Imágenes de páginas
PDF
EPUB

English writers. It will be noticed also that in almost every instance the name of the author is attached, and while the selections have been made largely to illustrate the language and its idiom, pure, noble, elevating sentiment has not been forgotten in the choice.

Attention is directed-to the simplicity of the written method of analysis. As a labor-saver, when it is desirable to have pupils write out or diagram the analysis of a sentence, it is believed the plan here set forth has never been equaled for simplicity and system.

Attention is called also to the general make-up or arrangement of the book and the clearness and conciseness with which the various principles are stated.

The system of Analysis, beginning on page 119, is not only simple, but also comprehensive. It is true, many more subdivisions, perplexing in name and metaphysical in character, might be made, but of what use would they be? The Author believes in simplifying the science, not in making it needlessly difficult and intricate for the learner.

The chapter on Punctuation will be found to embrace the leading principles, set forth in such a manner as to be not only interesting but also easily mastered.

Care has been taken to give plenty of exercises, not only in the construction and analysis of sentences, but also for correction; and among those for correction it will be noticed the Author has recorded many from some of the most reputable writers of English. These form one of the strongest arguments in favor of the close and accurate study of the principles of English Grammar. Such sentences must not be quoted as correct because used by noted writers. They tend rather to show that those who have written the purest English have now and then been careless or have ceased to be vigilant over their use of language. Few men-possibly none-have ever written in whose productions some errors may not be found contradicting the rules of Grammar, which in general have been the writer's guide. After a most extensive and elaborate course of reading, De Quincey testifies that he has met with only two or three writers who did not sometimes violate the accidence or the syntax of English Grammar.

The Author hopes this venture may meet not only the needs, but also the approbation, of progressive teachers.

ALBERT N. RAUB,

[ocr errors]

CONTENTS.

PAGE

PAGE

ENGLISH GRAMMAR, Divisions... 11 ADJECTIVES.................................

46

Classes of Adjectives.......... 47

ORTHOGRAPHY.

Articles

47

Elementary Sound8.....

12

Numeral Adjectives ......

48

Letters

13

Pronominal Adjectives..........

48

Equivalents ........

14

Remarks on Adjective: ......... 49

Words and Syllables.......... 15

Factitive Adjective.............. 49

Classes of Words.........

16

“ They washed their hands

Forms of Letters...

17

clean

49

Capital Letters ......

17

“ Pale blue

49

Spelling

22

Rules for Spelling ....

Comparison of Adjectives....... 50

22

Remarks on Comparison ...... 52

Special Rules for Spelling ......... 25

Parsing of Adjectives ......... 53

ETYMOLOGY.

PRONOUNS..

54

NOUNS..........

Antecedent.......................

27

55

Classes of Common Nouns ...... 29

Classes of Pronouns ............... 55

Remarks on Personal Pro-

Properties of Nouns......... 30

nouns........

57

NUMBER....

30

Mine,"

,” “thine," etc............ 57

Formation of Plurals ........... 30

Compound Personal Pronouns.. 58

Irregular Plurals.......... 32

Parsing of Personal Pronouns 58

Plurals of Proper Nouns........ 32

Relative Pronouns....

60

Plurals of Compound Nouns... 33

60

Plurals of Foreign Noung ...... 34 “ What”

61

Remarks on Number............ 35

Compound Relative Pronouns... 61

PERSOX

36 Interrogative Pronoun 8 ..... 62

GENDER........

Responsive Pronouns....... 63

37

Methods of Distinguishing Sex 38 VERBS.....

66

Remarks on Gender .......... 39 Classes of Verbs........

67

Transitive Verbs .......

67

40

Remarks on Transitive and

Formation of the Possessive.... 41

Intransitive Verbs............ 68

General Remarks on Case.... 42

Voice

69

INFLECTION

42 “ You will be laughed at ”. 70

Declension

43

“ He is come

70

Forms for Parsing Nouns....... 44 “ The fiend ploughs well”.

70

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

ور

[ocr errors]

PAGE

PAGE

Rem. 7.........

.......... 164

Logical Predicate Defined..... 130 RULE II.-POSSESSIVE CASE.... 160

Adjective Element Defined..... 131 “ Boys' hats,Rem. 1.......... 160

Adverbial Element Defined.... 131 "Somebody else's,Cau. 1... 162

Objective Element Defined..... 131 RULE III.- OBJECT OF TRAN-

Written Form for Modified

SITIVE VERB...

163

Predicate........

131

Factitive Object, Rem. 4...... 164

Compound Subject Defined..... 132 I was taught grammar,"

Compound Predicate Defined., 132

164

Written Forms for Compound “ The brooks ran nectar,"

Subjects and Predicates ...... 132 Rem. 8................

Modifiers of Nouns......... 133 | RULE IV.-NOMINATIVE INDE-

Modifiers of Pronouns.......... 133

PENDENT........

166

Modifiers of Adjectives ....... 133 Nominative Case Absolute.... 167

Modifiers of Verbs......... 134

RULE V.-OBJECT OF PREPO-

Modifiers of Adverbs............ 134

SITION ..........

169

Written Form for Modifier8... 134

Object after worth, like, near,

Connectives

137

nigh, Rem. 5........ 169

Independent Parts ........ 137

RULE VI.-APPOSITION ........... 171

Written Form for Connectives

“They struck each other,"

and Independent Parts....... 138

Rem. 5 ..............

172

PHRASES

139

RULE VII.-SAME CASE AFTER

CLAUSES....

140

THE VERB....

174

CONTRACTED SENTENCES........... 142 “It is me," “ It is him,"

ABRIDGMENT ...........

143

Rem. 6 ........................

175

TRANSPOSITION

143 RULE VIII.-ADJECTIVES ....... 177

Analysis, Principles of........... 144 Dark blue," Rem. 2............ 177

Directions for Analysis......... 144 “ Sixty-two,Rem. 3........... 177

Models for Simple Sentences... 145 Attribute, Rem. 9................. 177

Written Form for Simple “A sixteen-foot alley,” Cau.3. 178

Sentences .......

146 “ The first two," Cau. 10 ...... 179

Models for Complex Sentences 148

RULE IX.-ARTICLES ............. 181

Written Forms for Complex

“A dozen

181

Sentences ...........

149

RULE X.-PRONOMINAL ADJEC-

Models for Compound Sen-

TIVES ..........

184

tences........

151

“None,” Rem. 5......

185

Written Forms for Compound

“Many a," Rem. ..... 185

Sentences

152

“ Each other,” Cau. 4. ......... 185

Directions for Written Analysis 154

“One another,” Cau. 4........ 185

General Exercise for Analysis 156

RULE XI.- PERSONAL PRO-

RULES OF SYNTAX.

NOUNS

187

ROLE 1.-SUBJECT OF FINITE “You and I,Cau. 12........... 189

VERB..........

158 “We and you," Cau. 13....... 190

PAGE

[ocr errors]

PAGE

Mode.........

71 Subordinate Conjunctions..... 109

Tense

73 Correlatives..........

110

Remarks on Tense...... 75 General Remarks on Con-

Number and Person ............ 75

junctions .......

110

Unipersonal Verbs........

76 INTERJECTIONS...

112

Participles.......

76

Words Used as Different Parts

Remarks on Participles....... 77 of Speech .........

113

Regular and Irregular Verbs... 78

“As,” “ Before,” After,”

Principal Parts of Verbs....... 79

“ Both,” “But”.

Auxiliary Verbs ........

84

“Either," "Neither,” “For" 114

Remarks on Auxiliaries....... 84 “Like,” “Since,” “ That”.... 114

Defective Verbs........

84

“ Then,” “ What,” “ While". 115

Conjugation

85

“Well,” “Yet

116

Progressive Form......

93

General Parsing Exercise...... 116

Emphatic Form........

93

Written Form for Parsing..... 118

Interrogative Form........ 94

Negative Form .....

94

SYNTAX.

Remarks on Conjugation ...... 94 Sentence

119

“Were," meaning would be.... 94

Proposition ..........

119

“Don't,” “doesn't”.

95

Principal and Subordinate... 119

“Isn't," “ aren't,” “a’n’t ”..... 95

Definition of Subject........... 119

98 Definition of Predicate........ 120

Conjunctive Adverbs............. 100 Sentences according to Use..... 121

Comparison of Adverbs........ 100 Declarative Sentence .... 121

Remarks on Adverbs ......... 101 Interrogative Sentence........... 121

“ I feel bad”.

101 Imperative Sentence...... 121

“ The child lay motionless ”.. 101 Exclamatory Sentence.......... 121

“ The clay burned white 101 Sentences with regard to Form 122

Adverbial Phrases............. 101 Simple Sentence.......... 122

Complex Adverbs

101 Complex Sentence.....

122

Compound Adverbs........ 101 Compound Sentence............. 122

Independent Adverbs...... 102 Analysis Defined......

125

“ Farther” and “further".... 102 Synthesis Defined....

125

The an Adverb.........

102 Kinds of Subject.......... 126

PREPOSITIONS.......

Grammatical Subject........... 126

104

Kinds of Predicate.

127

List of Prepositions......... 105

Attribute..

127

Remarks on Prepositions... 107

Copula

127

“ Set in "

107

127

“ Like”.

Grammatical Predicate......

107

Logical Subject Defined....... 128

“ Come in "

107

Modifier

128

CONJUNCTIONS

109 Writtten Forms for Modified

Co-ordinate Conjunctions ...... 109 Subject.

128

« AnteriorContinuar »