« AnteriorContinuar »
Small benefitighty state heatres for pon whee
ee also Scheinburgh Enni Spirits of the
original may be found in Lailàth's “Alt Deutshe Mysteries were founded on the historic parts of Geditchte, with a modern German version. the Old and New Testaments, and the MiracleThere is also one in Marbabh's “Volksbilcher," Plays on the Lives of Saints; a distinction not Mo. 32.
always observed, however-for in Mr. Wright's
* Early Mysteries and other Latin Poems of the Lux, Dux, LEX, Rex.-p. 150.
Twelfth and Thirteenth centuries," the ResurOn the northern wall of the church of St.
rection of Lazarus is called a Miracle, and not a Pierre is sculptured a simple Greek cross, with
Mystery. The Moralities were plays, in which this inscription. It represents the Cross as the
the Virtues and Vices were personified.
The earliest religious play which has been Jight and guide, and law and ruler, of the world. These all centre in the Cross, and radiate from
preserved is the "Christos Paschon" of Gregory it. See Didron, “ Iconographie," p. 408; Milling
Nazianzen, written in Greek, in the fourth centon's Translation, I. 399.
tury. Next to this come the remarkable Latin
Plays of Roswitha, the Nun of Gandersheim, in All the thunders
the tenth century, which, though crude, and Here are harmless!
wanting in artistic construction, are marked by For these bells have been anointed,
a good deal of dramatic power and interest. A And baptized with holy water!
handsome edition of these plays, with French They defy our utmost power'.-p. 150.
translation, has been lately published, entitled,
" Théâtre de Rosvitha, Religieuse Allemande du The Consecration and Baptism of Bells is one
Xe Siecle." Par Charles Magnin. Paris, 1845. of the most curious ceremonies of the Church in
The most important collections of English the Middle Ages. The Council of Cologne
Mysteries and Miracle-Plays are those known as ordained as follows:
the Townley, the Chester, and the Coventry "Let the bells be blessed, as the trumpets of
Plays. The first of these collections has been the Church militant, by which the people are
published by the Surtees Society, and the other assembled to hear the word of God; the clergy
two by the Shakspere Society. In his introto announce his mercy by day, and his truth in
duction to the Coventry Mysteries, the editor, their nocturnal vigils: that by their sound the
Mr. Halliwell, quotes the following passage from faithful may be invited to prayers, and that the
Dugdale's "Antiquities of Warwickshire:"spirit of devotion in them may be increased.
"Before the suppression of the monasteries, The fathers have also maintained that demons
this city was very famous for the pageants, that affrighted by the sound of bells calling Christians
were played therein, upon Corpus Christi day; to prayers, would flee away; and when they
which, occasioning very great confluence of fled, the persons of the faithful would be secure;
people thither, from far and near, was of no that the destruction of lightnings and whirl
small benefit thereto; which pageants being winds would be averted, and the spirits of the
acted with mighty state and reverence by the storm defeated."--Edinburgh Encyclopaedia. Art.
friars of this house, had theatres for the several Bells. See also Scheible's Kloster," vi. 776.
scenes, very large and high, placed upon wheels, And a Friar who is preaching to the croud,
and drawn to all the eminent parts of the city, In a voice so deep and clear and loud.
for the better advantage of spectators; and That, if we listen, and give good heed.
contained the story of the New Testament, comHis lowest words will reach the ear.-p. 161.
posed into old English rhythm, as appeareth by
an ancient MS., intituled "Ludus Corporis In giving this sermon of Friar Cuthbert as a Christi," or "Ludus Conventriæ." I have been specimen of the Risus Pas chales, or street-preach told by some old people, who in their younger ing of the monks at Easter, I have exaggerated
years were eye-witnesses of these pageants so nothing. This very anecdote, offensive as it is, acted, that the yearly confluence of people to see comes from a discourse of Father Barletta, a that show was extraordinarily great, and yielded Dominican friar of the fifteenth century, whose no small advantage to this city." fame as a popular preacher was very great.
The representation of religious plays has not "Among the abuses introduced in this yet been wholly discontinued by the Roman century," says Tiraboschi," was that of exciting Church. At Ober-Ammergau, in the Tyrol, a from the pulpit the laughter of the hearers; as grand spectacle of this kind is exhibited once in if that were the same thing as converting them. ten years. A very graphic, description of that We have examples of this, not only in Italy, but which took place in the year 1850 is given by also in France, where the sermons of Menot and Miss Anna Mary Howitt, in her " Art-Student Maillard, and of others, who wonld make a in Munich," vol. i. chap. iv. She says: better appearance on the stage than in the "The first view of Ober Ammergau somewhat pulpit, are still celebrated for such follies." disappointed us. It lies in a smiling green valley
If the reader is curious to see how far the free surrounded by hills rather than mountains, and, dom of speech was carried in these popular ser excepting for the architecture of the cottages mons, he is referred to Scheible's “Kloster," and certain rugged lines of peaks and cliffs tellvol. i, where he will find extracts from Abra ing of Alpine origin, might have passed for a ham à Sancta Clara, Sebastian Frank, and retired Derbyshire dale. others; and in particular, an anonymous dis "We had bronght from our friend, Professor course called Der Gräuel der Verwüstung. The R., a letter to the peasant, Tobias Flünger, who Abomination of Desolation, preached at Ottak performed the character of Christ, and this cirring, a village west of Vienna, November 25, 1782, cumstance won for us good respect among our in which the license of language is carried to its fellow-travellers. The stell-wagen drove up to utmost limit.
his house, which is the second in the village, and My authority for the spiritual interpretation
surrounded by a gay little garden. Tobias of bell-ringing, which follows, is Durandus, as Flunger came out to receive us, and you may cited by Hone, in the Addenda to his "Ancient imagine our surprise, when, instead of a peasant, Mysteries Described."
as we had imagined, we beheld a gentleman to
all appearance, in a grey sort of undress coat, THE NATIVITY, a Miracle-Play.-P. 162
with a scarlet fez on his head. He was certainly A singular chapter in the History of the Middle handsome, and welcomed us with a calm yet Ages, is that which gives account of the early warm-hearted courtesy. As he removed his fez Christian Drama, the Mysteries, Moralities, and | we saw his dark glossy hair parted above the Miracle-Plays, which were at first performed in centre of his brow, and falling in rich waves churches: and afterwards in the street, on fixed upon his shoulders, and that his melancholy dark or movable stages. For the most part, the eyes, his pale brow, his emaciated features, his
pe of the mais veryourse of the
hammasi boste che will find Scheible's Popklart ser:
masticato rus retired of teet
short, black beard,-all bore the most strange will towards men;' they sang of God's infinite and startling resemblance to the hoads of the love in sending among men His blessed Son: Saviour as represented by the early Italian and their voices rose towards heaven, and echoed painters.
among the hills. And whilst they thus sang, our "There was something to my mind almost hearts were strangely touched, and our eyes fearful in this resemblance, and Tobias Flanger | wandered away from those singular peasant seemed to act and speak like one filled with a angels and their peasant audience, up to the mysterious awe. If this be an act of worship in deep, cloudless blue sky above their heads: you him, this personation of our Lord, what will be heard the rustle of green trees around you, and its effect upon him in after-life? There was a caught glimpses of mountains, and all seemed a something so strange, so unspeakably melan strange, fantastical, poetical dream. choly in his emaciated countenance, that I found “But now the chorus retired, and the curtain my imagination soon busily speculating npon slowly rose. There is a tread of feet, a hum of the true reading of its expression.
voices, a crowd approaches, children shout, "At the door we were also met by his wife wave palm-branches, and scatter flowers. In and little daughter, themselves peasants in ap the centre of the multitude on the stage, riding pearance, but cheerful and kind in their wel- upon an ass, sits a majestic figure clothed in a come, as if we had been old friends. The whole long violet-coloured robe, the heavy folds of a cottage was in harmony with its inhabitants, crimson mantle falling around him. His hands bright, cheerful, and filled with traces of a are laid across his breast; his face is meekly simple, pious, beautiful existence. We were raised towards heaven, with an adoring love. taken into a little room, half chamber, half Behind solemnly follows a group of grave men, study ; upon the walls were several well-chosen staves in their hands, ample drapery sweeping engravings, after Hess and Overbeck; and old-the ground; you recognise John in the handfashioned cabinet, fronted with glass, contained some, almost feminine youth, clothed in the various quaint drinking-glasses and exquisite green and scarlet robes, and with flowing locks; specimens of carving in wood, an art greatly and there is Peter with his eager countenance ; practised in the village. On one side of the and that man with the brooding look, and wrapt cabinet hung a violin, and above it and another in a flame-coloured mantle, that must be Jircabinet were arranged casts of hands and feet, das! The children shout and wave their palmOn noticing these things to the wife, she said branches, and the procession moves on,-and that her husband was a carver in wood by pro that fatal triumphal entry is made into Jerusafession, and had brought these with him from lem. Munich to assist him in his art.
"Again appears that tall majestic figure in "6. He is a great carver of crucifixes and Ma his violet robe; his features are lit up with a donnas,' she continued: you must see his holy indignation ; a scourge is in his hand; he work.' He was an artist, then, this Tobias overturns the tables of the money-changers, and Flunger, with his grave, sad countenance, his drives before him a craven, avaricious crowd! air of superiority; yes, mnch was now explained. An excited assembly of aged men, with long and And no doubt his artist-feeling had been brought venerable beards falling on their breasts, their into operation for the benefit of the Miracle features inflamed with rage, with gestures of Play, in the same manner that the schoolmaster vengeance, horror, and contempt, plot and deof Ober-Ammergau had taxed his musical skill cide upon his death! He meantime sits calmly for the production of the music.
at Bethany among his friends, and a woman, "It was now seven o'clock; and as yet it with beautiful long hair falling around her, wanted an hour till the commencement of the kisses his feet, and anoints them with precious play, our kind artistic host, with that strange, ointment from her alabaster vase. And now he melancholy, awe-inspiring countenance of his, sits at a long table, his friends on either hand. insisted upon accompanying us through the John leans upon his breast; he breaks the village, and showing us specimens of the wood bread. Judas, seized by his evil thought, rises carving. There was yet plenty of time,' he from the table, wraps himself closely in his said, 'for him to prepare the play.'
mantle, bows his head, and passes out. Again
the scene changes; it is a garden. That sad, "At the sound of a small cannon, the motley i grave man, gazes with disappointed love upon crowd hastened towards the theatve, which was his sleeping friends; he turns away and prays, a large, unsightly, wooden enclosure, erected or bowed in agony. There is a tumult! " That a broad green meadow, within a stone's throw figure, wrapped in its'flame-coloured robe, again of the village. A few poplars growing on either appears! There is an encounter, a flash of side of the enclosure, no doubt, mark from one swords; and the majestic, melancholy, violetten years to another, the precise spot. The robed figure, with weekly bowed head, is borne brightly-painted pediment of the prosceniam away! And thus ends the first act of this sadrose above the rude wooden fence; crowds of dest of all tragedies. people already thronged the hastily-crowded "We had come expecting to feel our sous reAights of steps leading to the different entrances. l volt at so material a representation of Christ, A few moments more, and we are seated in the as any representation of him we naturally imaboxes precisely opposite the front of the stage. gined must be in a peasant's Miracle-Play. Yet
"With the first feeble notes from the orchestra, so far, strange to confess, neither horror, dis and very feeble at first they were, a dead siler.ce gust, nor contempt was excited in our minds. sunk down upon the assembled mnltitude; as Such an earnest solemnity and simplicity people say, you might have heard a pin drop.' breathed throughout the whole of the performAll was breathless expectation. And soon, be ance, that, to me, at least, anything like anger neath the blue dome of heaven, and with God's or a perception of the ludicrous, would have sunlight showering down apon them, a fantas seemed more irreverent on my part than was tic vision passed across the stage; their white this simple, childlike rendering of the sublime tunics glanced in the light, their crimson, violet, Christian tragedy. We felt at times as though and azure mantles swept the ground, their the figures of Cimabue's, Giotto's, and Peruplumed head-dresses waved in the breeze, gino's pictures had become animated, and were they looked like some strange flight of fabulous moving before us; there was the simple arrangebirds. This was the chorus, attired to represent ment and brilliant colour of drapery: the same angels. Like the antique choras, they sang the earnest quiet dignity about the heads, whilst argument of the play. With waving hands and ! the entire absence of all theatrical effect wonsolemn music, their united voices pealed forth derfully increased the illusion. There were words of blessing, of Peace on earth, and good-' scenes and gronps so extraordinarily like the
in precio ne
Gentle ands gray coatle had
early Italian pictures, that you could have de- of a July sun striking upon their heads for eight clared they were the works of Giotto and Peru- long hours, to say nothing of the heat and fatigue gino, and not living men and women, had not necessarily caused by this close pressure in the the figures moved and spoken, and the breeze pit, I cannot imagine. In the boxes, where the stirred their richly-coloured drapery, and the people were secured from the sun by awnings, sun cast long, moving shadows behind them on many a face had, hours before, begun to assumé the stage. These effects of sunshine and shadow, a pale and jaded look, and many an attitude to and of drapery fluttered by the wind, were very betray intense fatigue. striking and beautiful; one could imagine how the Greeks must have availed themselves of “In our moment of hurried departure, how such striking effects in their theatres open to ever, behold the sad, pale face of Tobias Flunger, the sky.
bidding us adieu! He had again assumed his
fez and his gray coat; but the face was yet more “The performance had commenced at eight gentle and dreamy, as though the shadow of the o'clock, and now it was one, and a pause, there cross still lay upon it; and your eyes sought fore, ensued, -the first pause of any kind during with a kind of morbid horror for the trace of the those five long hours,- for tableau, and chorus, stigmata in those thin, white hands, as they and acting had succeeded each other in the most waved a parting signal. It was a relief to see at rapid, unwearied, yet wearying, routine! One his side the pleasant, bright, kind faces of his felt perfectly giddy and exhausted by such a wife and little daughter. There was a wholeceaseless stream of music, colour, and motion. some look of happiness and common life about Yet the actors, as if made of iron, appeared them." untouched by fatigue; and up to the very end Mr. Bayard Taylor, in his “Eldorado," gives of the second part, which lasted from two to a description of a Mystery he saw performed at five, played with the same earnest energy, and San Lionel, in Mexico. See vol. ii, chap. xi. He the.chorus sang with the same powerful voice. says:
"The cannon again sounded, the people Against the wing-wall of the Hacienda del again streamed towards the theatre. We were Mayo, which occupied one end of the plaza, was again in our places, and again commenced the raised a platform, on which stood a table covered long, monotonous exhibition. But the peasant with scarlet cloth. A rude bower of cane leaves, portion of the audience were as unwearying as on one end of the platform, represented the the actors themselves; to them, indeed, the manager of Bethlehem; while a cord, stretched second part was the most intensely interesting from its top across the plaza to a hole in the of all,- Eine herzruhrende angrief ende Geschicte, front of the church, bore a large tinsel star, suswhilst to is it became truly revolting and pain pended by a hole in its centre. There was quite ful. There was no sparing of agony, and blood, å crowd in the plaza, and very soon a procession and horror; it was our Lord's passion stripped appeared, coming up from the lower part of the of all its spiritual suffering,-it was the anguish village. The three kings took the lead; the of the flesh,-it was the material side of Catho Virgin, mounted on an ass that gloried in a gilded licism. It was a painful heart-rending, hurry saddle and rose-besprinkled mane and tail, foling to and fro, amid brutal soldiery and an en-lowed them, led by the angel; and several raged mob, of that pale, emaciated, violet-robed women, with curious masks of paper, brought up figure: then there was his fainting under the the rear. Two characters of the harlequin sort, cross; the crowning him with thorns; the --one with a dog's head on his shoulders, and scoturging, the buffeting, the spitting upon him ; the other a bald-headed friar, with a huge hat and the soldiers laaghed, and scoffed, and des hanging on his back, played all sorts of antics rided with fierce brutality, and the people and for the diversion of the crowd. After making the high-priest jeered and shouted; and ever he the circuit of the plaza, the Virgin was taken to was meek and gentle. Then came the cruci the platform, and entered the manger. King fixion; and, as the chorus sang of the great Herod took his seat at the scarlet table, with an agony, you heard from behind the curtain the attendant in blue coat and red sash, whom I strokes of the hammer as the huge nails were took to be his Prime Minister. The three kings driven into the cross, and, as your imagination remained on their horses in front of the church; believed, through his poor pale hands and feet; but between them and the platform, under the and then, as the curtain rose slowly to the dying string on which the star was to slide, walked tones of the chorus, you beheld him hanging on two men in long white robes and blue hoods, the cross between the two crucified thieves. with parchment folios in their hands. These Both myself and my companion turned away were the Wise Men of the East, as one might from the spectacle sick with horror. They di readily know from their solemn air, and the vided his garments at the foot of the cross; they mysterious glances which they cast towards all pierced his side; the blood flowed apparently quarters of the heavens. from the wound, and from his martyred hands "In a little while a company of women on the and feet. The Virgin and Mary Magdalen, and platform, concealed behind a curtain, sang an the deciples, lamented around the foot of the angelic chorus to the tune of O pescator dell cross, in groups and attitudes such as we see in onda.' At the proper moment, the Magi turned the old pictures. Then came Joseph of Arima towards the platform, followed by the star, to thea; the body was taken down and laid upon which a string was conveniently attached, that white linen, and quietly, solemnly, and mourn- it might be slid along the line. The three kings fully followed by the weeping women, was borne followed the star till it reached the manger, to the grave. Next came the visit of the women when they dismounted, and inquired for the to the sepulchre; the vision of the angels; the sovereign whom it had led them to visit. They surprise and joy of the women; and, lastly, as were invited upon the platform, and introduced the grand finale, the resurrection!
to Herod as the only king; this did not seem to "The Miracle-Play was at an end; and now satisfy them, and, after some conversation, they the peasants began once more to breathe, and retired. By' this time the star had receded to to return to common life; and we most heartily | the other end of the line, and commenced moving rejoiced that this long, long martydom was over. forward again, they following. The angel called A martydom in two senses, for a more fatiguing them into the manger, where, upon their knees, summer-day's work than the witnessing of this they were shown a small wooden box, supposed performance, which, with but one hour's pause, to contain the sacred infant; they then retired, had lasted from eight in the morning till five in and the star brought them back no more. After the evening, cannot be conceived How the poor this departure, King Herod declared himnd peasants managed to endure the burning rays greatly confused by what he had witness
believed, th the cross, ana, the huge maits were
videded his sind, and frond Mary.he foote gee in From the wine vinted aronesuch as
ho might bering wasma, follow the Magator del
to com long, long for a inoreng of this
htwo semun the Folhe houli Live in
was very much afraid this newly-found king , mility, remorse; entreating the reader's prayers would weaken his power. Upon consultation and pardon for the writer's sins; and sometimes with his Prime Minister, the Massacre of the pronouncing & malediction on any one who Innocents was decided upon as the only means should steal the book. A few of these I subof security.
join :"The angel, on hearing this, gave warning to "As pilgrims rejoice, beholding their native the Virgin, who quickly got down from the plat- | land, so are transcribers made glad, beholding form, mounted her bespangled donkey, and the end of a book." hurried off. Herod's Prime Minister directed "Sweet is it to write the end of any book." all the children to be handed up for execution. " Ye who read, pray for me, who have written A boy, in a ragged sarape, was caught and thrust this book, the humble and sinful Theodulus." forward ; the Minister took him by the heels in "As many, therefore, as shall read this book, spite of his kicking, and held his head on the pardon me, I beseech you, if aught I have erred table. The little brother and sister of the boy, in accent acute and grave, in apostrophe, in thinking he was really to be decapitated, yelled breathing soft or aspirate : and may God save at the top of their voices in an agony of terror, you all. Amen." which threw the crowd into a roar of laughter. * If anything is well, praise the transcriber; King Herod brought down his sword with a | if ill, pardon his unskilfulness." whack on the table, and the Prime Minister, " Ye who read, pray for me, the most sinful of dipping his brush into a pot of white paint which all men, for the Lord's sake." stood before him, made a flaring cross on the “The hand that has written this book shall boy's face. Several other boys were caught and decay, alas! and become dust, and go down to served likewise; and finally, the two harlequins, the grave, the corrupter of all bodies. But all whose kicks and struggles nearly shook down se who are of the portion of Christ, pray that I the platform. The procession then went off up may obtain the pardion of my sins. Again and the hill, followed by the whole population of the | again I beseech sou with tears, brothers, and village. All the evening there were fandangos fathers, accept my miserable supplication, 0 in the méson, bonfires and rockets on the plaza, holy choir! I am called John, woe is me! I am ringing of bells, and high mass in the church, called Hiereus, or Sacerdos, in name onlý, not in with the accompaniment of two guitars, tinkling unction." to lively polkas."
Whoever shall carry away this book, without In 1852 there was a representation of this kind permission of the Pope, may he incur the maleby Germans in Boston: and I have now before | diction of the Holy Trinity, of the Holy Mother me the copy of a play-bill, announcing the per
of God, of Saint John the Baptist, of the one hunformance on June 10, 1852, in Cincinnati, of the dred and eighteen holy Nicene Fathers, and of “Great Biblico-Historical Drama, the Life of
all the Saints; the fate of Sodom and Gomorrah : Jesus Christ.”
and the halter of Judas; anathema, amen."
"Keep safe, O Trinity, Father, Son, and Holy THE SCRIPTORIUM. p. 166.
Ghost, my three fingers, my three fingers, with
which I have written this book." A most interesting volume might be written - Mathusalas Machir transcribed this divinest on the Calligraphers and Chrysographers, the
book in toll, infirmity, and dangers many." transcribers and illuminators of manuscripts in “Bacchius, Barbardorius and Michael Sophiathe Middle Ages. These men were for the most
nus wrote this book in sport and laughter, being part monks, who laboured sometimes for pleasure the guests of their noble and common friend Vinand sometimes for penance, in multiplying copies rentius Pinellus, and Petrus Nunnius, a most of the classics and the Scriptures.
learned man." "Of all bodily labours which are proper for
This last colophon, Montfaucon does not suffer ns," says Cassiodorus, the old Calabrian monk, to pass without reproof. " that of copying books has always been more to • Other caligraphers," he remarks,“ demand my taste than any other. The more so, as in
only the prayers of their realers, and the pardon this exercise the mind is instructed by the read
of their sins; but these glory in their wantoning of the Holy Scriptures, and it is a kind of ness." homilly to the others, whom these books may
Drink down to your peg-p. 168. reach. It is preaching with the hand, by converting the fingers into tongues: it is publishing One of the canons of Archbishop Anselm, proto men in silence the words of salvation ; in fine. mulgated at the beginning of the twelfth century, it is fighting against the demon with pen and ordains "the priests go not to drinking bouts, ink. As many words as a transcriber writes, so nor drink to pegs." In the times of the hardmany wounds the demon receives. In a word, drinking Danes, King Edgar ordained that "pins a recluse, seated in his chair to copy books, or nails should be fastened into the drinkingtravels into different provinces, without moving cups or horns at stated distances, and whosoever from the spot, and the labour of his hands is felt should drink beyond those marks at one draught even where he is not."
should be obnoxious to a severe punishinent." "Nearly every monastery was provided with Sharpe, in his " History of the Kings of Engits Scriptorium. Nicolas de Clairvaun, St. Ber land," says:-"Our ancestors were formerly nard's secretary, in one of his letters describes famous for compotation, their liquor was ale, his cell, which he calls Scriptoriolum, where he and one method of amasing themselves in this copied books. And Mabillon, in his "Etudes way was the peg-tankard. I had lately one of Monastiques," says that in his time were still them in my hand. It had on the inside a row of to be seen at Citeatix many of those little eight pins, one above another from top to cells, where the transcribers and bookbinders bottom. It held two quarts, and was a noble worked.'"
piece of plate, so that there was a gill of ale, half Silvestre's "Paléographie Universelle" con a pint, Winchester measure, between each peg. tains a vast number of fac-similes of the most The law was, that cvery person that drank was beautiful illaminated manuscripts of all ages and to empty the space between pin and pin, so that all countries; and Montfaucon, in his “ Paleo the pins were so many measures to make the graphia Græca," gives the names of over three company all drink alike, and to swallow the saine hundred caligraphers. He also gives an account y quantity of liquor. This was a pretty sure of the books they copied, and the colophons, with method of making all the company drunk. espewhich, as with a satisfactory flourish of the pen,cially if it be considered that the rule was, that they closed their long-continued labours. Many whoever drank short of his pin, or beyond it, and of these are very cricious; expressing joy, hu- | even as deep as to the next pin."
was, that cvetyeen pin and make the
thempty the that creasure, is a gill of
up with terga-p. 128. ow of All Saints a stronie,
The Convent of St. Gildas de Rhuys.-P. 168. Were it not for my magic garters and staff.-P. 173. Abelard, in a letter to his friend, Philintus, The way of making the Magic Garters and the gives a sad picture of this monastery. “I live," Magic Staff is thus laid down in “Les secrets he says, “in a barbarous country, the language Merveilleux du Petit Albert," a French translaof which I do not understand; I have no conver tion of "Alberti Parvi, Lucii Libellus de Mirasation, but with the rudest people. My walks i bilibus Naturæ Arcanis." are on the inaccessible shore of a sea, which is "Gather some of the herb called motherwort, perpetually stormy. My monks are only known when the sun is entering the first degree of the by their dissoluteness, and living without any sign of Capricorn ; let it dry a little in the shade, rule or order. Could you see the abbey, Philin and make some garters of the skin of a young tus, you would not call it one. The doors and hare; that is to say, having cut the skin of the walls are without any ornament, except the hare into strips two inches wide, double them, heads of wild boars and hind's feet, which are sew the before-mentioned herb between, and nailed up against them, and the hides of frightful wear them on your legs. No horse can long keep animals. The cells are hung with the skins of up with a man on foot who is furnished with deer. The monks have not so much as a bell to these garters.-P. 128. wake them, the cocks and dogs supply that del "Gather on the morrow of All Saints a strong fect. In short, they pass their whole days in branch of willow, of which you will make a staff, hunting; would to heaven that were their great.' fashioned to your liking. Hollow it out, by reest fault! or that their pleasures terminated moving the pith from within, after having furthere! I endeavour in vain to recall them to nished the lower end with an iron ferrule. Put their duty; they all combine against me, and I into the bottom of the staff the two eyes of a only expose myself to continual vexations and young wolf, the tongue and heart of a dog, three dangers. I imagine I see every moment a naked green lizards, and the hearts of three swallows. sword hanging over my head. Sometimes they These must all be dried in the sun, between two surround me, and load me with infinite abuses; papers, having been first sprinkled with finely sometimes they abandon me, and I am left alone pulverized saltpetre. Besides all these, put into to my own tormenting thoughts. I make it my The staff seven leaves of vervain, gathered on endeavour to merit by my sufferings, and to the eve of St. John the Baptist, with a stone of appease an angry God. Sometimes I grieve for divers colours, which you will find in the nest of the loss of the house of the Paraclete, and wish the lapwing, and stop the end of the staff with a to see it again. Ah, Philintus, does not the love pomel of box, or of any other material you of Heloise still burn in my heart ? I have not please, and be assured that this staff will yet triumphed over that unhappy passion. In guarantee you from the perils and mishaps the midst of my retirement I sigh, I weep, I pine, I speak the dear name Heloise, and am pleased robbers, wild beasts, mad dogs, or venomous to hear the sound." - Letters of the celebrated animals. It will also procure you the good-WILS Abelard and Heloise. Translated by Mr. John of those with whom you lodge."-p. 130.
Hughes ainas Heloise. Transder the celebrated robbers, wild tema befall travellers and mishaps