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Hitch him to a car on a railroad track and he can pull at the same rate of speed 15 tons. If, however, he be hitched from the bank to a well-designed boat in the stream, he will with the same effort be able to pull 105 tons of freight through still water. It is shown by the same authority that transportation cost on the lakes is less than 1 mill per ton moved 1 mile, and that freight by rail determined by statistics from all important railways is more than seven times as much.
Jones & Laughlin estimate their cost in general for river traffic as 21 mills per ton mile, two-thirds of which is absorbed by terminal expense.
It needs no argument to prove that heavy freight, such as grain, iron, lumber, and sand, can be moved on the water with a great saving and relief to overburdened railroads.
Traffic on the 70 miles of the Monongahela, canalized nearly 100 years ago by private subscription, has reached a tonnage of 24,000,000 per annum, which is its lock limitation.
There is much talk of special legislation for the benefit of farmers. What they need is lower freight rates to afford a higher price for their products, more ample facilities for moving them to markets, whose demands are now filled by foreign competitors. Waterway improvement would accomplish this.
Without additional transportation facilities traffic will become congested beyond imagination, commerce paralyzed and started on the road to sure death.
Competent authorities estimate that the cost of placing railroads in condition to properly function would amount to $6,000,000,000. Improvement of waterways would be cheaper. Sentiment is overwhelmingly in favor of this throughout the 23 States that comprise the Mississippi Valley. Their representatives constitute more than a majority in Congress and have the privilege of accomplishing the most constructive and munificent work for the great West and the Nation at large that has fallen to the lot of statesmen since Jefferson, through his splendid initiative and monumental nerve, gave to our country the Louisiana Purchase.
It is ridiculous for a people of ordinary intelligence to limit their endeavors simply to the maintenance of conditions of a worn-out past.
We are living in the twentieth century. Our transportation equipment should not be kept longer in its swaddling clothes.
KANSAS CITY TERMINAL RAILWAY Co.,
Kansas City, Mo., March 14, 1924. Hon. WILLIAM E. HULL,
Member of Congress, Washington, D. C. DEAR SIR: At the request of the Association of Drainage and Levee Districts of Illinois, I inclose my statement for your consideration. Yours truly,
W. M. CORBETT.
AUTHORITY FOR THE SANITARY DISTRICT OF CHICAGO TO DIVERT 10,000 CUBIC FEET
OF WATER PER SECOND FROM LAKE MICHIGAN INTO ILLINOIS RIVER.
I have been a landowner in the Hillview drainage and levee district adjoining the Illinois River in Scott County, Ill., for 19 years. I have been in touch with the Illinois River situation for 24 years. My conclusions follow:
The Government dam at Kampsville is a menace to the bottom lands. It is not now necessary. It should be removed.
The reversing of Chicago River, which formerly ran into Lake Michigan, turning it south into the Illinois River, and the withdrawing of a large volume of water from Lake Michigan, produces a serious menace to the levees and land along the Illinois River.
Before these undertakings the Illinois River stood at low water the greater part of each year. The record for eight years before and eight years after follows: Ft. In.
Ft. In. 1886.
5 1887. 4 1916_
6 2 1888
8 1920. 1892
2 1921 1893
The readings were taken at the Chicago & Alton Railroad bridge at Pearl, Ill., where the opening under the bridge is 1,168 feet wide.
In April, 1922, the flood reached 23 feet 1 inch at Pearl, more than 2 feet over any previous record. A low stage of the river permits a free flow of water from the ditches and through the sluice gates, which are placed at low-water stage under the levee.
On account of the above undertakings the river does not go below 5 feet above low water mark any day in the year, causing the districts to pump out all the water and to use mechanical means for cleaning the ditches instead of by scouring in the natural way when the river is low.
The Government is responsible for allowing the Chicago Sanitary District to reverse the flow of the Chicago River, and on top of that flow to divert a large volume of water from Lake Michigan into the Illinois River, causing damage and increased cost of operation.
The Government should strengthen and maintain the levees that were made strong enough to stand the natural flow of water in the Illinois River.
The Government should require the sanitary district to meet the increased cost of maintenance and operation caused by taking this water from its natural channel.
Of course, the sanitary district, for the protection of the health of its people, should have adequate water for its needs, regardless of the consequences along the river, until such time as modern sewage plants are installed. The time for such installation should be limited to a reasonable time.
The barge canal will be helpful to the general public, and should be authorized. This can be accomplished without injury to anyone.
I suggest the following for your consideration :
2. Provide a fair and inexpensive way, by arbitration, for fixing future damages.
3. The sanitary district to pay for the increased cost of maintenance and operation caused by the increased flow of water.
4. The amount of water to be taken from Lake Michigan should be limited in amount for each day, and solely for sanitary purposes, under the jurisdiction of the War Department.
5. The Government, by reason of its action in permitting the diversion of this water, should strengthen and maintain lerees at its cost. Respectfully,
M. M. CORBETT.
CHICAGO, ILL., March 15, 1924. To the COMMITTEE ON RIVERS AND HARBORS,
House of Representatives, Washington, D. C. GENTLEMEN: The Illinois Chamber of Commerce is composed of 117 chambers of commerce and other commercial and industrial organizations in Illinois and a large number of individual members, and represents approximately 45,000 business men in this State. Ever since its organization the Illinois Ch mber of Commerce has given very active support to the development of waterway transportation, realizing that it is a necessary and wholly desirable adjunct to railway and highway transportation. The committee on wterways of the Illinois Chamber of Commerce is a very active committee, whose members represent every section of the State, and all of whom are enthsiastic supporters of the waterway movement. These members are:
A. F. Scoch, chairman, president Merchants, & Farmers' Trust & Savings Bank, Ottawa, Ill.
H. C. Gardner, Gardner & Lindberg, engineers, Chicago; chairman waterway committee, Chicago Association of Commerce.
E. T. Harris, president Payson Manufacturing Co.; chairman, waterway committee Illinois Manufacturers' Association.
J. T. Conley, Albert Dickinson Seed Co., Chicago.
R. H. Garm, president First State Bank, Beardstown, Ill.
The Illinois Chamber of Commerce has worked in unity with all other organizations, both National and State, in promoting the program of waterway transportation development, believing thoroughly in that paragraph of the national transportation act of 1920 passed by Congress, which reads:
“ It is hereby declared to be the policy of Congress to promote, encourage, and develop waterway transportation, service, and facilities in connection with the commerce of the United States and to foster and preserve in full vigor both rail and water transportation.”
The State of Illinois is now engaged in the construction of a series of locks and dams from Lockport to Utica connecting the sanitary and ship canal of the Sanitary District of Chicago and the Illinois River, an appropriation of $20,000,000 for this work having been voted by the people of Illinois in 1908. The Illinois Chamber of Commerce has always given the State of Illinois all possible assistance in the construction of this great project.
The Illinois Chamber of Commerce favors the diversion of 10,000 cubic feet per second from Lake Michigan into the sanitary and ship canal in order to facilitate waterway transportation, believing that the best results can be secured by this diversion. The Illinois Chamber of Commerce realizes the need of the protection of the health of the citizens of Chicago and has so expressed itself. We also realize that the residents of the Illinois Valley need protection from this increased overflow and are greatly in sympathy with the movement to secure for them the settlement of their just and due claims and for the establishment and maintenance of a uniform system of levees, and we have so expressed ourselves.
During the visit of the select committee of the United States Senate to the Mississippi Valley in October, 1923, it held hearings on the McCormick bill, providing for a 9-foot channel in the Illinois and Mississippi Rivers from Utica to Cairo. The Illinois chamber was privileged to have an active part in presenting witnesses and testimony before the committee in support of waterway legislation. Our local chambers of commerce gave to the committee all possible assistance in its quest of information upon this subject. Again we subscribe to the statement it was my privilege to make before the committee at that time as the duly accredited representative of the Illinois Chamber of Commerce :
“ We believe that business can be very materially improvedl; that the situation as regards cost of transportation can be very materially improved; and that the material welfare of the State of Illinois in which we are particularly interested can be vastly improved by the passage of this waterway legislation."
In conclusion, I wish to state on behalf of the Illinois Chamber of Commerce that we desire to be of all possible assistance to your honorable committee in the investigation of this question vital to the prosperity of the Mississippi Valley and to the whole United States.
John H. CAMLIN, President.
ILLINOIS VALLEY MANUFACTURERS' CLUB,
La Salle, Ill., February 8, 1924. Ilon. WILLIAM E. HULL,
House of Representatives, Washington, D. C. Sir: In compliance with the request in your letter of January 22, following you will find copy of a resolution adopted by this organization at a meeting, held on February 4:
“ Resolved, that the Illinois Valley Manufacturers' Club recommend passage of H. R. 5475, introduced in the House of Representatives January 15, 1924, by Hon. William E. Hull."
Our members are heartily in favor of this bill and hope this resolution will help. Yours very truly,
0. M. Benson, Erecutive Secretary.
RESOLUTION INDORSING H. R. 5475, A BILL FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF COMMERCE
AND NAVIGATION AND TO AUTHORIZE APPROPRIATIONS FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF CERTAIN PUBLIC WORKS IN THE ILLINOIS RIVER, AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES
Whereas the board of directors of Champaign (Ill.) Chamber of Commerce are interested in the development of deep waterways in the State of Illinois : Now therefore be it
Resolved, That the board of directors of Champaign (Ill.) Chamber of Commerce do hereby indorse H. R. 5475, and recommend its passage by the Congress of the United States; be it further
Resolved, That a copy of this resolution be sent to Representative Wilham E. Hull, author of bill, and to Senators William McKinley and Medill McCormick and Representative Allen F. Moore.
CHAMPAIGN (ILL.) CHAMBER OF COMMERCE,
SYCAMORE CHAMBER OF COMMERCE,
Sycamore, II., February 15, 1924. Hon. WILLIAM E. HULL,
House of Representatives, Washington, D. C. DEAR MR. HULL: We have received your letter of January 22 relative to your bill, No. 5475, as was introduced in the House of Representatives January 15, 1924.
We have given that very important bill the consideration due it, and at a meeting of the board of directors, held February 12, 1924, it was approved unanimously.
We sincerely hope that the bill will go through as it undoubtedly means more to the Central West and the State of Illinois than any other one proposition. We are writing our Congressman, Charles E. Fuller, regarding this bill also, Yours very truly,
SYCAMORE CHAMBER OF COMMERCE, By C. C. SIMPSON, Secretary.
CONAGHAN MOTOR Co.,
Pekin, It., February 25, 1924.
P. J. KRIEGSMAN.
FRANKLIN L. VELDE.
Judge J. M. RAHN.
NEW YORK WATER POWER COMMISSION,
Albany, January 30, 1924. Hon. S. WALLACE DEMPSEY,
House of Representatives, Washington, D. C. DEAR SIR: By direction of the New York Water Power Commission, I am sending you copy of a resolution adopted by the commission on January 23, 1924, protesting against the passage of any bill authorizing a diversion of water from Lake Michigan, such as is contemplated by Senate bill 4428, known as the McCormick bill, introduced in the Sixty-seventh Congress, fourth session.
The New York water power act obligates the commission, in the interest of the State, to secure and defend its rights in territorial waters, particularly with reference to power development.
Accordingly, the commission will greatly appreciate your cooperation in securing the ends sought, and advising the commission of the status of any such measures. Yours very truly,
F. P. WILLIAMS, Secretary.
DIVERSION FROM LAKE MICHIGAN BY THE SANITARY DISTRICT OF CHICAGO
Whereas the Sanitary District of Chicago is diverting from Lake Michigan waters in excess of the amount authorized by the Federal Government; and
Whereas such diversion if continued will reduce the amount of power which may be developed on the Niagara and St. Lawrence Rivers by upward of 500,000 continuous horsepower, of which upward of 200,000 continuous horsepower, depending upon the amount of such excess, is capable of being developed in New York State; and
Whereas the excessive diversion by lowering the elevation of the waters of the Great Lakes is injurious to navigation and commerce thereon; and
Whereas a bill, known as the McCormick bill, S. 4428, is pending in Congress, which among other things seeks to authorize and to legalize the diversion of 10,000 cubic foot seconds from Lake Michigan by the Sanitary District of Chicago : Therefore be it
Resolved, That the commission on behalf of the State protest against the passage of the McCormick bill or any other bill seeking to authorize and legalize the diversion in question : Be it further
Resolved, That the secretary be instructed to transmit copies of the resolution to the proper Representatives in Congress.
CITY CLERK'S DEPARTMENT,
Buffalo, March 19, 1924. Hon. S. WALLACE DEMPSEY, Hon. CLARENCE MACGREGOR, Hon. JAMES MEAD,
House of Representatives, Washington, D. C. DEAR SIRS : I am inclosing herewith certified copy of resolution adopted by the council of the city of Buffalo at their regular meeting held March 12, 1924, and which I was directed to forward to you. Respectfully submitted.
C. O. BACKMAN, City Clerk.
Buffalo, March 18, 1924. To whom it may concern:
I hereby certify that at a session of the council of the city of Buffalo, held in the city and county hall, on the 12th day of March, 1924, a resolution was adopted, of which the following is a true copy :
UNLAWFUL CHICAGO HYDROELECTRIC-POWER DIVERSION
Attention is called to the fact that the city of Chicago is diverting colossal quantities of water out of Lake Michigan for sanitation and power purposes and with great profit to herself, causing thereby, however, a great injury to the commerce of the Great Lakes. The compensations and losses indicated here involve millions of dollars and since the losses affect the interests of a Nation, as well as many localities, they deserve the thoughtful consideration of all justice-loving America.
The annual report of the Secretary of War from 1916 says:
“ From the beginning the operations of the sanitary district have been looked upon with disfavor by navigation interests, and the Secretary of War has not only declined to increase the diversion temporarily authorized, but has adhered to the decision that the permit granted was of a temporary character and that no permanent diversion of the waters of Lake Michigan could be made without express authority from Congress."
It may be stated that the interests of Buffalo and western New York are now and will be further greatly damaged by the present unlawful diversion and any further additional diversion of water granted to the city of Chicago for power or other purposes. It is pointed out that for the same amount of water used at Chicago six times the power can be obtained at Niagara Falls on account of the greater head, either by the New York State Hydro-Electric Power Plant or by the existing companies supplying current to the municipalities.