, and therefore adhere to them at all a mark to be spoken against, that the thoughts events. They form to themselves in imaginaof many hearts might be revealed;" and, tion a god according to their wishes, altogeth
tliere must be heresies,' saith St. Paul: why? er such a one as themselves; because any other that they which are approved, ci doxicos, pero notion, any scriptural representation of ihe Disons that can bear the test' may be made ma- vine Being, would control their reason in a way nifest.' ” p. 67–70.
their pride cannot bear, and curb their passions “ Indeed, more abundant light of conviction, so as sensual indulgence dislikes extremely. as it would deprive good men of much praise They maintain, that believing any stateand reward, so, it might be hurtful to many ment, depends upon the evidence concerning persons, who, having affections indisposed to it presented to the mind. Now this is in part comply with truth, would outface and out- true ; evidence must be presented. Yet it is brave it, however clear and evident ; ' they in part false; because, whatever evidence may would,' as Job speaketh, “rebel against the be produced, if the mind will not examine it, light,' although shining on them with a meri- or even look at it, the most weighty arguments dian splendour ; they would plunge ihemselves can have no avail. Weakness in the visual orinto an inexcusable and incorrigible state of im- gan, may prevent our discerning what is plainpiety, doing despite to the Spirit of grace,' ly set before us; and a wilful closing the eyes and involving themselves in the unpardonable takes place frequently, when we suspect that sin;' as we have many instances in the evan- what is to be seen will be disagrecable to us. gelical history, of those who, beholding unques. The disposition of the mind has therefore much tionable evidences of divine power attesting to more to do with our actual believing, than the our Lord's doctrine, which they could not but mere quantum of evidence. The perverseness acknowledge, did yet oppose it, did blaspheme and obstinacy of the will are extremely influ. against it, and outrageously persecute it." p. 72. ential. All these points involvo guilt, and
“Those, indeed, whoin sufficient reasons make the error so held to be deeply criminal. (such as God has dispensed to us) will not con- ** It is 'with the heart man believeth unto vince, upon them the greatest motives would / righteousness ;' while, therefore, a heart of unhave small efficacy. So father Abraham told belief operates in a man, he will not believe on the rich man: . If they hear not Moses and the Saviour, let the evidence produced be what the prophets neither would they be persuaded it may. Prejudice forms a principal ingredient though one arose from the dead.
in unbelief; but prejudice supposes there has They may pretend, if they had more light, not been any suitable examination; the opithat they would be persuaded ; like those who nions formed under this influence most likely said, 'Let him now come down from the cross, are erroneous, and, so far as they are so, the and we will believe ;' but it would not in effect
error must incur guilt. provo so, for they would yet be devising shifts “If prejudice and pride, wilfulness and senand forging exceptions, or else they would op. sual appetites, are innocent, then the opinions pose an impudent face and an obstinate will formed under the influence of such principles against the truth.
may be innocent also. But the affirmative in "Wherefore it was for the common good, this case can hardly be supposed; and if assertand to Divine wisdom it appeared sufficient, ed and defended, it will only prove the evil to that, upon the balance, truth should much oul
be deeper than is suspected by the parties, and weigh falsehood, if the scales were held in an beyond the power of mere evidence, how bright even hand, and no prejudices were thrown in soever, to remove. against it ; that it should be conspicuous " The notion of mental error being venial, is enough to eyes which do not avert themselves full of evil influence on the mind in many ways. from it, or wink on purpose, or be clouded with It takes away all fear of error, and sets the lust and passion; it was enough that infidelity mind loose from every bond which might enis justly chargeable on men's wilful depravity, gage it to carefulness in its reasonings upon reand that '785251 vux excuso, they have noi, ligious subjects. That hold which the revelaas our Saviour saith, any reasonable excuse' tion of divine truth ought to have, is weakened. -for it.” pp. 73, 4.
The mind feels at more ease without such
shackles, and is soon induced to shake them death, according as the purpose or malice preoff. When they have thus sorsaken the word pense shall be. In cases of heretical contuma. of the Lord, what wisdom is in them?
cy, or even of supercilious doubting, the mind “ If mental error is held to be venial, as is clearly engaged, making its own choice, dedoubting seems to be rational to a half-informed termining, according to a blinded, or perverse, mind, doubts will be raised, and pursued, far or at least a criminally careless state of the beyond due limits. The excursive imagination feelings. He who says, Give me thine heart, passes into the enemies' country without per- discerns that the heart is the very thing withception of the fact, of course without suspicion holden from him ; that it is in decided opposiof the danger. One doubt leads to another, as tion to him, not yielding obedience, but retruly as one truth demonstrated leads to the fusing it in a manner most determined and deascertaining of fresh principles." p. 18–21. liberate.
The specific design of Mr. Taylor's volume “Does the doubter read on the subject? Yes, is, to expose the criminality and danger of what? Is it to God's revelation he has resceptical opinions under the form of Socinian- course, in order to enlighten his judgment, to ism; with a view to guard young persons; for direct his way? No; it is some book written whom the work is intended, against listening in express opposition to the sentiments of the to the insinuations which would undermine Bible, which he prefers. He will examine for their belief. “ The first ominous trial at the himself, be says. And in the true spirit of one tree of knowledge," he remarks,“ was hazard. who has previously determined, he neglects one ed in the hope that the produce was good to side altogether; and examines, if it deserve make one wise." A comparison is drawn be such a term, only those statements and those tween the case of the infidel, and that of the arguments, which he previously knows are profligate, for the purpose of showing, that he drawn up in professed enmity to the doctrines who sins against ihe first table of ihe Deca- which he wishes to prove false. Is not this logue, cannot be regarded as less guilty, al. partial state of mind truly sinful? The wish though his delinquency is less thought of among to find divine statements false, is the mind's men, than he who openly violates the laws of own condemnation of them, and resistance the second table.
against them. To read in this spirit, is to pro“Let us compare the nature of the guilty claim determined hostility to the truth, and will actions.
be so accounted. “If all offences come from the heart, and ** That the error is only mental, is no excuse, have their malignity from the intention, pur. nor exculpation, nor diminution of the guilt. pose, and cherished indulgence; we shall not Guilt might be greater if acted on, certainly ; wonder, if that eye which discerns all our mo- but it is now exactly what this procedure of the tives, should be more disgusted with the sly mind makes it; its own purposed rejection of sarcasm aimed against his especial proposals dixine truth, as given us of God.” p. 68-70. of forgiveness, than with the mere animal in. Mr. Taylor's volume abounds with striking, dulgence which forgets his law. Breaches of remarks, and preserves throughout, the tone of the moral precepts do very commonly take firm but affectionate remonstrance. That it place without reference to ihem, without ex- will give great offence to Unitarians, he doubtpress purpose of disobedience, but through mere less anticipates : it is not for them he writes. habit and animal excitement. This is guilt, Enough has been written on the Socinian condeep guilt. But is it less so to contemplate the troversy; but a work was wanted, that should express provisions of infinite goodness, and re. be proper to be put into the hands of a young fuse thein? To understand that God so loved person in danger of imbibing the contagion of the world as to give his only begotten Son lo scepticism. For this purpose the volume is die in order to save the guilty, and then coolly excellently adapted; and we trust that its exto resist the plan in toto; to set one's self to lensive usefulness will realize the hope and invalidate the testimony; to tell God that he prayer expressed by the venerable Author. cannot save men by substitution, or that he We shall make room for one more paragraph ought not? Here ihe heart is busied in the as a further specimen. act, and most offensively determined on it. “ Is it assuming too much, my young friend,
"In the former case, it is the body sins, to say, Be afraid of doubting, when that doubt though in close connexion with the mind, which must of necessity include a high deference to is enslaved to its indulgence. The mind in your own powers, judgment, and authority. deed sins, actively, foully, and says, “ To-mor- Common inodesty might keep up a respect for row shall be as this day, and much more abun. Scripture cautions, unless the word of God can dant;' constraining the body, even beyond its be proved fallacious. This has never been powers, to fulfil the lusts thereof. The sinner done. This is not often attempted. It is is therefore voluntary, and determined, in his thought sufficient to decry it in the lump; to fleshy deeds; there can be no excuse framed take it for granted that it is the work of priestfor him; his depravity is great, his delinquen- craft; to revile it as such, without the common ey deep.
justice of examination, or the common good * But shall a sin of the mind be less a sin, manners of seeming loth to discard an old, a because the body has no share in it, supposing once revered friend. Be aware that such it so to be? Is not the mind eminently the doubting is sinful. It is not truly doubting, man himself; and are not its improper actings but maltreating; it is not the determination of essentially sin? Where the body pulls a trig. prudence, but of petulance ; not the calm dic. ger and fires a pistol, and a man is slain, the tate of judgment, but the heyday of rebellion. whole guilt lies in the mind's intention. It is • Persons seem not to be aware, tbat, in murder, or manslaughter, or only accidental most cases, what is called doubting, is really deciding. If something should be done, to such as we should not have expected to meet doubt issues in deciding not to do it. If some- with in the work of a respectable scholar. Mr. thing, must be done, doubting leads to doing Grinfield's professed object is, " to advocate the direct contrary to what is proper, and this the doctrine of universal redemption," in oppoupon less evidence than was found on the side sition to what he is pleased to call Calvinism : of safe conduct. To doubt, where there is which Calvinism he represents as the main even time for hesitation, is to steel the mind spring and foundation of nearly all missionary against the right conviction; and the conse- exertions. quence, in all probability, will be the hasty de- " The heathen," he says, are continually cision, on the spur of the moment, when at spoken of as perishing without any possibility last one must decide, under the baleful influ- of escape ; their eternal happiness is represent. ence of this doubting frame; or the passing by ed as depending on the hope forlorn of convertthe last suitable moment for right action, not ing them before they die ;-we are urged and having perceived even the symptoms of the exhorted to be kinder than Providence, and crisis. Doubting continues then as a matter more libera] than Grace."-p. xii. of habit; or rather, the decision is really, From these expressions it might naturally though imperceptibly made."-pp. 160, 161. be inferred, that the author is at all events no
The first two Sermons in Dr. Wardlaw's pre- very warm friend of missionary exertions ; sent volume, were briefly noticed on their first that he does not regard them either as very publication. They drew down upon hin a fee- necessary or very beneficial. More especially ble and indiscreet attack, which he has now as, in a preceding paragraph, he has referred ably repelled in a:1 Appendix. The judicious to the small numerical proportion which Chris. manner in which he has treated the subject, tians bear to the heathen population of the Icaves nothing to be wishıcd for. His general globe, as a very “ startling consideration,”position,“ that all unbelief of the gospel, has its an objection against the credibility of Chrisorigin in evil will," he remarks, * be set down tianity, the strength of which is to be inva. as exceedingly narrow-minded and uncharita- lidated only by reasonings which seem to deny ble; but I dare not,” he adds, “ indulge a cha- the necessity of their conversion. Yet, this rity for the sentiments and motives of infideli. natural construction of his words, Mr. Grinfield ty." No word has been more perverted from expressly deprecates. its true import, than this same word charity. · Let me not,” he says, “be thought to The motives and sentiments of individuals overlook the importance of the revelation of ought to be judged of with candour, and their Christianity, nor to underrate the duty of enerrors, in many cases, require to be treated deavouring to spread this knowledge over heawith lenity; but to disconnect evil conduct then countries. Born and educated among a and evil principle, is not to be charitable, but class of Christians who, above all others, have to be guilty of error and treachery. The pro- been distinguished for their missionary exerper occasion for the exercise of charity is af- tions; I should indeed do the greatest violence forded by offences against ourselves : charity to my principles, if I did not disclaim in the suffereth long and is kind. That charity which most public and unreserved manner, the most consists in judging favourably of offences distant desire to diminish that zeal for the con.
gainst God, is not the Divine grace which is version of the heathen, which so honourably the subject of the Apostle's exquisite eulogy. distinguishes the present age.'
Closely connected with the subject of man's Giving Mr. Grinfield full credit for since. responsibility for his belief,—so closely, Dr.rity in ihis disavowal, we are nevertheless Wardlaw remarks, that it may almost be re- bound 10 say, that such is the tendency of his garded as a branch of it,-is that which relates volume ; and that so far as it has any effect, it to the responsibility of the heathen world.- will tend to diminish such zeal, and to bring • For what are they answerable, and upon into question the reasonableness of the princiwhat grounds?".
ples from which it emanates. In like manner, “ There are few objections against the Bible Mr. Grinfield tells us, that he does not wish more frequently to be heard from the lips of in- " to make any direct attack on the principles fidels,-uttered sometimes with serious gravi. of Calvinists,” of whose system the rejeciion ty, and at other times with the lightness of a of the heathen, he afirms, forms a component sarcastic sneer,-than that it damns the hea. part; and yet, his whole work is professedly an then. Do you really believe, it is asked, in the attack upon what he calls the Calvinistic systone of mingled surprise, derision, and anger, tem, of which he knows just so much as he that all the heathen are to be left to perish has collected from the pages of the late Bishop eternally, because they never had the opportu- of Winchester. Had he taken Bishop Hors. nity of knowing what you call the gospel | ley's advice to the clergy, to understand Cal. The objection is the more insinuating because vinism before they made it the object of ignoit wears the garb of humanity, and recom- rant attack, he would never have put forth the mends itself to the feelings of benevolence.”
present volume. The salvability of the heathen, the subject of Mr. Grinfield thinks, that "the strength of Mr. Grinfield's dissertation, is, in fact, the the general argument for the salvability of question of their moral responsibility put in a heathen nations, cannot be more strongly ex. different and less proper form. We regret to emplified, than from the consideration, that it say, that neither in stating the question nor in has found its way into the minds of even some answering it, has the author done himself professed Calvinists." And he cites with high much credit as a theologian. The confusion approbation a striking passage froin Newton's of ideas which pervades his volume, and the Messiah, together with some lines by Cowper, extreme inaecuracy of his statements, are and passages from Grove, Watts, Doddridge,