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1733. tents were set up that night; and the people were occupied until

the 7th in unloading and making a crane. Oglethorpe then employed some of them in erecting a fortification, and in felling the woods, while he marked out the town and common. The first house was begun on the 9th; and the town, after the Indian name of the river, which ran by it, was called Savannah. The. fort being completed, the guns mounted, and the colony put in a state of safety, the next object of Oglethorpe's attention was, to treat with the Indians for a share of their possessions. The territory was principally occupied by the Upper and Lower Creeks, who were computed to amount to about 25,000, men, women, and children ; and these tribes, according to a treaty formerly made with governor Nicholson, laid claim to the lands lying southwest of Savannah river. The tribe of Indians at Yamacraw was inconsiderable. It appeared therefore of the highest consequence to procure the friendship, not of that tribe only, but of the more formidable Creeks. By the assistance of an Indian woman, who had married a trader from Carolina, and who could speak both the English and Creek languages, Oglethorpe summoned a general meeting of the chiefs, to hold a congress with him at Savannah, in order to procure their consent to the

peaceable settlement of his colony. Indian con- A congress was accordingly holden, at which 50 chiestains gress and were present. Oglethorpe represented to them the great power, treaty.

wisdom, and wealth of the English; and the many advantages that would accrue to Indians in general from a connexion with that nation; and expressed his hope, that, as they had a plenty of lands, they would freely resign a share of them to his people, who, for their benefit and instruction, had come to settle among them. After he had distributed presents among the Indians, an agreement was made; and Tomochichi, in the name of the Creek warriors, made a speech to him. Among other observations, he said, “Here is a little present," and then gave him a buffalo's skin, painted on the inside with the head and feathers of an eagle, and desired him to accept it, “because the eagle signified speed, and the buffalo, strength. The English,” he proceeded, " are as swift as the bird, and as strong as the beast; since, like the first, they fly from the utmost parts of the earth over the vast seas, and, like the second, nothing can withstand them. The feathers of the eagle are soft, and signify love; the buffalo's skin warm, and signifies protection ; he hoped, therefore, that they would love and protect their little families.” Oglethorpe, having concluded this treaty of friendship with the natives,

that mould acowalih horpelingly holda

1 For raising their goods, doubtless, up the steep and lofty bank on which the town stands; an elevation of 40 feet. This bank, “ on the edge of the town," was then called Yamacraw-bluffMCall, Hist. Georgia, i. 245.

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and placed his colony in the best posture of defence, returned to 1733. England, carrying with him Tomochichi, his queen, and several other Indians. The number of warriors of the principal Indian nations, in the Number of

Indian warneighbourhood of Carolina and Georgia, is estimated to have 10 been, at this period, upwards of 14,000.2

John Peter Pury, a native of Neufchatel in Switzerland, A colony of having visited Carolina and informed himself of the situation of Swiss

to Carolina; that province, applied to the government of Great Britain for a grant of land there for settlement. The government having enter into a contract with him, and agreed to give lands and £400 sterling for every 100 effective men whom he should transport from Switzerland to Carolina; he now brought over 170 poor Switzers, who were, not long after, joined by 200 more. The governor of Carolina, according to instructions, allotted 40,000 acres of land, for the use of the Swiss settlers, on the north east side of the Savannah river. A town was here marked and build out for their accommodation, which, from the name of the prin- burgh. cipal promoter of the settlement, he called Purysburgh.3 According to a plan that had been recently adopted in England Townships

i marked out for the more speedy population and settlement of Carolina, 11 on the great townships were marked out on the sides of rivers, in square plats, rivers. each consisting of 20,000 acres. Two of these townships were

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1 Hewatt, ii. 19-22. The day of the treaty is not there mentioned. It must have been before the 9th of June ; for in a letter of that date Oglethorpe mentions this treaty to his correspondent at London. In the account of Tomochichi's speech, I have strictly copied Oglethorpe's own words. See London Magazine for 1732, 399, 400.

Fighting men. 2 The Cherokees upwards of . .

6000 The Chactaws about · · ·

5000

· · The Upper Creeks about

· ..

2500 The Chickasaws between 600 and 800 about

700

14,200 This estimate of the Cherokees is from Adair's History of the American Indians [p. 327.]; which says the Cherokees had 64 towns and villages full of women and children. The estimate of the three other tribes is from Hewatt, ii. 33, 34, 49. This author cites a Memorial and Representation of the state of Carolina transmitted to the king, dated 9 April, 1734, in which it is said, “ one nation, called the Choctaws, by estimation consists of about 5000 fighting men, and who were always deemed a very warlike nation; the Upper Creeks are a nation very bold and daring, consisting of about 2500 fighting men.” The Lower Creeks, “ by diseases and war, had been reduced to a smaller number.” The Chickasaws “ were the firm allies of Britain, and the bravest nation of savages on the continent, but consisted only of between 600 and 800 gun men.” Charlevoix (as cited in Univ. Hist. xl. 334.] says, the Chickasaws, in 1730, could bring into the field 1000 warriors. “ The tribe of Indians settled at Yamacraw was inconsiderable.”

3 Hewatt, ii 26. Ramsay, Hist. S. Car. i. 108. Mr. Bignion, a Swiss minister, having received episcopal ordination from the bishop of London, settled among them.

1733. laid out on the Alatamaha ; 2 on the Savannah; 2 on the Santee;

1 on the Pedee; 1 on the Wacamaw; 1 on Wateree; and 1 on Black river. The lands in these townships were divided into shares of 50 acres for each man, woman, and child, who should

come over to occupy and improve them. Fort at The colony of Rhode Island, having rebuilt a handsome fort R. Island.

on an island which commanded the harbour of Newport, furnish

ed it with a number of fire guns at its own expense.? Church in An episcopal church was built in Salem. Salem.

There were exported, this year, from South Carolina, 36,584 Exports barrels of rice, 2502 barrels of pitch, 848 barrels of turpentine, from Caro

de 60 tons of lignum vitæ, 20 tons of Braziletto wood, 27 tons of

sassafras, and 8 chests of skins.4 N. York The first paper of the New York Weekly Journal was pubW.Journal. lished in November.5

The first lodge of Freemasons in Boston was holden this year.6

Nathaniel Byfield died at Boston, in the 90th year of his age.

lina.

1734.

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Regulations A COLONY being now planted in Georgia, the trustees protees of

trus- ceeded to establish certain regulations. The following were Georgia, some of them; that each tract of land granted shall be con

sidered as a military fief, for which the possessor is to appear in arms and take the field when called on for the public defence; that, to prevent large tracts from falling, in process of time, into one hand, their lands shall be granted in tail male ; that, on the termination of the estate in tail male; the lands shall revert to the trust, to be granted again to such persons as the common council of the trust shall judge most advantageous to the colony, special regard, in this case, being had to the daughters of such

persons as shall have made improvements on their lots, especially 1733. when not provided for by marriage; that the wives of such persons as shall survive them, shall, during their lives, be entitled to the mansion house, and one half of the lands improved by their husbands; that the use of negroes, and the importation of rum, be absolutely prohibited ; and that none of the colonists shall be permitted to trade with Indians, without a special license.

In the apprehension of an invasion from the Indians under French Defensive influence, the province of New York voted £6000 for fortifying prepara the city of New York; £4000 for erecting a stone fort and other N. York. conveniences for soldiers and artillery at Albany; £800 for a fort and block houses at Schnectady; and £500 for managing the Senecas, and, if practicable, for building fortifications in their country. The third episcopal church in Boston was built in Summer Episc. chh.

in Boston. street.3

Many inconveniences arising from the want of a public market Market in in Boston, the freeholders of the town, meeting at the town house Boston. to consider the subject, voted and ordered, that £700 be paid out of the town treasury for that purpose, and three places be assigned for the markets.

Maryland now contained about 36,000 persons, of white men Maryland. from 16 years of age and upwards, and negroes male and female from 16 to 60.5

1735. The government of New York, now in the hands of governor Trial of J. Crosby, was arbitrarily administered. Free strictures being P.Zenger

for printing made on him and his council in the Weekly Journal, the council libe! ordered three numbers of that gazette to be burnt by the sheriff. John Peter Zenger, the printer, was at length imprisoned, by a warrant from the governor and council ; and, after a severe imprisonment of 35 weeks, was tried for printing those offensive papers. Andrew Hamilton, an eminent lawyer of Philadelphia, though aged and infirm, learning the distresses of the prisoner and the importance of the trial, went to New York to plead Zenger's cause, and made so able a plea, that the jury brought

1 Hewatt, ii. 41-43.
2 Univ. Hist. xxxix. 358. Brit. Emp. ii. 268.
3 Coll. Mass. Hist. Soc. iii. 263. “A spacious wooden building.”

4 Pemberton, MS. Chronology. The places assigned were the flats, fronting Orange street (at the south end) leading to Roxbury; the town's ground on the town dock, or Dock Square; and the open space before the Old North church. The market was to be opened at the ringing of the bell at sunrise, every day, excepting the Lord's day.

5 Brit. Emp. iii. 17. On an “accurate scrutiny," when every taxable was allowed 30 shillings out of a large emission of paper currency.

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1735. in the prisoner not guilty. The common council of the city of m New York, for this noble and successful service, présented Mr.

Hamilton his freedom of their corporation in a gold box. Massachu- Massachusetts contained 35,427 white male inhabitants of 16

years of age and upward ; and 2600 negroes. The town of Boston. Boston was divided into 12 wards.3 Epidemic

An epidemic disease, which obtained the name of the throat disease.

distemper, made its appearance in May, at Kingston, in New Hampshire, and spread gradually through that township during the summer. Of the first 40 who had the disease, none recovered. In August it began to make its appearance at Exeter ; and in September, at Boston. It continued its ravages through the succeeding winter and spring; and did not disappear until the end of the next summer. In the province of New Hampshire, not less than 1000 persons, of whom 900 were under 20 years of age, fell victims to this malignant distemper. In Boston 4000 persons had the same disease; and 114 died. The number of inhabitants in Boston was estimated at 16,000.4 This disease gradually spread westward, and was two years in reaching the river Hudson, about 200 miles in a straight line from Kingston. It continued its progress, with some interruptions, until it spread over all the colonies.5

1736. The trustees of Georgia, resolving to send over a number of Scotch and German labourers to their infant province, 130 Highlanders accepted their terms, and were transported to Georgia, where they arrived in January. A township was allotted for them on the river Alatamaha, which was considered as the boundary between the British and Spanish territories. Here they built a fort, which they called Darien ; and a town, which they called New Inverness. In February, Oglethorpe arrived with

Scots and Germans settle in Georgia.

1 A brief Narrative of the Case and Tryal of John Peter Zenger, Printer of the New York Weekly Journal. Boston, printed by Thomas Fleet. Smith, N. York, ii. c. 1. Univ. Hist. xxxix. 359, 360. Brit. Emp. ii. 269–300. On the box were many classical inscriptions, greatly to the honour of Hamilton.

2 Brit. Domin. i. 215. This was the provincial valuation of polls. According to the same valuation, there were in the colony 27,420 horses of three years old and upward; 52,000 neat cattle of three years old and upward; and 130,000 sheep of one year old and upward.

3 Coll. Mass. Hist. Soc. iii. 267.

4 Belknap, N. Hamp. ii. 118–120. Its symptoms generally were, a swelled throat, with white or ash coloured specks, an efflorescence on the skin, great debility of the whole system, and a strong tendency to putridity. There died in Haverhill (Mass.) of the same disease, from 17 November 1735 to 6 October 1737, 199 persons ; 66 in the Old Parish, 73 in the New Parish, and 60 in the West Parish. Pemberton, MS. Chron. from an account of Rey. John Browne.

5 Webster on Pestilence, i. 234. It chiefly affected children.

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