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(b) The said the Sanitary District of Chicago is required to continue with all possible speed the installation, operation, and maintenance of sewage purification works, in accordance with the ordinance adopted August 7, 1919, by the board of trustees of said the Sanitary District of Chicago, in order that any affluent discharge into said Illinois waterway, or into the Des Plaines River, or Illinois River, through the Chicago and Calumet Rivers, or through any artificial channel of the Sanitary District of Chicago, shall not be, or become, a nuisance or a menace to the health of any of the people of the United States. Said ordinance is as follows:
BE IT ORDAINED BY THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES OF THE SANITARY DISTRICT OF
SECTION 1. To supplement the works of the Sanitary District of Chicago now constructed or in the process of construction for the diversion of sewage or drainage, and to aid said works in better accomplishing the purpose for which they were constructed, the sanitary district does hereby lay out and adopt a program for the construction and operation of works for the purification of sewage and the removal of trade wastes and other wastes and for the carrying on of such work at such a rate as continuously after the lapse of four years to diminish the amount of sewage including all wastes passing into the Des Plaines River by way of the main channel of the Sanitary District of Chicago, so that within the period of twenty-five years such puri. fication works shall be constructed and in operation, that the amount of such raw sewage and wastes so passing into the said Des Plaines River shall be at least 50 per cent less than that passing now.
“SEC. 2. The chief engineer and the attorney of the sanitary district are hereby directed to take such steps as may be necessary to carry forward the foregoing program, and the chief engineer is directed to report to such officers of the United States and the State of Illinois as may be interested the progress made from time to time in carrying out said program.
“ Sec. 3. The foregoing preamble to this ordinance is hereby adopted and made a part of same.
* SEC. 4. This ordinance shall be in full force and effect from and after its passage and adoption."
Provided also, that said Sanitary District of Chicago shall prior to its formal acceptance to this act pass an ordinance supplemental to and explanatory of its said ordinance of August 7, 1919, therein pledging its agreement that in the development of its said scheme for the treatment of the sewage (which prior to January 1, 1924, it avers it has developed to where it now is diluting sewage discharged into its main canal to the amount estimated to arise from one hundred and thirteen thousand of the population of said district), and pledging that it will develop its such plans to at least reach the following results:
In 1924 to treat sewage arising from one hundred and eighteen thousand of its population;
In 1925 to treat sewage arising from one hundred and twenty-three thousand of its population;
In 1926 to treat sewage arising from one hundred and twenty-eight thousand of its population;
In 1928 to treat sewage arising from one million two hundred and ninety-one thousand of its population ;
In 1930 to treat sewage arising from one million four hundred and eighty-five thousand of its population ;
In 1932 to treat sewage arising from two million six hundred and seventynine thousand of its population;
In 1935 to treat sewage arising from two million eight hundred and twenty thousand of its population;
In 1938 to treat sewage rising from two million nine hundred and fifty-five thousand of its population;
In 1940 to treat sewage arising from three million five hundred and sixty-two thousand of its population;
In 1943 to treat sewage arising from three million seven hundred and twelve thousand of its population;
In 1945 to treat sewage arising from four million two hundred and fifty-two thousand of its population.
(c) To compensate landowners whose have constructed, or who in the future do construct, or reconstruct. levees, on either bank of the Illinois River, to prevent the overflow of their adjacent lands, for the cost of such levees and/or the reconstruction thereof, and also to compensate those who will operate pumping plants to overcome seepage into the lands so sought to be protected by levees in each of such instances, to the extent and as hereinafter set forth in this section and in section 6 hereof.
The said Chief of Engineers shall prepare, at the cost of said The Sanitary District of Chicago, an estimated amount of the same to be fixed by the said Chief of Engineers and paid in advance into his hands by said Sanitary District of Chicago, plans to be followed in the different stretches of the Illinois River for the standardization of levees and embankments which may be constructed or reconstructed on either bank of said river for the protection of adjacent or contiguous lands, and for pumping plants to be maintained and operated in connection therewith.
When such plans are approved by the Secretary of War, no levee or embankment or pumping plant shall be constructed or reconstructed on either bank of said river not in conformity with such plans, and not until a permit to construct or reconstruct the same shall be first secured from said Chief of Engineers and from the State of Illinois.
Said Chief of Engineers shall, in preparing the such plans, estimate, fix, and certify, as nearly as he can, comparing all available data concerning costs of labor and material, and the elevation of floods or highest waters in the different stretches of the said river before and since January 17, 1900 (the date upon which said Sanitary District of Chicago turned water from Lake Michigan into the Illinois River):
(a) The added depth of water in the Illinois River, its flood or highest water stages attributable to the water coming through the works of said the Sanitary District of Chicago.
(b) The added present-day cost per lineal foot and/or cubic yard of constructing levees or embankments of the determined standardized type, made necessary by the present there in said river at its natural floor or highest water stages of the water coming through the works of said sanitary district.
(c) The average annual added cost of pumping operations by owners of lands protected by levees and embankments since January 17, 1900, to Jan. uary 1, 1924, to overcome seepage, compared with the such costs prior to January 17, 1900.
(d) When such report is approved by the Secretary of War the said Sanitary District of Chicago shall forthwith pay, into the hands of said Chief of Engineers, the money by him computed to be sufficient (a) to reimburse all levee and drainage district, and/or individuals, who have built or constructed the aforesaid standardized levees and embankments, or who have constructed levees or embankments equal to such standardized type for the such additional cost of building, or rebuilding or reconstructing their such levees or embankbankments, so determined to be attributable to the water discharged into said river, at its natural flood or highest water stages, by the Sanitary District of Chicago; (b) to reimburse all levee and drainage districts, and/or individuals, the total additional cost sustained by them for pumping seepage from their lands, as may be found as aforesaid, to be attributable to the presence in said river of the water discharged therein, by the said the Sanitary District of Chicago up to, and including the year 1924.
The said Chief of Engineers shall promptly distribute from the funds so deposited with him, to those entitled thereto, such amounts as may be due them, for the such added cost of constructing and/or reconstructing such levees and embankments, and the such added cost of their pumping operations down to and including the year 1924.
Should the amount of money, so in advance deposited with him, not equal the cost of the services rendered, or caused to be rendered, hy said Chief of Engineers, in making his said investigations and reports, and also the amount due as aforesaid, to those who have constructed and/or reconstructed such levees and embankments and/or for the added costs sustained by them as aforesaid in operating their such pumping plants, the Sanitary District of Chicago shall, upon his demand forthwith, pay to said Chief of Engineers sufficient money to comply with his demand for the same.
SEC. 6. If after the approval by the Secretary of War of the report of the Chief of Engineers (by which the type of levees and embankments to thereafter he constructed on either bank of the Illinois River shall be brought to a standard) any person or persons and/or organization constructing levees or embankments of such determined standard type on either bank of the Illinois River shall be compensated in cash by the Sanitary District of Chicago for the added cost of such levees or embankments made necessary by reason of the discharge into said river in its natural flood or highest water stages of water attributable to the Sanitary District of Chicago. When any such levee shall have been completed as aforesaid those constructing the same may apply to the said Chief of Engineers to fix and state the amount of such added cost occasioned as aforesaid. This the said Chief of Engineers shall do at the sole cost of the Sanitary District of Chicago. Upon his report to said Sanitary District of Chicago of his charges in this behalf and his estimate of such added costs as aforesaid the Sanitary District of Chicago shall at once pay to said Chief of Engineers the amounts so fixed by him, and he shall forthwith, after deducting the costs and charges due to his department, distribute the balance to those sererally entitled to receive the same.
Sec. 7. To the Secretary of War and Chief of Engineers is reserved the right, and it is hereby made their duty to compel the Sanitary District of Chicago to so construct, and/or operate its controlling works, that should the Ilinois River reach a flood stage which, in the opinion of the said Chief of Engineers will be imminently dangerous to life and/or property in the valley of the Illinois River, as to be able to promptly reduce the flow of water in the main canal of the Sanitary District of Chicago, to that amount which will not allow the waters of the said Sanitary District of Chicago to be diverted into Lake Michigan.
The said Sanitary District of Chicago shall fully comply with an order that may be issued by said Chief of Engineers and at once regulate its such discharge in obedience to any request made by said Chief of Engineers as contemplated in this section :
SEC. 8. That said Sanitary District of Chicago shall at all times keep available to the inspection of said Chief Engineer, and/or his representatives, and the officials of the State of Illinois, in its offices and stations in Cook County, Illinois, and/or elsewhere all of its records, data, and reports of its officers and employees, showing the quantity and character of water hy it carried through its canals and works, and upon request of said Chief Engineer, and/or his representatives, and/or the officials of the State of Illinois, shall forthwith furish him and their representatives with such details and reports as may be requested, and also it shall from time to time, as direrted by said Chief of Engineers, furnish him, and/or his representatives, and/or such State officials, with samples of water running through such parts of its canals and works as shall be designated.
SFC. 9. The concessions herein made and the permission hereby granted unto the Sanitary District of (hicago, relating to the withdrawal of wate: from Lake Michigan, are each extended and granted, upon the considerations herein fixed and designated being fully observed and complied with, and nothing herein contained limits or abrogates the power of the Federal Government, and/or its proper officer, and/or the officials of the State of Illinois, in maintaining unimpaired the navigability of the Illinois River, and/or in preserving the purity of the water therein, and/or of controlling the same so as to prevent its contamination to the extent of its becoming a nuisance or menace to the health of any of the people.
SEC. 10. This act shall not be in force or effect until the same shall be formally accepted without reservations within sixty days after its passage by an ordinance of the board of trustees of the Sanitary District of Chicago, duly passed and promulgated.
The CHAIRMAN. Mr. Hull, I suggest that you be heard first.
STATEMENT OF HON. WILLIAM E. HULL, A REPRESENTATIVE IN
CONGRESS FROM THE STATE OF ILLINOIS.
Mr. Hull. Mr. Chairman and gentlemen of the committee, I was elected to Congress as a business man. I was really importuned by 15,000 voters in my city to run for Congress, or else I would not be here.
Since I have entered Congress I have felt that it was my duty to try to do something while I was here that would be for the best interests of all.
Therefore, as we have, running down through the middle of the United States, a body of water--a stream leading from Lake Michigan to the Gulf of Mexico--that lies there idle, it has seemed to me that the proper thing to do for the man who wanted to do something for the benefit of the people, would be to try to put that water into use by securing a harmonious project connecting the Great Lakes with the Gulf of Mexico.
Many of you gentlemen who are here in this audience to-day know that out in that western country we have a remarkably fertile soil, which is really the producing part of this country.
We all know to-day that if a waterway should be completed from Lake Michigan to the Gulf of Mexico it would benefit a great portion; in fact, practically all of the States of the United States. It certainly would be a great advantage to every State west of Pittsburgh, all the way to California. "It certainly would be a great advantage to every southern State, and it would also be an advantage to those States along the Atlantic coast.
That is true for this reason: That the fertile soil of that great producing area out there produces foodstuffs for practically the entire country; and because of the high transportation charges that are in existence to-day, labor in the New England States, in New York, and other States is subjected to the continuous high cost of living, a great deal of which is caused by high transportation charges.
The western part of the country is very largely made up of farmers, and we all know that a very intensive study of the problems of the farmer is being made to-day for the purpose of giving him relief, and his greatest obstacle at the present time is the matter of transportation.
The railroads, as you gentlemen realize, are far behind, and it is necessary to do something to relieve this great farming district of this serious situation.
If we can get together and form some amicable agreement by which we can connect Lake Michigan with the Gulf of Mexico so that barge lines can go down that stream of water, we will reduce the freight charges on commodities produced by the farmers on an average of 10 cents a bushel. You know what that would mean to the farmers in that great western country.
So I say to you to-day that is one of the main objects in introducing this bill, to provide a deep waterway.
We have other things in mind, of course, and especially in connection with the Illinois River. We have the sanitary district proposition to contend with. I am advocating in my bill a way to deal with this situation.
Years ago the State of Illinois granted to the Sanitary District of Chicago à basis that would naturally allow them probably to divert into the river 10,000 cubic feet per second. They also allowed them to operate the Chicago River so that it threw their sewage into the Illinois River. That is a situation which has caused a good deal of trouble, and it has caused great inconvenience to all of us along the river from Chicago to Cairo, because of this sewage that was allowed to go into the river.
So in preparing this bill I have tried to act unselfishly; I have tried to be fair to everybody, not only to the people of Chicago but to the people along the river and to the people along the Great Lakes as well, by putting in the bill provisions that will not injure anybody.
I think if you gentlemen will read the bill carefully you will come to the conclusion that fairness has been displayed upon my part in reference to this great connecting link of this waterway.
I have done this earnestly and have gone through the matter so thoroughly that I think you will find nobody will be injured.
I have taken the sanitary district into consideration in connection with draining this water where they have overflowed lands.
I have provided in this bill, as you will see as I go along, that they shall increase the levees both as to width and height to such an extent that they will protect the farm lands, protecting the farmer as well as the city man.
In addition to that, I have provided in this bill--and I have gone through it thoroughly--that they shall build treatment plants in Chicago to take care of their sewage. That can not be done, in my judgment, in less than a term of from 15 to 20 years. I have given them the benefit of the 20-year period and provided that they shall do at least 5,000,000 every year to take care of that proportion of people.
The sanitary district are doing what they can to get relief, I think, and I want to be fair with the people down in that district. What they are trying to do is to get this thing molded out, and I believe you will find in the long run that they will be able and willing to do all the things I have provided for in this bill. They must have relief.
You can not afford, gentlemen, to shut off water from those people up there because it is going to be a dangerous proposition to take water at the present time out of that river on a basis of 10,000 cubic feet, or about that amount, because you would injure health and property in the city of Chicago.
And you would not only injure the health and property of people in the city of Chicago, but also the health of all the people along down that valley:
So, until such time as these treatment plants can be provided, some relief must be given these people.
Mr. Chairman, I do not intend to make a speech. I do not want any particular favors shown to me; I want you to listen to all the testimony which will be presented to the committee, and I want you to study it. I do not want any friendship shown me as your colleague on the committee. I am simply one of you. I would not ask you to pass upon any bill, and I would not urge any one of you to do something that I thought was not right. I do hope, however, that during this week as this hearing goes along that you will be here in your places and listen to the testimony and pass on this matter fairly on the facts as they are presented to you.
I have no desire to shut anybody out. This is an open forum, and I want everybody to be heard.
In my opinion, this is the most important project in the whole United States to-day, and it is one that must be acted upon sooner or later.
I am going to say to you in conclusion, Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, that all of you have an invitation from me to come to Chicago